Browsing by Subject "SALAR"

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  • Sinclair-Waters, Marion; Odegard, Jorgen; Korsvoll, Sven Arild; Moen, Thomas; Lien, Sigbjorn; Primmer, Craig R.; Barson, Nicola J. (2020)
    Background Understanding genetic architecture is essential for determining how traits will change in response to evolutionary processes such as selection, genetic drift and/or gene flow. In Atlantic salmon, age at maturity is an important life history trait that affects factors such as survival, reproductive success, and growth. Furthermore, age at maturity can seriously impact aquaculture production. Therefore, characterizing the genetic architecture that underlies variation in age at maturity is of key interest. Results Here, we refine our understanding of the genetic architecture for age at maturity of male Atlantic salmon using a genome-wide association study of 11,166 males from a single aquaculture strain, using imputed genotypes at 512,397 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). All individuals were genotyped with a 50K SNP array and imputed to higher density using parents genotyped with a 930K SNP array and pedigree information. We found significant association signals on 28 of 29 chromosomes (P-values: 8.7 x 10(-133)-9.8 x 10(-8)), including two very strong signals spanning the six6 and vgll3 gene regions on chromosomes 9 and 25, respectively. Furthermore, we identified 116 independent signals that tagged 120 candidate genes with varying effect sizes. Five of the candidate genes found here were previously associated with age at maturity in other vertebrates, including humans. Discussion These results reveal a mixed architecture of large-effect loci and a polygenic component that consists of multiple smaller-effect loci, suggesting a more complex genetic architecture of Atlantic salmon age at maturity than previously thought. This more complex architecture will have implications for selection on this key trait in aquaculture and for management of wild salmon populations.
  • O'Sullivan, Ronan James; Aykanat, Tutku; Johnston, Susan E.; Rogan, Ger; Poole, Russell; Prodohl, Paulo A.; de Eyto, Elvira; Primmer, Craig R.; McGinnity, Philip; Reed, Thomas Eric (2020)
    The release of captive-bred animals into the wild is commonly practised to restore or supplement wild populations but comes with a suite of ecological and genetic consequences. Vast numbers of hatchery-reared fish are released annually, ostensibly to restore/enhance wild populations or provide greater angling returns. While previous studies have shown that captive-bred fish perform poorly in the wild relative to wild-bred conspecifics, few have measured individual lifetime reproductive success (LRS) and how this affects population productivity. Here, we analyse data on Atlantic salmon from an intensely studied catchment into which varying numbers of captive-bred fish have escaped/been released and potentially bred over several decades. Using a molecular pedigree, we demonstrate that, on average, the LRS of captive-bred individuals was only 36% that of wild-bred individuals. A significant LRS difference remained after excluding individuals that left no surviving offspring, some of which might have simply failed to spawn, consistent with transgenerational effects on offspring survival. The annual productivity of the mixed population (wild-bred plus captive-bred) was lower in years where captive-bred fish comprised a greater fraction of potential spawners. These results bolster previous empirical and theoretical findings that intentional stocking, or non-intentional escapees, threaten, rather than enhance, recipient natural populations.
  • Kjaerner-Semb, Erik; Edvardsen, Rolf B.; Ayllon, Fernando; Vogelsang, Petra; Furmanek, Tomasz; Rubin, Carl Johan; Veselov, Alexey E.; Nilsen, Tom Ole; McCormick, Stephen D.; Primmer, Craig R.; Wargelius, Anna (2021)
    Most Atlantic salmon (Salmo salarL.) populations follow an anadromous life cycle, spending early life in freshwater, migrating to the sea for feeding, and returning to rivers to spawn. At the end of the last ice age similar to 10,000 years ago, several populations of Atlantic salmon became landlocked. Comparing their genomes to their anadromous counterparts can help identify genetic variation related to either freshwater residency or anadromy. The objective of this study was to identify consistently divergent loci between anadromous and landlocked Atlantic salmon strains throughout their geographical distribution, with the long-term aim of identifying traits relevant for salmon aquaculture, including fresh and seawater growth, omega-3 metabolism, smoltification, and disease resistance. We used a Pool-seq approach (n = 10-40 individuals per population) to sequence the genomes of twelve anadromous and six landlocked Atlantic salmon populations covering a large part of the Northern Hemisphere and conducted a genomewide association study to identify genomic regions having been under different selection pressure in landlocked and anadromous strains. A total of 28 genomic regions were identified and includedcadm1on Chr 13 andppargc1aon Chr 18. Seven of the regions additionally displayed consistently reduced heterozygosity in fish obtained from landlocked populations, including the genes gpr132, cdca4, and sertad2 on Chr 15. We also found 16 regions, includingigf1on Chr 17, which consistently display reduced heterozygosity in the anadromous populations compared to the freshwater populations, indicating relaxed selection on traits associated with anadromy in landlocked salmon. In conclusion, we have identified 37 regions which may harbor genetic variation relevant for improving fish welfare and quality in the salmon farming industry and for understanding life-history traits in fish.
  • Mobley, Kenyon B.; Granroth-Wilding, Hanna; Ellmen, Mikko; Vaha, Juha-Pekka; Aykanat, Tutku; Johnston, Susan E.; Orell, Panu; Erkinaro, Jaakko; Primmer, Craig R. (2019)
    A long-held, but poorly tested, assumption in natural populations is that individuals that disperse into new areas for reproduction are at a disadvantage compared to individuals that reproduce in their natal habitat, underpinning the eco-evolutionary processes of local adaptation and ecological speciation. Here, we capitalize on fine-scale population structure and natural dispersal events to compare the reproductive success of local and dispersing individuals captured on the same spawning ground in four consecutive parent-offspring cohorts of wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Parentage analysis conducted on adults and juvenile fish showed that local females and males had 9.6 and 2.9 times higher reproductive success than dispersers, respectively. Our results reveal how higher reproductive success in local spawners compared to dispersers may act in natural populations to drive population divergence and promote local adaptation over microgeographic spatial scales without clear morphological differences between populations.
  • Debes, Paul; Piavchenko, Nikolai; Ruokolainen, Annukka; Ovaskainen, Outi; Moustakas-Verho, Jacqueline E.; Parre, Noora; Aykanat, Tutku; Erkinaro, Jaakko; Primmer, Craig R. (2021)
    Sexual maturation timing is a life-history trait central to the balance between mortality and reproduction. Maturation may be triggered when an underlying compound trait, called liability, exceeds a threshold. In many different species and especially fishes, this liability is approximated by growth and body condition. However, environmental vs. genetic contributions either directly or via growth and body condition to maturation timing remain unclear. Uncertainty exists also because the maturation process can reverse this causality and itself affect growth and body condition. In addition, disentangling the contributions of polygenic and major loci can be important. In many fishes, males mature before females, enabling the study of associations between male maturation and maturation-unbiased female liability traits. Using 40 Atlantic salmon families, longitudinal common-garden experimentation, and quantitative genetic analyses, we disentangled environmental from polygenic and major locus (vgll3) effects on male maturation, and sex-specific growth and condition. We detected polygenic heritabilities for maturation, growth, and body condition, and vgll3 effects on maturation and body condition but not on growth. Longitudinal patterns for sex-specific phenotypic liability, and for genetic variances and correlations between sexes suggested that early growth and condition indeed positively affected maturation initiation. However, towards spawning time, causality appeared reversed for males whereby maturation affected growth negatively and condition positively via both the environmental and genetic effects. Altogether, the results indicate that growth and condition are useful traits to study liability for maturation initiation, but only until maturation alters their expression, and that vgll3 contributes to maturation initiation via condition.
  • Leinonen, Tuomas; Piironen, Jorma; Koljonen, Marja-Liisa; Koskiniemi, Jarmo; Kause, Antti (2020)
    Supplementing endangered fish populations with captive bred individuals is a common practice in conservation management. The aim of supplementary releases from hatchery broodstocks is to maintain the viability of populations by maintaining their genetic diversity. Landlocked Lake Saimaa salmon (Salmo salar m. sebago) has been critically endangered for the past half-century. As a result of anthropogenic disturbance, especially construction of hydroelectric power plants, the Lake Saimaa salmon has become completely dependent on hatchery broodstock. Recently, habitat restoration has been done in one of the former spawning rivers with the aim of creating a new natural spawning ground for the critically endangered population. Hatchery fish releases have also been revised so that in addition to juveniles, adult fish from the hatchery and from the wild have been released into the restored river. We assessed here if a restored river stretch can be used as a natural spawning ground and juvenile production area with the aim of improving genetic diversity of the critically endangered Lake Saimaa salmon. By constructing a pedigree of the released adults, and juveniles sampled from the restored river, we found that the majority of the released adults had produced offspring in the river. We also found that wild-caught spawners that were released into the restored river had much higher reproductive success than hatchery-reared parents that were released into the restored river at the same time. We found no significant differences in genetic diversity between the parent and offspring generations. Meanwhile, relatedness among different groups of adults and juveniles varied a lot. For example, while the hatchery-reared females were on average half-siblings, wild-caught females showed no significant relatedness. This highlights the importance of using pedigree information in planning the conservation and management of endangered populations, especially when artificial propagation is involved.
  • La Mere, Kelsey Maggan; Mäntyniemi, Samu; Haapasaari, Päivi (2020)
    In the Baltic Sea region, salmon are valued for the ecological, economic, and cultural benefits they provide. However, these fish are threatened due to historical overfishing, disease, and reduced access to spawning rivers. Climate change may pose another challenge for salmon management. Therefore, we conducted a problem-framing study to explore the effects climate change may have on salmon and the socio-ecological system they are embedded within. Addressing this emerging issue will require the cooperation of diverse stakeholders and the integration of their knowledge and values in a contentious management context. Therefore, we conducted this problem framing as a participatory process with stakeholders, whose mental models and questionnaire responses form the basis of this study. By framing the climate change problem in this way, we aim to provide a holistic understanding of the problem and incorporate stakeholder perspectives into the management process from an early stage to better address their concerns and establish common ground. We conclude that considering climate change is relevant for Baltic salmon management, although it may not be the most pressing threat facing these fish. Stakeholders disagree about whether climate change will harm or benefit salmon, when it will become a relevant issue in the Baltic context, and whether or not management efforts can mitigate any negative impacts climate change may have on salmon and their fishery. Nevertheless, by synthesizing the stakeholders' influence diagrams, we found 15 themes exemplifying: (1) how climate change may affect salmon, (2) goals for salmon management considering climate change, and (3) strategies for achieving those goals. Further, the stakeholders tended to focus on the riverine environment and the salmon life stages occurring therein, potentially indicating the perceived vulnerability of these life stages to climate change. Interestingly, however, the stakeholders tended to focus on traditional fishery management measures, like catch quotas, to meet their goals for these fish considering climate change. Further, social variables, like “politics,” “international cooperation,” and “employment” comprised a large proportion of the stakeholders' diagrams, demonstrating the importance of these factors for salmon management.
  • Mobley, Kenyon B.; Granroth-Wilding, Hanna; Ellmen, Mikko; Orell, Panu; Erkinaro, Jaakko; Primmer, Craig R. (2020)
    Abstract In species with complex life cycles, life history theory predicts that fitness is affected by conditions encountered in previous life history stages. Here, we use a four-year pedigree to investigate if time spent in two distinct life history stages has sex-specific reproductive fitness consequences in anadromous Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). We determined the amount of years spent in fresh water as juveniles (freshwater age, FW, measured in years), and years spent in the marine environment as adults (sea age, SW, measured in sea winters) on 264 sexually mature adults collected on a river spawning ground. We then estimated reproductive fitness as the number of offspring (reproductive success) and the number of mates (mating success) using genetic parentage analysis (>5000 offspring). Sea age is significantly and positively correlated with reproductive and mating success of both sexes whereby older and larger individuals gained the highest reproductive fitness benefits (females: 62.2% increase in offspring/SW and 34.8% increase in mate number/SW; males: 201.9% offspring/SW and 60.3% mates/SW). Younger freshwater age was significantly related to older sea age and thus increased reproductive fitness, but only among females (females: -33.9% offspring/FW and -32.4% mates/FW). This result implies that females can obtain higher reproductive fitness by transitioning to the marine environment earlier. In contrast, male mating and reproductive success was unaffected by freshwater age and more males returned at a younger age than females despite the reproductive fitness advantage of later sea age maturation. Our results show that the timing of transitions between juvenile and adult phases has a sex-specific consequence on female reproductive fitness, demonstrating a life-history trade-off between maturation and reproduction in wild Atlantic salmon.
  • Kurko, Johanna; Debes, Paul V.; House, Andrew H.; Aykanat, Tutku; Erkinaro, Jaakko; Primmer, Craig R. (2020)
    Despite recent taxonomic diversification in studies linking genotype with phenotype, follow-up studies aimed at understanding the molecular processes of such genotype-phenotype associations remain rare. The age at which an individual reaches sexual maturity is an important fitness trait in many wild species. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating maturation timing processes remain obscure. A recent genome-wide association study in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) identified large-effect age-at-maturity-associated chromosomal regions including genes vgll3, akap11 and six6, which have roles in adipogenesis, spermatogenesis and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, respectively. Here, we determine expression patterns of these genes during salmon development and their potential molecular partners and pathways. Using Nanostring transcription profiling technology, we show development- and tissue-specific mRNA expression patterns for vgll3, akap11 and six6. Correlated expression levels of vgll3 and akap11, which have adjacent chromosomal location, suggests they may have shared regulation. Further, vgll3 correlating with arhgap6 and yap1, and akap11 with lats1 and yap1 suggests that Vgll3 and Akap11 take part in actin cytoskeleton regulation. Tissue-specific expression results indicate that vgll3 and akap11 paralogs have sex-dependent expression patterns in gonads. Moreover, six6 correlating with slc38a6 and rtn1, and Hippo signaling genes suggests that Six6 could have a broader role in the HPG neuroendrocrine and cell fate commitment regulation, respectively. We conclude that Vgll3, Akap11 and Six6 may influence Atlantic salmon maturation timing via affecting adipogenesis and gametogenesis by regulating cell fate commitment and the HPG axis. These results may help to unravel general molecular mechanisms behind maturation.