Browsing by Subject "Rome"

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  • Kahlos, Maijastina (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2016)
    20
  • Rantala, Jussi (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2016)
    20
    This article deals with the question of the role of gods involved with cultivation, grain and food supply in the Roman imperial iconography during the reign of Septimius Severus. By evaluating numismatic and written evidence, as well as inscriptions, the article discusses which gods related to grain and cultivation received most attention from Septimius Severus, and how their use helped the emperor to stabilize his rule. It appears that the three main deities used by Severus were Annona, Ceres and Tellus. The use of Annona and Ceres was concentrated in the first years of Severan rule, when the emperor was out of the capital and fighting wars. Apparently, the importance of Annona, the goddess symbolizing imperial food supply, was connected with the acts of the emperor: wars and other crisis were periods when food supplies to the capital were often under threat. When Severus returned to Rome for a somewhat longer period, more emphasis was put on Tellus, traditional goddess of agriculture and a deity connected with a Golden Age – as the emperor was now in the capital, this meant an age of peace and plenty for his subjects. As a result, it could be argued that the use of fertility gods was closely related to the acts of Severus himself – thus legitimizing his image as a protector of his subjects.
  • Kahlos, Maijastina (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2016)
    20
  • van Andringa, William (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2016)
    20
    This article examines what the historians have called the “imperial cult” to describe a wide variety of homages celebrated in the imperial era for the emperor and the members of his family. From Augustus, a new religious language was organized around the imperial person on the rhetorical basis of isotheoi timai, of honours equal to those made to the gods. This type of amplified tribute, set up from Actium and exploiting the Caesarian heritage (divus Julius), founded the institutional architecture of the Principate, giving the Emperor a necessarily prominent position. In fact the cults and honours devoted to the emperor belongs to the rhetoric of power and explains in particular the great ambiguity of religious language developed around the imperial figure; it also explains the maintenance of the institution with Constantine and the Christian emperors, who kept the essential meaning of the institution based on an admittedly ambiguous ritual arsenal, but adapted to the celebration of the highest honours that shaped the imperial function.
  • Steinby, Christa Margareta (Institutum Romanum Finlandiae, 2020)
    Acta Instituti Romani Finlandiae
    This article sheds light to the literary evidence about ships using the ports of Ostia and Portus from the eight century B.C. to the fourth century A.D. The traffic had many functions: the colonists visiting, the Romans making and utilizing treaties with Carthage about trade and areas of influence in the western Mediterranean, the Roman food transports, the use of warships in Rome’s expansion in the Tiber, along the Italian coast and around the Mediterranean, war booty taken to Rome, Rome as the hub of international relations etc.