Browsing by Subject "Ruotsi"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-20 of 104
  • Leppinen, Riika (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Tarkastelen pro gradu -tutkielmassani keskustelua, jota käytiin suomenkielisten televisio-ohjelmien näkyvyydestä Ruotsissa 1980–1994. Tutkin aihetta Ruotsin Suomalainen -lehden yleisönosastossa julkaistujen mielipidekirjoitusten perusteella. Tarkastelen lisäksi television merkitystä transnationaalille yhteisölle ja sitä, miten ruotsinsuomalaisten mahdollisuus nähdä suomenkielisiä televisio-ohjelmia on toteutunut vuosina 1980-1994 Ruotsissa. Tutkimukseni ajanjakso kytkeytyy suuriin yhteiskunnallisiin ja vähemmistöpoliittisiin muutoksiin Ruotsissa. Tutkimukseni aineisto koostuu Ruotsin Suomalainen -sanomalehdessä julkaistuista mielipidekirjoituksista, joita on mukana yhteensä 48 kappaletta. Muuna lähdemateriaalina käytän Ruotsin Suomalainen -lehden artikkeleita, kirjallisuutta ja useita erilaisia elektronisia aineistoja. Tutkimusmenetelmänäni on kriittinen diskurssianalyysi, joka tuo aineistosta esiin erilaisia alistussuhteita. Tarkastelen näitä alistussuhteita erilaisissa kielellisissä käytänteissä. Tutkimukseni on alue- ja kulttuurintutkimukselle tyypillisesti monitieteinen. Hyödynnän tutkimuksessani sekä media- että siirtolaisuustutkimuksen näkökulmia. Mielipidekirjoituksista ilmenee suomenkielisille televisio-ohjelmille annettavia erilaisia kulttuurisia ja yhteiskunnallisia merkityksiä. Kulttuurisista merkityksistä nousee suomen kielen arvo symbolisena ja instrumentaalisena diskurssi, suomalaisen kulttuurin välittäminen ja säilyttäminen diskurssi sekä kulttuurin kuluttamisen ja tekemisen diskurssi. Aineistostani ilmenee erityisesti suomen kielen merkitys mielipidekirjoittajille. Yhteiskunnallisista merkityksistä nousee Pohjoismainen yhteistyö diskurssi sekä Ruotsin ja Suomen kahdenvälinen yhteistyö diskurssi. Tutkimukseni osoittaa, että ruotsinsuomalaiset kokivat toimenpiteiden suomenkielisten televisio-ohjelmien näkyvyyden lisäämiseksi olleen riittämättömiä, erityisesti suomen kielen ja kulttuurin välittämisessä lapsille. Käyttämäni kriittinen diskurssianalyysi paljastaa pohjoismaisen kysymyksen ja kahdenvälisen yhteistyön keskeisiksi tekijöiksi näkyvyyden lisäämisessä. Johtopäätökseni on, että mielipidekirjoitukset voidaan nähdä osana laajempaa keskustelua vähemmistön oikeudesta omankieliseen kulttuuriin ja mediaan.
  • Moilanen, Maija (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Tutkielman aiheena on oopperalaulajatar Ida Basilier-Magelssenin (1846–1928) ura. Tutkielma kuuluu esittävän säveltaiteen historian tutkimuksen alaan. Näkökulma on toimijakeskeinen, biografinen ja mikrohistoriallinen. Pääkysymyksenä on, millainen Basilier-Magelssenin ura oli pääpiirteissään. Tarkastellaan, miten hänestä tuli laulaja, missä hän esiintyi, mitä muuta ammatillista toimintaa hänellä oli ja kuinka merkittävänä häntä voidaan pitää laulajana. Metodeina käytetään musiikin historian tutkimusmenetelmiä. Primäärilähteinä on arkistomateriaalia, kuten sanomalehtiä, kirjeitä, konserttiohjelmia, apurahahakemuksia, sopimuksia ja teatterin roolikirja. Sekundäärilähteinä on muun muassa eri teattereiden ja oopperoiden historioita, erityisesti Eliel Aspelin-Haapkylän Suomalaisen teatterin historia (1906–1910). Ida Basilier syntyi Nivalassa musiikkia harrastavaan perheeseen. Hän kävi vuoden Kokkolan tyttökoulua ja vuoden Oulun tyttökoulua, josta valmistui keväällä 1863. Hän opiskeli laulua Helsingissä Emilie Mechelinin johdolla vuonna 1867, Pariisissa Jean Jacques Masset’n johdolla yksityisesti kesällä 1867 ja Pariisin konservatoriossa syksystä 1867 kevääseen 1870 sekä Pietarissa Henriette Nissen-Salomanin johdolla keväällä 1871. Laulunopetus oli ranskalaisen koulukunnan mukaista. Todennäköisesti hän opiskeli konservatoriossa myös kieliä, näyttämöilmaisua, musiikin teoriaa ja musiikin historiaa. Basilier rahoitti opintojaan apurahoilla, joita hän sai Senaatin talousosastolta (1867, 1868 ja 1869) ja ilmeisesti myös Venäjän keisarinnalta (1869 ja 1871). Basilier esitti Helsingin Suomalaisessa Oopperassa 1870-luvulla ja satunnaisesti myöhemminkin naispääosarooleja yhteensä 15 teoksessa. Hän oli tähtilaulaja, jonka maine houkutteli yleisöä esityksiin. Hänen poikkeukselliset kykynsä mahdollistivat sen, että voitiin ottaa ohjelmistoon teoksia, joissa oli vaativa pääosa. Basilier esiintyi Suomalaisessa Oopperassa ilmeisesti paljolti sen vuoksi, että hän halusi edistää suomen kielen asemaa. Hän teki menestyksekkään uran myös Tukholman kuninkaallisessa oopperassa vakinaiseksi solistiksi kiinnitettynä vuosina 1872–1874 ja vierailijana 1871, 1875 ja 1876. Hän vieraili myös Norjassa Christiania Theaterissa useasti 1870- ja 1880-luvulla ja Tivolin oopperassa vuonna 1884, Saksassa Lyypekin kaupunginteatterissa vuosina 1875–1877 ja Münchenin hoviteatterissa vuonna 1875 ja Ruotsissa Göteborgissa Mindre Teaternissa Bjarne Lundin seurueen kanssa vuonna 1887. Basilier-Magelssenin oopperaroolit olivat koloratuurisopraanon rooleja, kuten Rossinin Sevillan Parturin Rosina, Gounod’n Faustin Margareta, Donizettin Lucia di Lammermoorin Lucia ja Rykmentin tyttären Marie sekä Verdin La Traviatan Violetta. Basilier-Magelssen oli suosittu konserttilaulaja Suomessa, Ruotsissa ja Norjassa. Hän konsertoi myös Tanskassa, Venäjällä, Saksassa, Ranskassa ja Iso-Britanniassa. Hänen pianisteinaan olivat esimerkiksi Ina Forstén (Lange), Fanny Flodin, Selma Kajanus, Ragna Goplen ja Agathe Backer Grøndahl. Basilier-Magelssenilla oli useita laajoja konserttikiertueita, ja hän osallistui ranskalaisen mezzosopraanon Zelia Trebellin konserttikiertueeseen Englannissa, Skotlannissa ja Walesissa loppuvuodesta 1877. Laulajattaren konserttiohjelmistossa oli aarioita, pohjoismaisia ja suomalaisia yksinlauluja, saksalaisia liedejä, romansseja ja kansanlauluja. Suosituimpia kappaleita oli Venzanon Grande valse. Ohjelmistoon kuului paljon hyvin vaikeita kappaleita, joista laulajatar selviytyi lehtikritiikkien mukaan erinomaisesti. Erityisesti koloratuuritaitoja, tulkinnan hienostuneisuutta ja intonaation puhtautta kiitettiin. Näitä seikkoja ilmeisesti korostettiin koulutuksessa. Basilier-Magelssen teki ainakin kaksi levytystä, mutta levyjen mahdollisesta nykyisestä olinpaikasta ei ole tietoa. – Basilier-Magelssen toimi laulunopettajana Oslon konservatoriossa 25 vuotta ja antoi myös yksityistunteja. Hänen oppilaistaan menestyneimpiä olivat oopperalaulajat Sophie Apenes Zela ja Magna Lykseth-Skogman sekä laulunopettaja Marna Bielenberg. Ida Basilier-Magelssen oli aikansa merkittävimpiä ja arvostetuimpia suomalaisia laulajia niin ooppera- ja konserttilaulajana kuin laulunopettajanakin.
  • Carter, Timothy R.; Benzie, Magnus; Campiglio, Emanuele; Carlsen, Henrik; Fronzek, Stefan; Hildén, Mikael; Reyer, Christopher P.O.; West, Chris (Elsevier, 2021)
    Global Environmental Change 69: 102307
    Climate change impacts, adaptation and vulnerability studies tend to confine their attention to impacts and responses within the same geographical region. However, this approach ignores cross-border climate change impacts that occur remotely from the location of their initial impact and that may severely disrupt societies and livelihoods. We propose a conceptual framework and accompanying nomenclature for describing and analysing such cross-border impacts. The conceptual framework distinguishes an initial impact that is caused by a climate trigger within a specific region. Downstream consequences of that impact propagate through an impact transmission system while adaptation responses to deal with the impact propagate through a response transmission system. A key to understanding cross-border impacts and responses is a recognition of different types of climate triggers, categories of cross-border impacts, the scales and dynamics of impact transmission, the targets and dynamics of responses and the socio-economic and environmental context that also encompasses factors and processes unrelated to climate change. These insights can then provide a basis for identifying relevant causal relationships. We apply the framework to the floods that affected industrial production in Thailand in 2011, and to projected Arctic sea ice decline, and demonstrate that the framework can usefully capture the complex system dynamics of cross-border climate impacts. It also provides a useful mechanism to identify and understand adaptation strategies and their potential consequences in the wider context of resilience planning. The cross-border dimensions of climate impacts could become increasingly important as climate changes intensify. We conclude that our framework will allow for these to be properly accounted for, help to identify new areas of empirical and model-based research and thereby support climate risk management.
  • Unknown author (Friedenskommitté des Jahres, 1917)
  • Nyyssönen, Aarne (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1963)
  • Saraviita, Ilkka; Tuori, Kaarlo (2009)
  • Koskiaho, Jari; Okruszko, Tomasz; Piniewski, Mikolaj; Marcinkowski, Pawel; Tattari, Sirkka; Johannesdottir, Solveig; Kärrman, Erik; Kämäri, Maria (Elsevier, 2020)
    Ecohydrology & Hydrobiology
    There exist numerous ecotechnologies for recovery and reuse of carbon and nutrients from various waste streams before they are lost to runoff. However, it remains largely unknown how growing implementation of such ecotechnologies affect nutrient emissions to surface waters at catchment scale. Here, this knowledge gap is addressed by application of SWAT model in three case study catchments draining to the Baltic Sea: Vantaanjoki (Finland), Fyrisån (Sweden) and Słupia (Poland). Sustainability analysis with Multi-Criteria Analysis was applied in the stakeholder workshops in the case study areas to assess different ecotechnology alternatives. The following ecotechnologies received the highest sustainability scores: in Vantaanjoki anaerobic digestion, based on mostly agricultural residues; in Fyrisån source-separation of wastewaters; in Słupia nutrient extraction within the wastewater treatment process. The effect of application of digestate on agricultural soils in the Vantaanjoki catchment was simulated by adjusting the model parameters describing the organic carbon content and physical properties of soil. The results showed small reductions of nutrient loads to the Gulf of Finland. Larger reductions of nutrient loads to Lake Mälaren in Sweden and the Baltic Sea in Poland were achieved as a result of the wastewater treatment upgrades. In the Fyrisån catchment, higher relative reductions were simulated for TN than TP, and in dry years than in wet years. Although the studied ecotechnologies did not show as high effectiveness in nutrient load reduction as combinations of traditional Best Management Practices reported in literature, they do have other multiple benefits including crop yield increase, electricity, heat and bio-based fertilizer production.
  • Wrede, Sirpa; Henriksson, Lea; Høst, Håkon; Johansson, Stina; Dybbroe, Betina (Studentlitteratur, 2008)
  • Lehtoranta, Suvi; Laukka, Vuokko; Vidal, Brenda; Heiderscheidt, Elisangela; Postila, Heini; Nilivaara, Ritva; Herrmann, Inga (Frontiers Media SA, 2022)
    Frontiers in Environmental Science
    Current practices in wastewater management lead to inefficient recovery and reuse of nutrients and can result in environmental problems. Source separation systems have been shown to be an efficient way of recovering nutrients and energy from wastewaters, both in rural and urban context. Studies on nutrient recovery potential and life cycle impacts of source separation systems are mainly limited to small systems (for example a few households) while the impacts of upscaling source separation to a regional level have hardly been studied, especially in sparsely populated areas where the cost of the connection to a main treatment plant is higher. This study examines the regional nutrient balance of two source separation scenarios—black water separation and urine diversion—and compares them to the existing conventional wastewater system. The analysis comprises three sparsely populated regions of northern Finland and Sweden, including rural, peri-urban and urban areas. In addition, climate impacts are assessed based on existing life cycle assessment (LCA) studies. According to the results, by source separation it is possible to achieve a significant increase in the recovery rate of phosphorus (41–81%) and nitrogen (689–864%) compared to the conventional system. Depending on the region up to 65% of the mineral phosphorus and 60% of mineral nitrogen fertilisers could be theoretically replaced. Furthermore, the climate and eutrophication impacts would decrease with the implementation of such systems, but an increase in acidification may occur. However, even if the benefits of source separation systems are undisputed in terms of nutrient recovery, the implementation of such systems would to a large extent require an entire system change of the wastewater treatment sector and a wide paradigm change towards a circular economy.
  • Hashemi, Fatemeh; Pohle, Ina; Pullens, Johannes W. M; Tornbjerg, Henrik; Kyllmar, Katarina; Marttila, Hannu; Lepistö, Ahti; Klove, Bjorn; Futter, Martyn; Kronvang, Brian (MDPI, 2020)
    Water 12 6 (2020)
    Optimal nutrient pollution monitoring and management in catchments requires an in-depth understanding of spatial and temporal factors controlling nutrient dynamics. Such an understanding can potentially be obtained by analysing stream concentration–discharge (C-Q) relationships for hysteresis behaviours and export regimes. Here, a classification scheme including nine different C-Q types was applied to a total of 87 Nordic streams draining mini-catchments (0.1–65 km2). The classification applied is based on a combination of stream export behaviour (dilution, constant, enrichment) and hysteresis rotational pattern (clock-wise, no rotation, anti-clockwise). The scheme has been applied to an 8-year data series (2010–2017) from small streams in Denmark, Sweden, and Finland on daily discharge and discrete nutrient concentrations, including nitrate (NO3−), total organic N (TON), dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP), and particulate phosphorus (PP). The dominant nutrient export regimes were enrichment for NO3− and constant for TON, DRP, and PP. Nutrient hysteresis patterns were primarily clockwise or no hysteresis. Similarities in types of C-Q relationships were investigated using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) considering effects of catchment size, land use, climate, and dominant soil type. The PCA analysis revealed that land use and air temperature were the dominant factors controlling nutrient C-Q types. Therefore, the nutrient export behaviour in streams draining Nordic mini-catchments seems to be dominantly controlled by their land use characteristics and, to a lesser extent, their climate.
  • Kuglerová, Lenka; Jyväsjärvi, Jussi; Ruffing, Claire; Muotka, Timo; Jonsson, Anna; Andersson, Elisabet; Richardson, John S. (American Geophysical Union, 2020)
    Water Resources Research 56 9 (2020)
    Forested riparian buffers are recommended to mitigate negative effects of forest harvesting on recipient freshwater ecosystems. Most of the current best practices of riparian buffer retention aim at larger streams. Riparian protection along small streams is thought to be lacking; however, it is not well documented. We surveyed 286 small streams flowing through recent clearcuts in three timber-producing jurisdictions—British Columbia, Canada (BC), Finland, and Sweden. The three jurisdictions differed in riparian buffer implementation. In BC, forested buffers are not required on the smallest streams, and 45% of the sites in BC had no buffer. The average (±SE) width of voluntarily retained buffers was 15.9 m (±2.1) on each side of the stream. An operation-free zone is mandatory around the smallest streams in BC, and 90% of the sites fulfilled these criteria. Finland and Sweden had buffers allocated to most of the surveyed streams, with average buffer width of 15.3 m (±1.4) in Finland and 4 m (±0.4) in Sweden. Most of the streams in the two Nordic countries had additional forestry-associated impairments such as machine tracks, or soil preparation within the riparian zone. Riparian buffer width somewhat increased with stream size and slope of the riparian area, however, not in all investigated regions. We concluded that the majority of the streams surveyed in this study are insufficiently protected. We suggest that a monitoring of forestry practices and revising present forestry guidelines is needed in order to increase the protection of our smallest water courses.
  • Waylen, Kerry; Blackstock, Kirsty; van Hulst, Freddy; Damian, Carmen; Horváth, Ferenc; Johnson, Richard; Kanka, Robert; Külvik, Mart; Macleod, Christopher J.A.; Meissner, Kristian; Oprina-Pavelescu, Mihaela M.; Pino, Joan; Primmer, Eeva; Rîșnoveanu, Geta; Šatalová, Barbora; Silander, Jari; Špulerová, Jana; Suškevičs, Monika; van Uytvanck, Jan (Elsevier, 2019)
    Data in Brief 23 (2019), 103785
    The data presented in this DiB article provide an overview of Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) carried out for 3 European environmental policies (the Water Framework Directive, the Natura 2000 network of protected areas, and Agri-Environment Schemes implemented under the Common Agricultural Policy), as implemented in 9 cases (Catalonia (Spain), Estonia, Finland, Flanders (Belgium), Hungary, Romania, Slovakia, Scotland (UK), Sweden). These data are derived from reports and documents about monitoring programs that were publicly-available online in 2017. The literature on M&E to support adaptive management structured the issues that have been extracted and summarized. The data is related to the research article entitled “Policy-driven monitoring and evaluation: does it support adaptive management of socio-ecological systems?” [Stem et al., 2005]. The information provides a first overview of monitoring and evaluation that has been implemented in response to key European environmental policies. It provides a structured overview that permits a comparison of cases and policies and can assist other scholars and practitioners working on monitoring and evaluation.
  • Englund, Bengt (Societas pro fauna et flora Fennica, 1942)
    Acta botanica Fennica ; 32
  • Öhman, Jenny (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    The EC regulations for organic farming (OF), No. 834/2007 and 889/2008, apply in all EU countries but still, different rules are being implemented. Every country in the EU has its own certification bodies and certification systems, and the interpretation of the EC regulations for organic farming is done nationally. The purpose of this research is to fill a gap in the understanding how rules of organic farming differ between three countries in Europe: Finland, Sweden and Austria. In particular, this study aims to examine the role of the national interpretations of the EC regulations for OF at different stages in the food supply chain. The main interest lies in why these differences in interpretation occur, and what interpretations are made at what stage in the system. The methods chosen for answering the research questions is a literature review, a survey with qualitative interviews for gathering relevant topics from the field and finally a comparison of the EC regulations for OF and the national legislations and guidelines in Finland, Sweden and Austria for these topics. This study shows that there are many topics in OF where the EC regulations for OF leave room for variable interpretations and hence, it is unclear to the implementing authorities in the member states how to interpret these. The most significant result is that some of the differences in interpretation lead to the organic farmers being unequal across the countries. Even for statements with clear reasoning and precise instructions there can be significant differences in interpretation between the countries. Based on the results of this research I can state that the farmers in OF would benefit from a more harmonized landscape of OF rules on EU-level, as this would lower the inequality between farmers in OF in the different countries. One mean of doing this would be to reduce the number of statements of qualitative character.
  • Salmenperä, Hanna (Elsevier, 2021)
    Journal of Cleaner Production 292 (2021), 125986
    The European Union has set strict recycling targets for municipal solid wastes, but the implementation of circularity is still hindered by a variety of present set-ups. This paper addresses the recycling transitions and their complex nature in Austria, Sweden and Finland and points out the differences that are connected to the level of success in recycling. Furthermore, this study identifies present lock-ins in the waste management regime to provide an understanding on the factors preventing further development towards a recycling society. This is done by analysing different waste policy documents and interviews of national waste experts. The study employs the multilevel perspective (MLP) framework that is a commonly used approach in sustainability transitions research. The results highlight the variety of social, political, technical and economic elements, but also the connections between them that result in a stable regime. The pathways to achieve the recycling society differ between Austria, Sweden and Finland. National waste policy, the division of responsibilities, the variety of infrastructure and collection systems in waste management, the level of general awareness, public-private co-operation and the quality of waste data act as key characteristics that reflect the success in the recycling transition. Identified lock-ins for recycling seem to be slightly stronger in Finland compared to Austria and Sweden, while some of the lock-ins are the same in all countries, such as incineration capacity, malfunction of markets of recyclables or lack of product design for recyclability.
  • Brittain, John E.; Heino, Jani; Friberg, Nikolai; Aroviita, Jukka; Kahlert, Maria; Karjalainen, Satu‐Maaria; Keck, François; Lento, Jennifer; Liljaniemi, Petri; Mykrä, Heikki; Schneider, Susanne C.; Ylikörkkö, Jukka (Blackwell Scientific, 2022)
    Freshwater Biology
    1. Arctic freshwaters support biota adapted to the harsh conditions at these latitudes, but the climate is changing rapidly and so are the underlying environmental filters. Currently, we have limited understanding of broad-scale patterns of Arctic riverine biodiversity and the correlates of α- and β-diversity. 2. Using information from a database set up within the scope of the Arctic Council's Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Plan, we analysed patterns and correlates of α- and β-diversity in benthic diatom and macroinvertebrate communities across northern Norway, Sweden, and Finland. We analysed variation in total β-diversity and its replacement and richness difference components in relation to location of the river reach and its drainage basin (Baltic Sea in the south, the Barents Sea in the east and the north, and the Norwegian Sea in the west), in addition to climate and environmental variables. 3. In both macroinvertebrates and diatoms, the replacement and richness difference components showed wide variation. For macroinvertebrates, the richness difference component was the more important, whereas for diatoms, the replacement component was the more important in contributing to variation in β-diversity. There was no significant difference in β-diversity between the three main drainage basins, but species composition differed among the drainage basins. 4. Based on the richness difference component of β-diversity, climate variables were most strongly associated with community variation in macroinvertebrates. In diatoms, both environmental and climate variables were strongly correlated with community compositional variation. In both groups, there were also significant differences in α-diversity among the three main drainage basins, and several taxa were significant indicators of one of these drainage basins. Alpha diversity was greater in areas with a continental climate, while the oceanic areas in the west harboured greatly reduced flora and fauna. 5. The correlates of biodiversity were relatively similar in macroinvertebrates and diatoms. Climate variables, in particular temperature, were the most strongly associated with biodiversity patterns in the Arctic rivers of Fennoscandia. Sedimentary geology may be associated with increased productivity and, to a lesser extent, with sensitivity to acidification. There was considerable variation in community composition across Arctic Fennoscandia, indicating the necessity of protecting several stream reaches or even whole catchments within each region to conserve total riverine biodiversity. Furthermore, it is likely that the predicted changes in temperature in Arctic areas will influence riverine diversity patterns across Fennoscandia.
  • Löfgren, Karl Gustaf (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1986)
  • Wibeck, Edvard (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1929)