Browsing by Subject "SALAR L."

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  • Monzon-Argueello, Catalina; Consuegra, Sofia; Gajardo, Gonzalo; Marco-Rius, Francisco; Fowler, Daniel M.; De Faveri, Jacquelin; de Leaniz, Carlos Garcia (2014)
  • Aykanat, Tutku; Rasmussen, Martin; Ozerov, Mikhail; Niemelä, Eero; Paulin, Lars; Vähä, Juha-Pekka; Hindar, Kjetil; Wennevik, Vidar; Pedersen, Torstein; Svenning, Martin-A.; Primmer, Craig R. (2020)
    1. Animals employ various foraging strategies along their ontogeny to acquire energy, and with varying degree of efficiencies, to support growth, maturation and subsequent reproduction events. Individuals that can efficiently acquire energy early are more likely to mature at an earlier age, as a result of faster energy gain which can fuel maturation and reproduction. 2. We aimed to test the hypothesis that heritable resource acquisition variation that covaries with efficiency along the ontogeny would influence maturation timing of individuals. 3. To test this hypothesis, we utilized Atlantic salmon as a model which exhibits a simple, hence trackable, genetic control of maturation age. We then monitored the variation in diet acquisition (quantified as stomach fullness and composition) of individuals with different ages, and linked it with genomic regions (haploblocks) that were previously identified to be associated with age-at-maturity. 4. Consistent with the hypothesis, we demonstrated that one of the life-history genomic regions tested (six6) was indeed associated with age-dependent differences in stomach fullness. Prey composition was marginally linked tosix6, and suggestively (but non-significantly) tovgll3genomic regions. We further showed Atlantic salmon switched to the so-called 'feast and famine' strategy along the ontogeny, where older age groups exhibited heavier stomach content, but that came at the expense of running on empty more often. 5. These results suggest genetic variation underlying resource utilization may explain the genetic basis of age structure in Atlantic salmon. Given that ontogenetic diet has a genetic component and the strong spatial diversity associated with these genomic regions, we predict populations with diverse maturation age will have diverse evolutionary responses to future changes in marine food web structures.
  • Aykanat, Tutku; Rasmussen, Martin; Ozerov, Mikhail; Niemelä, Eero; Paulin, Lars; Vähä, Juha-Pekka; Hindar, Kjetil; Wennevik, Vidar; Pedersen, Torstein; Svenning, Martin-A.; Primmer, Craig R. (2020)
    1. Animals employ various foraging strategies along their ontogeny to acquire energy, and with varying degree of efficiencies, to support growth, maturation and subsequent reproduction events. Individuals that can efficiently acquire energy early are more likely to mature at an earlier age, as a result of faster energy gain which can fuel maturation and reproduction. 2. We aimed to test the hypothesis that heritable resource acquisition variation that covaries with efficiency along the ontogeny would influence maturation timing of individuals. 3. To test this hypothesis, we utilized Atlantic salmon as a model which exhibits a simple, hence trackable, genetic control of maturation age. We then monitored the variation in diet acquisition (quantified as stomach fullness and composition) of individuals with different ages, and linked it with genomic regions (haploblocks) that were previously identified to be associated with age-at-maturity. 4. Consistent with the hypothesis, we demonstrated that one of the life-history genomic regions tested (six6) was indeed associated with age-dependent differences in stomach fullness. Prey composition was marginally linked tosix6, and suggestively (but non-significantly) tovgll3genomic regions. We further showed Atlantic salmon switched to the so-called 'feast and famine' strategy along the ontogeny, where older age groups exhibited heavier stomach content, but that came at the expense of running on empty more often. 5. These results suggest genetic variation underlying resource utilization may explain the genetic basis of age structure in Atlantic salmon. Given that ontogenetic diet has a genetic component and the strong spatial diversity associated with these genomic regions, we predict populations with diverse maturation age will have diverse evolutionary responses to future changes in marine food web structures.
  • Zueva, Ksenia J.; Lumme, Jaakko; Veselov, Alexey E.; Primmer, Craig R.; Pritchard, Victoria L. (2021)
    Our ability to examine genetic variation across entire genomes has enabled many studies searching for the genetic basis of local adaptation. These studies have identified numerous loci as candidates for differential local selection; however, relatively few have examined the overlap among candidate loci identified from independent studies of the same species in different geographic areas or evolutionary lineages. We used an allelotyping approach with a 220K SNP array to characterize the population genetic structure of Atlantic salmon in north-eastern Europe and ask whether the same genomic segments emerged as outliers among populations in different geographic regions. Genome-wide data recapitulated the phylogeographic structure previously inferred from mtDNA and microsatellite markers. Independent analyses of three genetically and geographically distinct groups of populations repeatedly inferred the same 17 haploblocks to contain loci under differential local selection. The most strongly supported of these replicated haploblocks had known strong associations with life-history variation or immune response in Atlantic salmon. Our results are consistent with these genomic segments harbouring large-effect loci which have a major role in Atlantic salmon diversification and are ideal targets for validation studies.
  • Gilbey, John; Utne, Kjell Rong; Wennevik, Vidar; Beck, Alexander Christian; Kausrud, Kyrre; Hindar, Kjetil; Garcia de Leaniz, Carlos; Cherbonnel, Corrine; Coughlan, Jamie; Cross, Tom F.; Dillane, Eileen; Ensing, Dennis; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva; Hole, Lars R.; Holm, Marianne; Holst, Jens Christian; Jacobsen, Jan Arge; Jensen, Arne J.; Karlsson, Sten; Maoileidigh, Niall O.; Mork, Kjell Arne; Nielsen, Einar Eg; Nottestad, Leif; Primmer, Craig R.; Prodohl, Paulo; Prusov, Sergey; Stevens, Jamie R.; Thomas, Katie; Whelan, Ken; McGinnity, Philip; Verspoor, Eric (2021)
    The survival of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), an increasingly rare anadromous species, has declined dramatically during its marine phase, with disproportionate impacts on the poorly understood early post-smolt period. Logistical constraints on collecting oceanic data to inform this issue pose a formidable obstacle. To advance understanding of post-smolt distributional ecology in the North-east Atlantic, a comprehensive analysis of existing information was undertaken. Data were synthesized from 385 marine cruises, 10,202 individual trawls, and 9,269 captured post-smolts, spanning three decades and similar to 4.75 million km(2) of ocean, with 3,423 individuals genetically assigned to regional phylogeographic origin. The findings confirm major migrational post-smolt aggregations on the continental shelf-edge off Ireland, Scotland and Norway, and an important marine foraging area in the Norwegian Sea. Genetic analysis shows that aggregational stock composition does not simply reflect distance to natal rivers, with northern phylogeographic stock groups significantly under-represented in sampled high-seas aggregations. It identifies a key foraging habitat for southern European post-smolts located in international waters immediately west of the Voring Plateau escarpment, potentially exposing them to a high by-catch mortality from extra-territorial pelagic fisheries. Evidence of the differential distribution of regional stocks points to fundamental differences in their migration behaviours and may lead to inter-stock variation in responses to environmental change and marine survival. The study shows that understanding of post-smolt marine ecology, as regards to stock-specific variations in habitat utilization, biological performance and exposure to mortality factors, can be significantly advanced by data integration across studies and exploiting genetic approaches.
  • Lai, Tin-Yu; Lindroos, Marko; Groenbaek, Lone; Romakkaniemi, Atso (2021)
    Multispecies bio-economic models are useful tools to give insights into ecosystem thinking and ecosystem-based management. This paper developed an age-structured multispecies bio-economic model that includes the food web relations of the grey seal, salmon, and herring, along with salmon and herring fisheries in the Baltic Sea. The results show that the increasing seal population influences salmon fisheries and stock, but the impacts on the harvest are stronger than on the stock if the targeted management policies are obeyed. If seal population growth and a low herring stock occur simultaneously, the salmon harvest could face a serious threat. In addition, scenarios of the multispecies management approach in this paper reveal a benefit that our model can evaluate the performance of different fisheries with identical or different management strategies simultaneously. The results show the most profitable scenario is that both fisheries pursuit aggregated profits and reveal a trade-off between herring fisheries and salmon fisheries. Our model indicates that the herring harvest level and the approaches to managing herring fisheries can influence the performance of salmon fisheries. The study also demonstrates a way to develop a multispecies bio-economic model that includes both migratory fish and mammalian predators.