Browsing by Subject "SALICYLIC-ACID"

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  • Kaurilind, Eve; Xu, Enjun; Brosche, Mikael (2015)
    Background: To survive in a changing environment plants constantly monitor their surroundings. In response to several stresses and during photorespiration plants use reactive oxygen species as signaling molecules. The Arabidopsis thaliana catalase2 (cat2) mutant lacks a peroxisomal catalase and under photorespiratory conditions accumulates H2O2, which leads to activation of cell death. Methods: A cat2 double mutant collection was generated through crossing and scored for cell death in different assays. Selected double mutants were further analyzed for photosynthetic performance and H2O2 accumulation. Results: We used a targeted mutant analysis with more than 50 cat2 double mutants to investigate the role of stress hormones and other defense regulators in H2O2 -mediated cell death. Several transcription factors (AS1, MYB30, MYC2, WRKY70), cell death regulators (RCD1, DND1) and hormone regulators (AXR1, ERA1, SID2, EDS1, SGT1b) were essential for execution of cell death in cat2. Genetic loci required for cell death in cat2 was compared with regulators of cell death in spontaneous lesion mimic mutants and led to the identification of a core set of plant cell death regulators. Analysis of gene expression data from cat2 and plants undergoing cell death revealed similar gene expression profiles, further supporting the existence of a common program for regulation of plant cell death. Conclusions: Our results provide a genetic framework for further study on the role of H2O2 in regulation of cell death. The hormones salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and auxin, as well as their interaction, are crucial determinants of cell death regulation.
  • Wirthmueller, Lennart; Asai, Shuta; Rallapalli, Ghanasyam; Sklenar, Jan; Fabro, Georgina; Kim, Dae Sung; Lintermann, Ruth; Jaspers, Pinja; Wrzaczek, Michael; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko; MacLean, Daniel; Menke, Frank L. H.; Banfield, Mark J.; Jones, Jonathan D. G. (2018)
    The oomycete pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa) causes downy mildew disease on Arabidopsis. To colonize its host, Hpa translocates effector proteins that suppress plant immunity into infected host cells. Here, we investigate the relevance of the interaction between one of these effectors, HaRxL106, and Arabidopsis RADICAL-INDUCED CELL DEATH1 (RCD1). We use pathogen infection assays as well as molecular and biochemical analyses to test the hypothesis that HaRxL106 manipulates RCD1 to attenuate transcriptional activation of defense genes. We report that HaRxL106 suppresses transcriptional activation of salicylic acid (SA)-induced defense genes and alters plant growth responses to light. HaRxL106-mediated suppression of immunity is abolished in RCD1 loss-of-function mutants. We report that RCD1-type proteins are phosphorylated, and we identified Mut9-like kinases (MLKs), which function as phosphoregulatory nodes at the level of photoreceptors, as RCD1-interacting proteins. An mlk1,3,4 triple mutant exhibits stronger SA-induced defense marker gene expression compared with wild-type plants, suggesting that MLKs also affect transcriptional regulation of SA signaling. Based on the combined evidence, we hypothesize that nuclear RCD1/MLK complexes act as signaling nodes that integrate information from environmental cues and pathogen sensors, and that the Arabidopsis downy mildew pathogen targets RCD1 to prevent activation of plant immunity.
  • Cui, Fuqiang; Wu, Hongpo; Safronov, Omid; Zhang, Panpan; Kumar, Rajeev; Kollist, Hannes; Salojärvi, Jarkko Tapani; Panstruga, Ralph; Overmyer, Kirk Loren (2018)
    The atmospheric pollutant ozone (O-3) is a strong oxidant that causes extracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, has significant ecological relevance, and is used here as a non-invasive ROS inducer to study plant signalling. Previous genetic screens identified several mutants exhibiting enhanced O-3 sensitivity, but few with enhanced tolerance. We found that loss-of-function mutants in Arabidopsis MLO2, a gene implicated in susceptibility to powdery mildew disease, exhibit enhanced dose-dependent tolerance to O-3 and extracellular ROS, but a normal response to intracellular ROS. This phenotype is increased in a mlo2 mlo6 mlo12 triple mutant, reminiscent of the genetic redundancy of MLO genes in powdery mildew resistance. Stomatal assays revealed that enhanced O-3 tolerance in mlo2 mutants is not caused by altered stomatal conductance. We explored modulation of the mlo2-associated O-3 tolerance, powdery mildew resistance, and early senescence phenotypes by genetic epistasis analysis, involving mutants with known effects on ROS sensitivity or antifungal defence. Mining of publicly accessible microarray data suggests that these MLO proteins regulate accumulation of abiotic stress response transcripts, and transcript accumulation of MLO2 itself is O-3 responsive. In summary, our data reveal MLO2 as a novel negative regulator in plant ROS responses, which links biotic and abiotic stress response pathways.
  • Li, Jing; Xiong, Yacen; Li, Yi; Ye, Shiqi; Yin, Qi; Gao, Siqi; Yang, Dong; Yang, Mei; Palva, E. Tapio; Deng, Xianbao (2019)
    The WRKY family is one of the largest transcription factor (TF) families in plants and plays central roles in modulating plant stress responses and developmental processes, as well as secondary metabolic regulations. Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) is an aquatic crop that has significant food, ornamental and pharmacological values. Here, we performed an overview analysis of WRKY TF family members in lotus, and studied their functions in environmental adaptation and regulation of lotus benzylisoquinoline alkaloid (BIA) biosynthesis. A total of 65 WRKY genes were identified in the lotus genome and they were well clustered in a similar pattern with their Arabidopsis homologs in seven groups (designated I, IIa-IIe, and III), although no lotus WRKY was clustered in the group IIIa. Most lotus WRKYs were functionally paired, which was attributed to the recently occurred whole genome duplication in lotus. In addition, lotus WRKYs were regulated dramatically by salicilic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), and submergence treatments, and two lotus WRKYs, NnWRKY40a and NnWRKY40b, were significantly induced by JA and promoted lotus BIA biosynthesis through activating BIA biosynthetic genes. The investigation of WRKY TFs for this basal eudicot reveals new insights into the evolution of the WRKY family, and provides fundamental information for their functional studies and lotus breeding.
  • Vuorinen, Katariina; Zamora, Olena; Vaahtera, Lauri; Overmyer, Kirk; Brosché, Mikael (2021)
    Plants require interaction between signaling pathways to differentiate and integrate stress responses and deploy appropriate defenses. The hormones ethylene, salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acid (JA) are important regulators of plant defenses. Numerous interactions between these signaling pathways are the cornerstone of robust plant immunity. Additionally, during the early response to pathogens, reactive oxygen species (ROS) act as signaling molecules. Here, we examined the extent of signal interaction in the early stages of Botrytis cinerea infection. To enable a comparison between B. cinerea infection with ROS signaling, we subjected plants to ozone treatment, which stimulates an apoplastic ROS burst. We used a collection of single, double, and triple signaling mutants defective in hormone signaling and biosynthesis and subjected them to B. cinerea infection and ozone treatment at different timepoints. We examined lesion size, cell death, and gene expression (both quantitatively and spatially). The two treatments shared many similarities, especially in JA-insensitive mutants, which were sensitive to both treatments. Unexpectedly, a B. cinerea- susceptible JA-insensitive mutant (coil), became tolerant when both SA biosynthesis and signaling was impaired (coil npr1 sid2), demonstrating that JA responses may be under the control of SA. Extensive marker gene analysis indicated JA as the main regulator of both B. cinerea and ozone defenses. In addition, we identified the transcription factor SRI_ as a crucial regulator of PLANT DEFENSIN expression and cell-death regulation, which contributes to resistance to B. cinerea. Overall, our work further defines the context of ROS in plant defense signaling.
  • Overmyer, Kirk Loren; Vuorinen, Katariina Elina; Brosche, Mikael Johan (2018)
    Plants live in a world where they are challenged by abiotic and biotic stresses. In response to unfavorable conditions or an acute challenge like a pathogen attack, plants use various signaling pathways that regulate expression of defense genes and other mechanisms to provide resistance or stress adaptation. Identification of the regulatory steps in defense signaling has seen much progress in recent years. Many of the identified signaling pathways show interactions with each other, exemplified by the modulation of the jasmonic acid response by salicylic acid. Accordingly, defense regulation is more appropriately thought of as a web of interactions, rather than linear pathways. Here we describe various regulatory components and how they interact to provide an appropriate defense response. One of the common assays to monitor the output of defense signaling, as well as interaction between signaling pathways, is the measurement of altered gene expression. We illustrate that, while this is a suitable assay to monitor defense regulation, it can also inadvertently provide overstated conclusions about interaction among signaling pathways.
  • Wang, Kai; Sipilä, Timo Petteri; Overmyer, Kirk Loren (2016)
    The genetic model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (arabidopsis) has been instrumental to recent advances in our understanding of the molecular function of the plant immune system. However, this work has not yet included plant associated and phytopathogenic yeasts largely due to a lack of yeast species known to interact with arabidopsis. The plant phylloplane is a significant habitat for neutral-residents, plant-growth and health-promoting species, and latent-pathogenic species. However, yeast phylloplane residents of arabidopsis remain underexplored. To address this, resident yeasts from the phyllosphere of wild arabidopsis collected in field conditions have been isolated and characterized. A total of 95 yeast strains representing 23 species in 9 genera were discovered, including potentially psychrophilic and pathogenic strains. Physiological characterization revealed thermotolerance profiles, sensitivity to the arabidopsis phytoalexin camalexin, the production of indolic compounds, and the ability to activate auxin responses in planta. These results indicate a rich diversity of yeasts present in the arabidopsis phylloplane and have created culture resources and information useful in the development of model systems for arabidopsis-yeast interactions.
  • Durian, Guido; Rahikainen, Moona; Vuorinen, Katariina; Gollan, Peter J.; Brosche, Mikael; Salojarvi, Jarkko; Glawischnig, Erich; Winter, Zsófia; Li, Shengchun; Noctor, Graham; Aro, Eva-Mari; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko; Overmyer, Kirk; Burow, Meike; Kangasjärvi, Saijaliisa (2020)
    Plants optimize their growth and survival through highly integrated regulatory networks that coordinate defensive measures and developmental transitions in response to environmental cues. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a key signaling component that controls stress reactions and growth at different stages of plant development, and the PP2A regulatory subunit PP2A-B'gamma is required for negative regulation of pathogenesis responses and for maintenance of cell homeostasis in short-day conditions. Here, we report molecular mechanisms by which PP2A-B'gamma regulates Botrytis cinerea resistance and leaf senescence in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). We extend the molecular functionality of PP2A-B'gamma to a protein kinase-phosphatase interaction with the defense-associated calcium-dependent protein kinase CPK1 and present indications this interaction may function to control CPK1 activity. In presenescent leaf tissues, PP2A-B'gamma is also required to negatively control the expression of salicylic acid-related defense genes, which have recently proven vital in plant resistance to necrotrophic fungal pathogens. In addition, we find the premature leaf yellowing of pp2a-b'gamma depends on salicylic acid biosynthesis via SALICYLIC ACID INDUCTION DEFICIENT2 and bears the hallmarks of developmental leaf senescence. We propose PP2A-B'gamma age-dependently controls salicylic acid-related signaling in plant immunity and developmental leaf senescence.
  • Piisilä, Maria; Keceli, Mehmet A.; Brader, Günter; Jakobson, Liina; Joesaar, Indrek; Sipari, Nina; Kollist, Hannes; Palva, E. Tapio; Kariola, Tarja (2015)
  • Brosche, Mikael; Blomster, Tiina; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Cui, Fuqiang; Sipari, Nina; Leppälä, Johanna; Lamminmäki, Airi; Tomai, Gloria; Narayanasamy, Shaman; Reddy, Ramesha A.; Keinänen, Markku Juhani; Overmyer, Kirk; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko (2014)
  • Li, Jing; Zhong, Rusen; Palva, E. Tapio (2017)
    Previous studies have identified the Arabidopsis thaliana transcription factor WRKY70 as a node of convergence for salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA)-mediated defense signal pathways and, together with its closest homolog WRKY54, as a negative regulator of SA biosynthesis. Here, we demonstrate that WRKY70 together with WRKY54 negatively affect the response of Arabidopsis to the necrotrophic pathogens Pectobacterium carotovorum and Botrytis cinerea, but not to the hemibiotroph Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (Pst) DC3000, as revealed by mutants studies. Unstressed wrky54wrky70 double mutants exhibited increased levels of SA, accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and up-regulated expression of both SA and JA/ethylene (ET) responsive defense related genes. Additionally, protein cross-linking in cell wall was promoted by endogenous SA, suggesting involvement of wall-associated defenses against necrotrophs. This response to necrotrophs was compromised by introducing the sid2-1 allele impairing SA biosynthesis and leading to reduction of H2O2 content and of defense gene expression. The data suggest that the elevated SA level in the wrky54wrky70 double mutant results in moderate accumulation of H2O2, in promoting cell wall fortification and consequently enhanced resistance to necrotrophs but is not sufficient to trigger hypersensitive reaction (HR)-like cell death and resistance to biotrophs/hemibiotrophs like Pst DC3000.