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  • Vepsäläinen, Henna; Skaffari, Essi; Wojtkowska, Katarzyna; Barlińska, Julia; Kinnunen, Satu Marjaana; Makkonen, Riikka Kyllikki; Heikkilä, Maria; Lehtovirta, Mikko; Ray, Carola Marie-Lousie; Suhonen, Eira; Nevalainen, Jaakko; Sajaniemi, Nina; Erkkola, Maijaliisa (2022)
    Background: Early childhood education and care (ECEC) centers are ideal venues for food education. As smartphones and tablets are becoming increasingly popular in ECEC centers, technology can be used to deliver such pedagogical content. Evidence suggests that video games can affect fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption among 9-to 12-year-old children, but studies among preschoolers are scarce. Objective: This paper describes the development of the Mole's Veggie Adventures app and its effectiveness in increasing FV acceptance among Finnish and Polish preschoolers aged 3 to 6 years. Methods: A multiprofessional team created an app to be used in ECEC centers in groups of 3 to 10 children. The app aimed to increase vegetable acceptance, and it was built using elements that support the development of self-regulation and social skills. Altogether, 7 Finnish and 4 Polish ECEC centers participated in the study. Before randomization, parents reported background factors and their children's willingness to taste different FVs. The ECEC professionals in the intervention arm were instructed to use the app at least once a week during the 3-to 4-week intervention period. The main outcomes in this unblinded, cluster-randomized study were FV acceptance and relative FV acceptance. The first was calculated as a sum variable describing the children's willingness to taste 25 different FVs, the second as FV acceptance divided by the number of FVs served. We used analysis of covariance to compare the FV acceptance and relative FV acceptance scores between the intervention and control groups at follow-up. Results: A total of 221 children were included in the analysis. At follow-up, the intervention group (115/221, 52%) had higher FV acceptance scores (baseline adjusted difference of mean 7.22; 95% CI 1.41-13.03) than the control group (106/221, 48%). The intervention effect was parallel for relative FV acceptance scores (baseline adjusted difference of mean 0.28; 95% CI 0.05-0.52). Conclusions: The Mole's Veggie Adventures app has the potential to increase FV acceptance among preschoolers and can be a valuable tool in supporting food education in ECEC centers. Furthermore, the app can be feasibly incorporated into preschool routines in countries with different educational environments. Trial Registration: NCT05173311; (JMIR Mhealth Uhealth 2022;10(1):e30352) doi: 10.2196/30352
  • Kauppi, Jukka-Pekka; Pajula, Juha; Tohka, Jussi (2014)
    In the inter-subject correlation (ISC) based analysis of the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, the extent of shared processing across subjects during the experiment is determined by calculating correlation coefficients between the fMRI time series of the subjects in the corresponding brain locations. This implies that ISC can be used to analyze fMRI data without explicitly modeling the stimulus and thus ISC is a potential method to analyze fMRI data acquired under complex naturalistic stimuli. Despite of the suitability of ISC based approach to analyze complex fMRI data, no generic software tools have been made available for this purpose, limiting a widespread use of ISC based analysis techniques among neuroimaging community. In this paper, we present a graphical user interface (GUI) based software package, ISC Toolbox, implemented in Matlab for computing various ISC based analyses. Many advanced computations such as comparison of ISCs between different stimuli, time window ISC, and inter-subject phase synchronization are supported by the toolbox. The analyses are coupled with resampling based statistical inference. The ISC based analyses are data and computation intensive and the ISC toolbox is equipped with mechanisms to execute the parallel computations in a cluster environment automatically and with an automatic detection of the cluster environment in use. Currently, SGE-based (Oracle Grid Engine, Son of a Grid Engine, or Open Grid Scheduler) and Slurm environments are supported. In this paper, we present a detailed account on the methods behind the ISC Toolbox, the implementation of the toolbox and demonstrate the possible use of the toolbox by summarizing selected example applications. We also report the computation time experiments both using a single desktop computer and two grid environments demonstrating that parallelization effectively reduces the computing time.
  • Toffol, Elena; Partonen, Timo; Heikinheimo, Oskari; But, Anna; Latvala, Antti; Haukka, Jari (2022)
    Objectives The relationship between the use of contraception and of psychiatric medications is understudied. We examined whether the current and past use of psychotropic medications is associated with the use and type of hormonal contraception (HC). Design Nationwide register-based matched case-control study. Settings All fertile-aged (15-49 years) girls and women living in Finland in 2017; data from several national registers. Participants 294 356 girls and women with a redeemed prescription of HC in 2017, and their same-sized control group of non-users (n=294 356) identified through the Prescription Centre. Main outcome measures Associations between the use of psychotropic medications and the use of HC, and the type of HC tested in logistic regression models. Results Altogether 19.5% of the HC users, and 18% of the HC non-users received at least one prescription for a psychotropic medication in 2017. Among HC users, the proportions of occasional and regular users of psychotropic medications in 2013-2016 were 4.5% and 14.8%, while among HC non-users the respective figures were 4.3% and 14.6%, respectively. In multivariable logistic regression models both the use of psychotropic medications in 2017, and their occasional or regular use between 2013-2016 were associated with higher odds of HC use, although with small to very small effect sizes (ORs between 1.37 and 1.06 and 95% CIs 1.22 to 1.53, and 1.03 to 1.09, respectively). After adjustment for covariates, when fixed combinations of progestogens and oestrogens for systemic use was the reference category, women using almost any class of psychotropic medications had higher odds of using other types of HC. Conclusions Fertile-aged girls and women with current and past use of psychotropic medications have higher odds of using HC, with a specific pattern in the type of contraceptives used. Further research is warranted to examine whether our observations indicate a reduction of unwanted pregnancies in women with psychiatric disorders.
  • Saure, Emma; Lepistö-Paisley, Tuulia; Raevuori, Anu; Laasonen, Marja (2022)
    Background:Elevated autism spectrum disorder (ASD) traits are associated with anorexia nervosa (AN). Conversely, eating disturbances, which are core characteristics of AN, are common in ASD. Among individuals with ASD, atypical sensory processing is associated with eating disturbance. Because AN and ASD appear to overlap, it would be crucial to understand whether sensory processing atypicality exist also in AN. Further, it would be essential to find if atypical sensory processing is associated with eating disturbances in individuals with AN, since treatment modifications may be needed. We therefore aimed to examine whether atypical sensory processing is associated with AN and its core characteristics. MethodsParticipants of the current study included 42 individuals with AN and 40 healthy controls (HCs). All participants were adult women. Sensory processing, other ASD traits, and eating disorder symptoms were assessed with self-report questionnaires. ResultsIndividuals with AN reported lower registration, decreased sensation seeking, increased sensory sensitivity, and increased sensation avoiding compared to HCs. When analyzing groups with restrictive AN (AN-R) and binge-purge type AN (AN-BP) separately, only individuals with AN-R exhibited decreased sensation seeking, and only those with AN-BP exhibited lower registration. After controlling for body mass index as a covariate, group differences remained significant only in sensory sensitivity between individuals with AN and HCs. Increased atypical sensory processing predicted lower body mass index and increased disordered eating. ConclusionResults suggest that sensory processing appears to differ between AN and HC women, and AN subtypes may exhibit distinct sensory processing atypicality. Sensory sensitivity may be stable traits whereas other aspects of atypical sensory processing may be related to acute AN. Atypical sensory processing may contribute to the severity of AN, and thus it is crucial to recognize sensory processing differences when treating individuals with AN.
  • Castaneda, Anu E.; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari; Aronen, Eeva T.; Marttunen, Mauri; Kolho, Kaija-Leena (2013)
  • Grano, Niklas; Karjalainen, Marjaana; Ranta, Klaus; Lindgren, Maija; Roine, Mikko; Therman, Sebastian (2016)
    The aim of the present study was to compare change in functioning, affective symptoms and level of psychosis-risk symptoms in symptomatic adolescents who were treated either in an early intervention programme based on a need-adapted Family- and Community-orientated integrative Treatment Model (FCTM) or in standard adolescent psychiatric treatment (Treatment As Usual, TAU). 28 pairs were matched by length of follow-up, gender, age, and baseline functioning. At one year after the start of treatment, the matched groups were.compared on change in functioning (GAF-M), five psychosis-risk dimensions of the Structured Interview for Psychosis-Risk Syndromes (SIPS), and self-reported anxiety, depression, and hopelessness symptoms (BAI, BDI-II, BHS). FCTM was more effective in improving functioning (20% vs. 6% improvement on GAF-M), as well as self-reported depression (53% vs. 14% improvement on BDI-II) and hopelessness (41% vs. 3% improvement on BHS). However, for psychosis-risk symptoms and anxiety symptoms, effectiveness differences between treatment models did not reach statistical significance. To conclude, in the present study, we found greater improvement in functioning and self-reported depression and hopelessness among adolescents who received a need-adapted Family and Community-orientated integrative Treatment than among those who were treated in standard adolescent psychiatry. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Chitham, J. Ider; Comparat, J.; Finoguenov, A.; Clerc, N.; Kirkpatrick, C. C.; Damsted, S.; Kukkola, A.; Capasso, R.; Nandra, K.; Merloni, A.; Bulbul, E.; Rykoff, E. S.; Schneider, D. P.; Brownstein, J. R. (2020)
    This paper presents a cosmological analysis based on the properties of X-ray selected clusters of galaxies from the CODEX survey which have been spectroscopically followed up within the SPIDERS programme as part of the sixteenth data release (DR16) of SDSS-IV. The cosmological sub-sample contains a total of 691 clusters over an area of 5350 deg(2) with newly measured optical properties provided by a reanalysis of the CODEX source catalogue using redMaPPer and the DESI Legacy Imaging Surveys (DR8). Optical richness is used as a proxy for the cluster mass, and the combination of X-ray, optical, and spectroscopic information ensures that only confirmed virialized systems are considered. Clusters are binned in observed redshift, (z) over tilde is an element of [0.1, 0.6) and optical richness, (lambda) over tilde is an element of[25, 148) and the number of clusters in each bin is modelled as a function of cosmological and richness-mass scaling relation parameters. A high-purity sub-sample of 691 clusters is used in the analysis and best-fitting cosmological parameters are found to be Omega m(0) = 0.34(-0.05)(+0.09) and sigma(8) = 0.73(-0.03)(+0.03). The redshift evolution of the self-calibrated richness-mass relation is poorly constrained due to the systematic uncertainties associated with the X-ray component of the selection function (which assumes a fixed X-ray luminosity-mass relation with h = 0.7 and Omega m(0) = 0.30). Repeating the analysis with the assumption of no redshift evolution is found to improve the consistency between both cosmological and scaling relation parameters with respect to recent galaxy cluster analyses in the literature.
  • Farahi, Arya; Mulroy, Sarah L.; Evrard, August E.; Smith, Graham P.; Finoguenov, Alexis; Bourdin, Herve; Carlstrom, John E.; Haines, Chris P.; Marrone, Daniel P.; Martino, Rossella; Mazzotta, Pasquale; O'Donnell, Christine; Okabe, Nobuhiro (2019)
    The largest clusters of galaxies in the Universe contain vast amounts of dark matter, plus baryonic matter in two principal phases, a majority hot gas component and a minority cold stellar phase comprising stars, compact objects, and low-temperature gas. Hydrodynamic simulations indicate that the highest-mass systems retain the cosmic fraction of baryons, a natural consequence of which is anti-correlation between the masses of hot gas and stars within dark matter halos of fixed total mass. We report observational detection of this anti-correlation based on 4 elements of a 9 x 9-element covariance matrix for nine cluster properties, measured from multi-wavelength observations of 41 clusters from the Local Cluster Substructure Survey. These clusters were selected using explicit and quantitative selection rules that were then encoded in our hierarchical Bayesian model. Our detection of anti-correlation is consistent with predictions from contemporary hydrodynamic cosmological simulations that were not tuned to reproduce this signal.
  • Laukkanen, Matti; Hakko, Helina; Riipinen, Pirkko; Riala, Kaisa (2016)
    We examined whether adolescents' family structure associate with depression in a clinical sample of 508 adolescents (age 13-17 years) treated in psychiatric hospital between April 2001 and March 2006. Psychiatric disorders of adolescents were based on the K-SADS-PL-interview. Adolescents with depression were characterized by a single parent family background (58 %), but less commonly by a child welfare placement (37 %). Depression in adolescents was significantly related to female gender and a single parent family background, but less significantly related to comorbid psychotic or conducts disorders. The association between family structure and depression presents a challenge to mental health services. Early screening for depression in adolescents admitted for psychiatric treatment from "at risk" family types is important to enhance their future wellbeing and coping strategies.
  • Hanson, Linda L. Magnusson; Virtanen, Marianna; Rod, Naja H.; Steptoe, Andrew; Head, Jenny; Batty, G. D.; Kivimäki, Mika; Westerlund, Hugo (2019)
    Objective: Inflammation may underlie the association between psychological stress and cardiometabolic diseases, but this proposition has not been tested longitudinally. We investigated whether the circulating inflammatory markers interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) mediate the relationship between psychosocial work characteristics and diabetes. Methods: We used three phases of data at 5 years intervals from the Whitehall II cohort study, originally recruiting 10,308 civil service employees aged 35-55 years. The data included repeat self-reports of job demands, control and social support, IL-6 from plasma samples, CRP from serum samples, and diabetes, ascertained through oral glucose tolerance test, medications, and self-reports of doctor-diagnosed diabetes. Results: Structural equation models with age, sex and occupational position considering men and women combined, showed that low social support at work, but not high job demands or low job control, was prospectively associated with diabetes (standardized beta = 0.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.01-0.09) and higher levels of IL-6 (beta = 0.03, CI 0.00-0.06). The inflammatory markers and diabetes were bidirectionally associated over time. A mediation model including workplace social support, IL-6 and diabetes further showed that 10% of the association between social support and diabetes over the three repeat examinations (total effect beta = 0.08, CI 0.01-0.15) was attributable to a weak indirect effect through IL-6 (beta = 0.01, CI 0.00-0.02). A similar indirect effect was observed for CRP in men only, while job control was prospectively associated with IL-6 among women. Conclusions: This study indicates an association between poor workplace support and diabetes that is partially ascribed to an inflammatory response.
  • Kaul, Maya; Aksela, Maija Katariina; Wu, Xiaomeng (2018)
    One of the greatest ways to transform education systems is to develop community-centered professional supports for in-service teachers. Given the rise of distance learning platforms such as massive open online courses (MOOCs), there is a growing potential to deliver such supports at scale. The community of inquiry (CoI) framework models the asynchronous, text-based communication that defines educational experiences within such collaborative learning environments; however, methods of CoI transcript analysis must be improved. This paper uses the University of Helsinki’s 2016 MOOC, Sustainable Energy in Education, as a case study on how the CoI framework can be used to characterize the educational experience of in-service teachers in distance learning environments. Using the CoI coding protocol, this paper employs a transcript analysis of the discussion forum posts on the MOOC (n = 78), and applies improved measures of reliability in order to understand the capacity of CoI transcript analysis to reliably define online learning experiences. The findings suggest that, while the CoI framework is able to characterize some elements of online learning communities, more work needs to be done to ensure the framework captures the more nuanced elements of such educational experiences, such as the effects of course design and the relative engagement of course participants.
  • Hofmann, F.; Sanders, J. S.; Clerc, N.; Nandra, K.; Ridl, J.; Dennerl, K.; Ramos-Ceja, M.; Finoguenov, A.; Reiprich, T. H. (2017)
    Context. The eROSITA mission will provide the largest sample of galaxy clusters detected in X-ray to date (one hundred thousand expected). This sample will be used to constrain cosmological models by measuring cluster masses. An important mass proxy is the electron temperature of the hot plasma detected in X-rays. Aims. We want to understand the detection properties and possible bias in temperatures due to unresolved substructures in the cluster halos. Methods. We simulated a large number of galaxy cluster spectra with known temperature substructures and compared the results from analysing eROSITA simulated observations to earlier results from Chandra. Results. We were able to constrain a bias in cluster temperatures and its impact on cluster masses, as well as cosmological parameters derived from the survey. We found temperatures in the eROSITA survey to be biased low by about five per cent due to unresolved temperature substructures (compared to emission-weighted average temperatures from the Chandra maps). This bias would have a significant impact on the eROSITA cosmology constraints if not accounted for in the calibration. Conclusions. We isolated the bias effect that substructures in galaxy clusters have on temperature measurements and their impact on derived cosmological parameters in the eROSITA cluster survey.
  • Martinelli, M.; Martins, C. J. A. P.; Nesseris, S.; Sapone, D.; Tutusaus, I.; Avgoustidis, A.; Camera, S.; Carbone, C.; Casas, S.; Ilic, S.; Sakr, Z.; Yankelevich, V.; Auricchio, N.; Balestra, A.; Bodendorf, C.; Bonino, D.; Branchini, E.; Brescia, M.; Brinchmann, J.; Capobianco, V.; Carretero, J.; Castellano, M.; Cavuoti, S.; Cledassou, R.; Congedo, G.; Conversi, L.; Corcione, L.; Dubath, F.; Ealet, A.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Fumana, M.; Garilli, B.; Gillis, B.; Giocoli, C.; Grupp, F.; Haugan, S. V. H.; Holmes, W.; Hormuth, F.; Jahnke, K.; Kermiche, S.; Kilbinger, M.; Kitching, T. D.; Kubik, B.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Ligori, S.; Lilje, P. B.; Lloro, I.; Marggraf, O.; Markovic, K.; Massey, R.; Mei, S.; Meneghetti, M.; Meylan, G.; Moscardini, L.; Niemi, S.; Padilla, C.; Paltani, S.; Pasian, F.; Pettorino, V.; Pires, S.; Polenta, G.; Poncet, M.; Popa, L.; Pozzetti, L.; Raison, F.; Rhodes, J.; Roncarelli, M.; Saglia, R.; Schneider, P.; Secroun, A.; Serrano, S.; Sirignano, C.; Sirri, G.; Sureau, F.; Taylor, A. N.; Tereno, I.; Toledo-Moreo, R.; Valenziano, L.; Vassallo, T.; Wang, Y.; Welikala, N.; Weller, J.; Zacchei, A. (2020)
    Context. In metric theories of gravity with photon number conservation, the luminosity and angular diameter distances are related via the Etherington relation, also known as the distance duality relation (DDR). A violation of this relation would rule out the standard cosmological paradigm and point to the presence of new physics.Aims. We quantify the ability of Euclid, in combination with contemporary surveys, to improve the current constraints on deviations from the DDR in the redshift range 0<z<1.6.Methods. We start with an analysis of the latest available data, improving previously reported constraints by a factor of 2.5. We then present a detailed analysis of simulated Euclid and external data products, using both standard parametric methods (relying on phenomenological descriptions of possible DDR violations) and a machine learning reconstruction using genetic algorithms.Results. We find that for parametric methods Euclid can (in combination with external probes) improve current constraints by approximately a factor of six, while for non-parametric methods Euclid can improve current constraints by a factor of three.Conclusions. Our results highlight the importance of surveys like Euclid in accurately testing the pillars of the current cosmological paradigm and constraining physics beyond the standard cosmological model.
  • Euclid Collaboration; Moneti, A.; McCracken, H. J.; Gozaliasl, G.; Keihänen, E.; Kirkpatrick , C. C.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lindholm, Valtteri; Väliviita, J. (2022)
    We present a new infrared survey covering the three Euclid deep fields and four other Euclid calibration fields using Spitzer Space Telescope's Infrared Array Camera (IRAC). We combined these new observations with all relevant IRAC archival data of these fields in order to produce the deepest possible mosaics of these regions. In total, these observations represent nearly 11% of the total Spitzer Space Telescope mission time. The resulting mosaics cover a total of approximately 71.5 deg(2) in the 3.6 and 4.5 mu m bands, and approximately 21.8 deg(2) in the 5.8 and 8 mu m bands. They reach at least 24 AB magnitude (measured to 5 sigma, in a 2 ''.5 aperture) in the 3.6 mu m band and up to similar to 5 mag deeper in the deepest regions. The astrometry is tied to the Gaia astrometric reference system, and the typical astrometric uncertainty for sources with 16 < [3.6] < 19 is less than or similar to 0 ''.15. The photometric calibration is in excellent agreement with previous WISE measurements. We extracted source number counts from the 3.6 mu m band mosaics, and they are in excellent agreement with previous measurements. Given that the Spitzer Space Telescope has now been decommissioned, these mosaics are likely to be the definitive reduction of these IRAC data. This survey therefore represents an essential first step in assembling multi-wavelength data on the Euclid deep fields, which are set to become some of the premier fields for extragalactic astronomy in the 2020s.
  • Narusyte, Jurgita; Ropponen, Annina; Silventoinen, Karri; Alexanderson, Kristina; Kaprio, Jaakko; Samuelsson, Asa; Svedberg, Pia (2011)
  • Bianconi, M.; Smith, G. P.; Haines, C. P.; McGee, S. L.; Finoguenov, A.; Egami, E. (2020)
    We explore the connection between dust and star formation, in the context of environmental effects on galaxy evolution. In particular, we exploit the susceptibility of dust to external processes to assess the influence of dense environment on star-forming galaxies. We have selected cluster Abell 1758 from the Local Cluster Substructure Survey (LoCuSS). Its complex dynamical state is an ideal test-bench to track dust removal and destruction in galaxies due to merger and accretion shocks. We present a systematic panchromatic study (from 0.15 mu m with GALEX to 500 mu m with Herschel) of spectroscopically confirmed star-forming cluster galaxies at intermediate redshift. We observe that the main subclusters (A1758N and A1758S) belong to two separate large-scale structures, with no overlapping galaxy members. Star forming cluster members are found preferentially outside cluster central regions, and are not isotropically distributed. Rather, these galaxies appear being funneled towards the main subclusters along separate accretion paths. Additionally, we present the first study of dust-to-stellar (DTS) mass ratio used as an indicator for local environmental influence on galaxy evolution. Star-forming cluster members show lower mean values (32 per cent at 2.4 sigma) of DTS mass ratio and lower levels of infrared emission from birth clouds with respect to coeval star-forming field galaxies. This picture is consistent with the majority of star-forming cluster members infalling in isolation. Upon accretion, star formation is observed to decrease and warm dust is destroyed due to heating from the intracluster medium radiation, ram-pressure stripping, and merger shocks.
  • Yokoyama, Yoshie; Hakulinen, Tuovi; Sugimoto, Masako; Silventoinen, Karri; Kalland, Mirjam (2018)
    Background: Maternal well-being is an important issue not only for mothers but also for their offspring and whole families. This study aims to clarify differences in subjective well-being for mothers with infants and associated factors by comparing Japanese and Finnish mothers. Methods: In Finland, 101 mothers with infants who received health check-ups at child's age 4 months participated in the study. In Japan, 505 mothers with infants who should receive health check-ups at child's age 4 months and, whose age, age of the infant and number of children matched with the Finnish mothers were selected. The factors associated with maternal subjective well-being were explored by the linear regression analysis. All Finnish mothers had individual infant health check-ups by nurses in Child Health Clinics nearly monthly. The same nurse was responsible for following up the family throughout the years. All Japanese participants received group health check-up once at child's age 3 to 4 months, and a nurse did not cover same child and their mother. Results: Finnish mothers showed significantly better subjective well-being compared with Japanese mothers. Whereas 85% of Finnish mothers responded that they had obtained childcare information from public health nurses, significantly fewer Japanese mothers indicated the same response (8%). Linear regression analyses disclosed that mothers' subjective well-being was associated with country, mothers' stress and age. Conclusion: Finnish mothers had better subjective well-being than Japanese mothers. Our results may indicate that the Finnish health care system supports mothers better than the Japanese health care system does.
  • Immonen, Satu; Launes, Jyrki; Järvinen, Ilkka; Virta, Maarit; Vanninen, Ritva; Schiavone, Nella; Lehto, Eliisa; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari; Lipsanen, Jari; Michelsson, Katarina; Hokkanen, Laura (2020)
    The aim was to examine cross-sectional association between moderate alcohol consumption and total brain volume in a cohort of participants in early middle-age, unconfounded by age-related neuronal change. 353 participants aged 39 to 45 years reported on their alcohol consumption using the AUDIT-C measure. Participants with alcohol abuse were excluded. Brain MRI was analyzed using a fully automated method. Brain volumes were adjusted by intracranial volume expressed as adjusted total brain volume (aTBV). AUDIT-C mean of 3.92 (SD 2.04) indicated moderate consumption. In a linear regression model, alcohol consumption was associated with smaller aTBV (B=- 0.258, p
  • Mattsson, Markus T. (2019)
    The way people behave in traffic is not always optimal from the road safety perspective: drivers exceed speed limits, misjudge speeds or distances, tailgate other road users or fail to perceive them. Such behaviors are commonly investigated using self-report-based latent variable models, and conceptualized as reflections of violation- and error-proneness. However, attributing dangerous behavior to stable properties of individuals may not be the optimal way of improving traffic safety, whereas investigating direct relationships between traffic behaviors offers a fruitful way forward. Network models of driver behavior and background factors influencing behavior were constructed using a large UK sample of novice drivers. The models show how individual violations, such as speeding, are related to and may contribute to individual errors such as tailgating and braking to avoid an accident. In addition, a network model of the background factors and driver behaviors was constructed. Finally, a model predicting crashes based on prior behavior was built and tested in separate datasets. This contribution helps to bridge a gap between experimental/theoretical studies and self-report-based studies in traffic research: the former have recognized the importance of focusing on relationships between individual driver behaviors, while network analysis offers a way to do so for self-report studies.