Browsing by Subject "Russian politics"

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  • Khmelnitskaya, Marina (2020)
    The article focusses on policy ideas as explanatory variables for understanding policymaking and governance in Russia. Following Schmidt’s definition of the ideational process as a ‘discourse’ in which actors promote their preferred policy ideas in competition with their opponents, the article argues that in Russia the character of discourses varies between three state levels: the President, ministerial bureaucracy and the regional & local levels. This variegated landscape of policy discourses involves the intensive communicative discourse of the Russian President, which seeks legitimation of main policy approaches with the public and provides signals for the lower level officials. The middle level of policy bureaucracy is characterised by a vigorous coordinative discourse in which officials and non-state experts defend their ideas and seek agreement on policy details. Finally, at the local level political communication and technical coordination of policy ideas coexist and involve, apart from the officials and experts, members of the public. The benefit of the ideas-based perspective on policy and governance in Russia is that it allows not only tracing the origins and evolution of various policy initiatives, but also seeing the sources of presidential popularity and regime flexibility associated with the accommodation of different ideational positions. The argument is illustrated with examples of policymaking in the social sphere, the Maternity Capital programme and the Moscow programme of housing renovation.
  • Heusala, Anna-Liisa; Pyykönen, Emilia; Kivinen, Markku Jalmari (Prime Minister's Office, 2016)
    Publications of the Government's analysis, assessment and research activities
    The first part of the two-piece project consists of an evaluation of peer-reviewed research on Russian security policy, conducted in Finland in 2011-2015. The second part is based on an analysis of Russia’s key security policy trends. In this part, Russia’s goals, resources and ability to carry out its goals in defence, economy, societal and state security, and the effect on Finland are evaluated. The report recommends the construction of a strategy on Russian security policy research, which would concentrate on crucial, but less studied themes. Based on the evaluation of Russia’s security developments, the report offers recommendations for Finland’s foreign and security policy. It is essential that Finnish decision makers assess Russia’s development in a comprehensive manner and are prepared for various alternatives.
  • Khmelnitskaya, Marina (2021)
    Russia’s 2018 presidential election campaign was accompanied by a new round of strategies of socio-economic development. This article analyses these documents from the perspective of the ‘politics of expertise’ defining the relations between the political regime and policy experts. The analysis draws on authoritarian politics and public policy literatures. The article argues that a ‘hollow paradigm’ approach to the politics of expertise has emerged in response to the dilemmas of authoritarian governance. While the substantive, ideational element of this paradigm is vague, its procedural, expert community-binding element is strong. The analysis contributes to the understanding of the politics surrounding the writing of strategic plans, the role of policy ideas and state–society relations in contemporary Russia.
  • Khmelnitskaya, Marina (Routledge, 2018)
    The chapter examines the process of the development of the Russian budget for the social sphere during 2015-2016. The analysis demonstrates the key contribution of the bureaucratic actors and the competition among different parts of the executive in the process of policy elaboration.
  • Khmelnitskaya, Marina (2017)
    The article analyses the use of policy tools in the Russian housing sector, associated with the government’s objective of development, and examines the pattern of complementarity that exists between the policy tools. Building on the insights of historical institutionalist and public policy literatures, it argues that the choices of policy tools are determined by institutional and policy sector specific structural factors and temporal calculations by the policy makers leading them to adopt specific ‘bundles’ of policy instruments as well as doubling policy arrangements.
  • Heusala, Anna-Liisa; Pyykönen, Emilia; Kivinen, Markku Jalmari (Valtioneuvoston kanslia, 2016)
    Valtioneuvoston selvitys- ja tutkimustoiminnan julkaisusarja
    Den första delen av det tvådelade projektet har utvärderats refererad finska forskning på den ryska säkerhetspolitiken i 2011-2015. Den andra delen är baserad på en analys av politiska trender i Rysslands säkerhet. Avsnittet beräknas Rysslands mål, medel och förmågan i militära försvaret, ekonomi, social och statlig säkerhet, och vad dessa innebär för Finlands val. I rapporten rekommenderas att förbereda en forskningsstrategi på Rysslands säkerhetspolitik med särskild inriktning på de kritiska, men föga studerade teman. Rapporten ger rekommendationer för åtgärder på grundval av den nuvarande utvecklingen i Ryssland. Det är viktigt att beslutsfattarna i Finland bedömer Rysslands utveckling på ett övergripande sätt och är förberedda för olika alternativ.