Browsing by Subject "SALINITY"

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  • Pflugmacher, Stephan; Tallinen, Saila; Kim, Young Jun; Kim, Sanghun; Esterhuizen, Maranda (2021)
    Plastic has been an environmental pollutant far longer than claimed by the first reports surfacing in 1979, meaning some plastic materials have been decaying in nature for decades. Nevertheless, the threat posed to biota is not fully understood, especially from aged microplastic. The question considered in this study was whether the adverse effects of new plastic differ from those of old plastic material. Therefore, the morphological and physiological effects on Lepidium sativum with exposure to both new and aged polycarbonate were considered against a known stressor leaching from polycarbonate with time, bisphenol-A. Exposure to new and short-term aged polycarbonate (up to 80 days) elicited the most severe effects such as germination inhibition, reduced seedling growth, decreased chlorophyll concentrations, and increased catalase activity. These adverse effects in L. sativum associated with polycarbonate exposure were reduced as a function of the ageing time applied to the polycarbonate. The chemical substances that lend new polycarbonate material its toxicity were likely leached with time during the ageing process. Based on the results obtained, temperature and humidity based artificial ageing significantly reduced the phytotoxicity of the microplastic particles
  • Lucena-Moya, Paloma; Duggan, Ian C. (2017)
    We tested whether variability in zooplankton assemblages was consistent with the categories of estuarine environments proposed by the 'Estuary Environment Classification' system (EEC) (Hume et al., 2007) across a variety of North Island, New Zealand, estuaries. The EEC classifies estuaries in to eight categories (A to F) based primarily on a combination of three abiotic controlling factors: ocean forcing, river forcing and basin morphometry. Additionally, we tested whether Remane's curve, which predicts higher diversities of benthic macrofauna and high and low salinities, can be applied to zooplankton assemblages. We focused on three of the eight EEC categories (B, D and F), which covered the range of estuaries with river inputs dominating (B) to ocean influence dominating (F). Additionally, we included samples from river (FW) and sea (MW) to encompass the entire salinity range. Zooplankton assemblages varied across the categories examined in accordance with a salinity gradient predicted by the EEC. Three groups of zooplankton were distinguishable: the first formed by the most freshwater categories, FW and B, and dominated by rotifers (primarily Bdelloidea) and estuarine copepods (Gladioferans pectinatus), a second group formed by categories D and F, of intermediate salinity, dominated by copepods (Euterpina acutifrons), and a final group including the purely marine category MW and dominated also by E. acutifrons along with other marine taxa. Zooplankton diversity responded to the salinity gradient in a manner expected from Remane's curve. The results of this study support others which have shown salinity to be the main factor driving zooplankton community composition and diversity. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Virta, Leena; Soininen, Janne; Norkko, Alf (2020)
    Aim Global biodiversity loss has raised interest in understanding variation in diversity at different scales. In particular, studies conducted across large spatial gradients are crucial, because they can increase perspectives on how ecological patterns change relative to environmental factors and facilitate predictions of possible responses to environmental change. We explored the full extent of a brackish sea to test the hypotheses that: (a) benthic communities are defined by the limited ranges of species, controlled by varying drivers along a large environmental gradient; (b) the responses of taxonomic and functional community composition and turnover to the environmental gradient are different, thus highlighting the need to include both measures in ecological studies; and (c) diversity reaches the minimum at intermediate salinities (Remane curve) owing to the low adaptation of freshwater and marine species. Location A large environmental and spatial gradient spanning the entire Swedish coastline (c. 2,300 km; salinity 1.2-27.6), the Baltic Sea. Time period August 2018. Major taxa studied Benthic diatoms. Methods We assessed environmental drivers for the communities and calculated the taxonomic and functional alpha and beta diversity along the gradient. We also compared the taxonomic and functional composition and diversity of communities among areas with different salinity. Results We found support for the hypothesis of limited species ranges, because taxonomic beta diversity, mainly induced by changes in salinity and climate, was high, whereas functional beta diversity remained considerably lower, and the composition and diversity of communities, in addition to environmental drivers controlling the communities, differed between regions with different salinity. The lowest taxonomic diversity was found at intermediate salinities of 5-6. Main conclusions These findings advance understanding of large-scale patterns of benthic diversity, emphasize the importance of large gradient studies for a better understanding of general ecological patterns and highlight the vulnerability of brackish water ecosystems as ecologically important tipping-point realms.
  • Jansson, Anna; Klais-Peets, Riina; Griniene, Evelina; Rubene, Gunta; Semenova, Anna; Lewandowska, Aleksandra; Engstrom-Öst, Jonna (2020)
    Functional traits are becoming more common in the analysis of marine zooplankton community dynamics associated with environmental change. We used zooplankton groups with common functional properties to assess long-term trends in the zooplankton caused by certain environmental conditions in a highly eutrophicated gulf. Time series of zooplankton traits have been collected since the 1960s in the Gulf of Riga, Baltic Sea, and were analyzed using a combination of multivariate methods (principal coordinate analysis) and generalized additive models. One of the most significant changes was the considerable increase in the amount of the zooplankton functional groups (FGR) in coastal springtime communities, and dominance shifts from more complex to simpler organism groups-cladocerans and rotifers. The results also show that functional trait organism complexity (body size) decreased considerably due to cladoceran and rotifer increase following elevated water temperature. Salinity and oxygen had negligible effects on the zooplankton community.
  • Yan, Yu; Huang, Kaiyue; Shao, Dongdong; Xu, Yingjun; Gu, Wei (2019)
    Satellite remote sensing data, such as moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometers (MODIS) and advanced very high-resolution radiometers (AVHRR), are being widely used to monitor sea ice conditions and their variability in the Bohai Sea, the southernmost frozen sea in the Northern Hemisphere. Monitoring the characteristics of the Bohai Sea ice can provide crucial information for ice disaster prevention for marine transportation, oil field operation, and regional climate change studies. Although these satellite data cover the study area with fairly high spatial resolution, their typically limited cloudless images pose serious restrictions for continuous observation of short-term dynamics, such as sub-seasonal changes. In this study, high spatiotemporal resolution (500 m and eight images per day) geostationary ocean color imager (GOCI) data with a high proportion of cloud-free images were used to monitor the characteristics of the Bohai Sea ice, including area and thickness. An object-based feature extraction method and an albedo-based thickness inversion model were used for estimating sea ice area and thickness, respectively. To demonstrate the efficacy of the new dataset, a total of 68 GOCI images were selected to analyze the evolution of sea ice area and thickness during the winter of 2012-2013 with severe sea ice conditions. The extracted sea ice area was validated using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data with higher spatial resolution, and the estimated sea ice thickness was found to be consistent with in situ observation results. The entire sea ice freezing-melting processes, including the key events such as the day with the maximum ice area and the first and last days of the frozen season, were better resolved by the high temporal-resolution GOCI data compared with MODIS or AVHRR data. Both characteristics were found to be closely correlated with cumulative freezing/melting degree days. Our study demonstrates the applicability of the GOCI data as an improved dataset for studying the Bohai Sea ice, particularly for purposes that require high temporal resolution data, such as sea ice disaster monitoring.
  • Ortiz Charneco, Guillermo; Parages, Maria L.; Camarena-Gómez, M. Teresa; Jimenez, Carlos (2018)
    The green unicellular microalga Dunaliella viridis has the ability to cope with a wide variety of environmental stressful conditions, such as thermal and osmotic shocks, high PAR, UV radiation and nitrogen deficiency. The lack of a rigid cell wall makes D. viridis an excellent model organism to study stress signaling in eukaryotic unicellular organisms. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are highly conserved serine/threonine kinases that convert extracellular stimuli into a wide range of responses at both cellular and nuclear levels. In eukaryotic cells, MAPKs are involved in both cell proliferation and differentiation (ERK pathway) and stress responses (JNK and p38 pathways), through protein kinase cascades. Significantly lesser phosphorylation levels of ERK-like protein were observed in D. viridis cultures acclimated to high salinity (3-4 M NaCl). In contrast, JNK-like and p38-like proteins phosphorylation levels increased in stressed cells. Likewise, the efficacy of specific commercial inhibitors of the phosphorylation of ERK (PD98059), JNK (SP600125) and p38 (SB203580) revealed the importance of JNK-like proteins in the maintenance of cell viability, the highlighted participation of p38-like proteins and the non-direct implication of the ERK-like proteins in the acclimatization process. In summary, specific blockade of JNK- and p38-like cascades in stressed cells led to rapid cell death. The behavior of MAPK-like proteins in algae is not known in depth, so the analysis of their mechanism of action, as well as their function in this model microalga, will allow to estimate the fate of unicellular eukaryotic organisms in aquatic ecosystems subjected to environmental stress derived from the conditions prevailing within a framework of global climate change.
  • Wang, Yingnan; Zhao, Yongxin; Wang, Yu; Li, Zitong; Guo, Baocheng; Merilä, Juha (2020)
    Abstract The degree to which adaptation to similar selection pressures is underlain by parallel vs. non-parallel genetic changes is a topic of broad interest in contemporary evolutionary biology. Sticklebacks provide opportunities to characterize and compare the genetic underpinnings of repeated marine-freshwater divergences at both intra- and interspecific levels. While the degree of genetic parallelism in repeated marine-freshwater divergences has been frequently studied in the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), much less is known about this in other stickleback species. Using a population transcriptomic approach, we identified both genetic and gene expression variations associated with marine-freshwater divergence in the nine-spined stickleback (Pungitius pungitius). Specifically, we used a genome-wide association study approach, and found that ~1% of the total 173,491 identified SNPs showed marine-freshwater ecotypic differentiation. A total of 861 genes were identified to have SNPs associated with marine-freshwater divergence in nine-spined stickleback, but only 12 of these genes have also been reported as candidates associated with marine-freshwater divergence in the three-spined stickleback. Hence, our results indicate a low degree of interspecific genetic parallelism in marine-freshwater divergence. Moreover, 1,578 genes in the brain and 1,050 genes in the liver were differentially expressed between marine and freshwater nine-spined sticklebacks, ~5% of which have also been identified as candidates associated with marine-freshwater divergence in the three-spined stickleback. However, only few of these (e.g., CLDND1) appear to have been involved in repeated marine-freshwater divergence in nine-spined sticklebacks. Taken together, the results indicate a low degree of genetic parallelism in repeated marine-freshwater divergence both at intra- and interspecific levels.
  • Vigouroux, Guillaume; Kari, Elina; Beltrán-Abaunza, José M.; Uotila, Petteri; Yuan, Dekui; Destouni, Georgia (2021)
    Coastal eutrophication is a major environmental issue worldwide. In the Baltic Sea, eutrophication affects both the coastal waters and the open sea. Various policy frameworks aim to hinder its progress but eutrophicationrelevant water quality variables, such as chlorophyll-a concentrations, still exhibit opposite temporal trends in various Baltic Sea marine and coastal waters. In this study, we investigate the temporal-trend linkages of measured water quality variables and their various anthropogenic, climatic and hydrospheric drivers over the period 1990-2020 with focus on the Swedish coastal waters and related marine basins in the Baltic Sea. We find that it is necessary to distinguish more and less isolated coastal waters, based on their water exchanges with the open sea, to capture different coastal eutrophication dynamics. In less isolated coastal waters, eutrophication is primarily related to nitrogen concentrations, while it is more related to phosphorus concentrations in more isolated coastal waters. In the open sea, trends in eutrophication conditions correlate best with trends in climatic and hydrospheric drivers, like wind speed and water salinity, respectively. In the coastal waters, driver signals are more mixed, with considerable influences from anthropogenic land-based nutrient loads and sea ice cover duration. Summer chlorophyll-a concentration in the open sea stands out as a main change driver of summer chlorophyll-a concentration in less isolated coastal waters. Overall, coastal waters are a melting pot of driver influences over various scales, from local land-based drivers to large-scale total catchment and open sea conditions. The latter in turn depend on long-term integration of pathway-dependent influences from the various coastal parts of the Baltic Sea and their land-based nutrient load drivers, combined with overarching climate conditions and internal feedback loops. As such, our results challenge any unidirectional local source-to-sea paradigm and emphasize a need for concerted local land-catchment and whole-sea measures for robust coastal eutrophication management. (c) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
  • Pour-Aboughadareh, Alireza; Omidi, Mansoor; Naghavi, Mohammad Reza; Etminan, Alireza; Mehrabi, Ali Ashraf; Poczai, Peter (2020)
    Previous studies have revealed that some wild wheat accessions respond well to water deficit treatments and have a good potential in terms of photosynthetic parameters, root system architecture, and several physiological properties. However, the biochemical responses and molecular mechanisms of antioxidant-encoding genes remain to be elucidated. Herein, we investigated the most tolerant accessions fromA. crassa,Ae. tauschii, andAe. cylindricapreviously identified from a core collection in previous studies, along with a control variety of bread wheat (T. aestivumcv. Sirvan) through measuring the shoot fresh and dry biomasses; the activities of antioxidant enzymes (including ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), and peroxidase (POD)); and the relative expression ofCAT, superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), andGPXandAPXgenes under control and water deficit conditions. Water deficit stress caused a significant decrease in the shoot biomasses but resulted in an increase in the activity of all antioxidant enzymes and relative expression of antioxidant enzyme-encoding genes. Principal component analysis showed a strong association between the shoot dry biomass and the activity of CAT, POD, and APX, as well asMnSODgene expression. Thus, these traits can be used as biomarkers to screen the tolerant plant material in the early growth stage. Taken together, our findings exposed the fact thatAe. tauschiiandAe. crassarespond better to water deficit stress thanAe. cylindricaand a control variety. Furthermore, these accessions can be subjected to further molecular investigation.