Browsing by Subject "SALIVARY CORTISOL"

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  • Karhula, Kati; Harma, Mikko; Sallinen, Mikael; Lindholm, Harri; Hirvonen, Ari; Elovainio, Marko; Kivimaki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi; Puttonen, Sampsa (2016)
    Although the prevalence of work-related stress has increased, knowledge on the contributions of that stress to long-term adverse health effects is still lacking. Stress biomarkers can reveal early signs of negative health effects, but no previous studies have measured both acute stress reactions and long-term exposure to job strain using both salivary cortisol and -amylase (AA). The present study examines the association between job strain and these biomarkers among shift-working female health care professionals in the laboratory and the field. The 95 participants were recruited from hospital wards categorized in either the top (high job strain [HJS] group, n = 42) or the bottom quartile of job strain (low job strain [LJS] group, n = 53), as rated by survey responses. Participants' self-perceived job strain was at least as high or low as the ward's average estimation. Saliva samples were collected during the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), preselected morning and night shifts, and a day off. There was a larger increase in the cortisol concentration of participants in the HJS than in the LJS group (2.27- vs. 1.48-fold, respectively, nonsignificant) during the TSST. Participants in the HJS group also had higher salivary AA levels 30 min after awakening on the morning-shift day than those in the LJS group (p = .02), whereas the salivary cortisol awakening response on the day off was higher in the LJS group (p = .05, education as a covariate). The remaining stress-biomarker results did not differ significantly between groups. These data suggest that HJS in shift-working health care professionals is weakly associated with changes in stress biomarkers.
  • Eerola, Tuomas; Vuoskoski, Jonna K.; Kautiainen, Hannu; Peltola, Henna-Riikka; Putkinen, Vesa; Schafer, Katharina (2021)
    Many people enjoy sad music, and the appeal for tragedy is widespread among the consumers of film and literature. The underlying mechanisms of such aesthetic experiences are not well understood. We tested whether pleasure induced by sad, unfamiliar instrumental music is explained with a homeostatic or a reward theory, each of which is associated with opposite patterns of changes in the key hormones. Sixty-two women listened to sad music (or nothing) while serum was collected for subsequent measurement of prolactin (PRL) and oxytocin (OT) and stress marker (cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone) concentrations. Two groups of participants were recruited on the basis of low and high trait empathy. In the high empathy group, PRL and OT levels were significantly lower with music compared with no music. And compared to the low empathy group, the high empathy individuals reported an increase of positive mood and higher ratings of being moved with music. None of the stress markers showed any changes across the conditions or the groups. These hormonal changes, inconsistent with the homeostatic theory proposed by Huron, exhibit a pattern expected of general reward. Our findings illuminate how unfamiliar and low arousal music may give rise to pleasurable experiences.
  • Seppänen, Sirke; Toivanen, Tapio; Makkonen, Tommi; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Anttonen, Mikko; Tiippana, Kaisa (2020)
    Objectives Teaching involves multiple performance situations, potentially causing psychosocial stress. Since the theater-based improvisation method is associated with diminished social stress, we investigated whether improvisation lessened student teachers’ stress responses using the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST; preparatory phase, public speech, and math task). Moreover, we studied the influence of interpersonal confidence (IC) – the belief regarding one’s capability related to effective social interactions – on stress responses. Methods The intervention group (n = 19) received a 7-week (17.5 h) improvisation training, preceded and followed by the TSST. We evaluated experienced stress using a self-report scale, while physiological stress was assessed before (silent 30-s waiting period) and during the TSST tasks using cardiovascular measures (heart rate, heart rate variability [HRV]), electrodermal activation, facial electromyography (f-EMG), and EEG asymmetry. Hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA-axis) reactivity was assessed through repeated salivary cortisol sampling. Results Compared to the control group (n = 16), the intervention group exhibited less f-EMG activity before a public speech and higher HRV before the math task. The low IC intervention subgroup reported significantly less stress during the math task. The controls showed a decreased heart rate before the math task, and controls with a low IC exhibited higher HRV during the speech. Self-reported stress and cortisol levels were positively correlated during the post-TSST preparatory phase. Conclusions These findings suggest that improvisation training might diminish stress levels, specifically before a performance. In addition, interpersonal confidence appears to reduce stress responses. The decreased stress responses in the control group suggest adaptation through repetition. Keywords: Improvisation; Anticipatory anxiety; Interpersonal confidence; Psychophysiology; Teacher education; Trier Social Stress Test
  • Yun, J.; Han, T.; Bjorkman, S.; Nysten, M.; Hasan, S.; Valros, A.; Oliviero, C.; Kim, Y.; Peltoniemi, O. (2019)
    The present study aimed to identify the factors that affect immediate (within 24 h after farrowing onset) postnatal piglet mortality in litters with hyperprolific sows, and investigate their associations with behaviour of postpartum sows in two different farrowing housing systems. A total of 30 sows were housed in: (1) CRATE (n=15): the farrowing crate closed (0.80x2.20 m) within a pen (2.50x1.70 m), and (2) OPEN (n=15): the farrowing crate open (0.80x2.20x1.80 m) within a pen (2.50x2.40 m) with a provision of 20 ls of hay in a rack. A total of 518 live born piglets, produced from the 30 sows, were used for data analyses during the first 24 h after the onset of parturition (T24). Behavioural observations of the sows were assessed via video analyses during T24. Total and crushed piglet mortality rates were higher in OPEN compared with CRATE (P
  • Sokka, Laura; Leinikka, Marianne; Korpela, Jussi; Henelius, Andreas; Ahonen, Lauri; Alain, Claude; Alho, Kimmo; Huotilainen, Minna (2016)
    Individuals with job burnout symptoms often report having cognitive difficulties, but related electrophysiological studies are scarce. We assessed the impact of burnout on performing a visual task with varying memory loads, and on involuntary attention switch to distractor sounds using scalp recordings of event-related potentials (ERPs). Task performance was comparable between burnout and control groups. The distractor sounds elicited a P3a response, which was reduced in the burnout group. This suggests burnout-related deficits in processing novel and potentially important events during task performance. In the burnout group, we also observed a decrease in working-memory related P3b responses over posterior scalp and increase over frontal areas. These results suggest that burnout is associated with deficits in cognitive control needed to monitor and update information in working memory. Successful task performance in burnout might require additional recruitment of anterior regions to compensate the decrement in posterior activity. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Utge, Siddheshwar; Räikkönen, Katri; Kajantie, Eero; Lipsanen, Jari; Andersson, Sture; Strandberg, Timo; Reynolds, Rebecca M.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Lahti, Jari (2018)
    Purpose: Corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) transports glucocorticoids in blood. Variation in genes SERPINA6 encoding for CBG, SERPINA2 and SERPINAI (serpin family A member 6, 2, and 1) have been shown to influence morning plasma cortisol and CBG in adults. However, association of this genetic variation with diurnal and stress-induced salivary cortisol remain unknown. This study aims to investigate the effect of genetic variation in SERPINA6/2/1 loci on diurnal and stress-induced salivary cortisol in children. Methods: We studied 186, 8-year-old children with genome-wide genotyping. We generated weighted polygenic risk score (PRS) based on 6 genome-wide significant SNPs (rs11621961, rs11629171, rs7161521, rs2749527, rs3762132, rs4900229) derived from the CORNET meta-analyses. Salivary cortisol was measured across one day and in response to the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C). Results: Mixed models, adjusted for covariates, showed that the PRS x sampling time interactions associated with diurnal (P <0.001) and stress-induced (P = 0.009) salivary cortisol. In the high PRS group (dichotomized at median) the diurnal salivary cortisol pattern decreased less from awakening to bedtime than in the low PRS group (standardized estimates of sampling time -0.64 vs. -0.73, P <0.0001 for both estimates). In response to stress, salivary cortisol increased in the high PRS group while it remained unchanged in the low PRS group (standardized estimates of sampling time 0.12, P = 0.015 vs. -0.06, P = 0.16). These results were mainly driven by minor alleles of rs7161521 (SERPINA6) and rs4900229 (SERPINAI). Conclusions: Genetic variation in SERPINA6/2/1loci may underpin higher hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis activity in children.
  • Sokka, Laura; Leinikka, Marianne; Korpela, Jussi; Henelius, Andreas; Lukander, Jani; Pakarinen, Satu; Alho, Kimmo; Huotilainen, Minna (2017)
    Individuals with prolonged occupational stress often report difficulties in concentration. Work tasks often require the ability to switch back and forth between different contexts. Here, we studied the association between job burnout and task switching by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) time-locked to stimulus onset during a task with simultaneous cue-target presentation and unpredictable switches in the task. Participants were currently working people with severe, mild, or no burnout symptoms. In all groups, task performance was substantially slower immediately after task switch than during task repetition. However, the error rates were higher in the severe burnout group than in the mild burnout and control groups. Electrophysiological data revealed an increased parietal P3 response for the switch trials relative to repetition trials. Notably, the response was smaller in amplitude in the severe burnout group than in the other groups. The results suggest that severe burnout is associated with inadequate processing when rapid shifting of attention between tasks is required resulting in less accurate performance. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Sjösten, Noora; Matthews, Karen A.; Heinonen, Kati; Martikainen, Silja; Kajantie, Eero; Tammelin, Tuija; Eriksson, Johan G.; Strandberg, Timo; Räikkönen, Katri (2011)