Browsing by Subject "SCALE"

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  • Nemaline Working Grp; Neuhaus, Sarah B.; Wallgren-Pettersson, Carina; Bönnemann, Carsten G.; Schara, Ulrike; Servais, Laurent (2020)
  • Holmlund, Maria (Emerald Group Publishing Ltd, 2008)
  • Häyrinen, Liina; Pynnönen, Sari (2020)
    Purpose of Review The review examines recent scientific discussion on the concepts and measurements of human connection to nature (CTN) and pro-environmental behaviour (PEB). In addition to that, we explore the environmental contexts in which study populations are exposed to nature or nature experiences, particularly the contexts in which forests emerge from these studies, and lastly outline gaps in research. Recent Findings Outlining the association between CTN and PEB has been widely researched over the past 5 years. The concepts and measurements referring to these terms vary, but a few commonly used concepts were identified. The review classifies the approaches used for exploring the relationship between CTN and PEB into four categories. The review indicates that the interconnection between CTN and PEB is mostly studied as a part of the wider concept. Approximately half of the reviewed articles explored the actual exposure to some natural environment or nature activity either directly or indirectly. Forests only played a small role as a natural environment in the reviewed articles. Forests appear to be of very little weight or under-represented in CTN and PEB literature as an explicitly identified natural environment. Results also indicate that the human-forest relationship has not been defined precisely in empirically based scientific literature. The paper discusses implications for the future research focusing on emphasizing the role of forests as natural environments in the research of CTN and PEB.
  • Mäntysaari, Heikki; Schenke, Björn (2020)
    We show how exclusive vector meson production off light ions can be used to probe the spatial distribution of small-x gluons in the deuteron and He-3 wave functions. In particular, we demonstrate how short-range repulsive nucleon-nucleon interactions affect the predicted coherent J/Psi production spectra. Fluctuations of the nucleon substructure are shown to have a significant effect on the incoherent cross section above vertical bar t vertical bar greater than or similar to 0.2 GeV2. By explicitly performing the Jalilian-Marian-Iancu-McLerran-Weigert-Leonidov-Kovner (JIMWLK) evolution, we predict the x dependence of coherent and incoherent cross sections in the electron-ion collider energy range. In addition to the increase of the average size of the nucleus with decreasing x, both the growth of the nucleons and subnucleonic hot spots are visible in the cross sections. The decreasing length scale of color charge fluctuations with decreasing x is also present, but may not be observable for vertical bar t vertical bar <1 GeV2, if subnucleonic spatial fluctuations are present.
  • Angove, Charlotte; Norkko, Alf; Gustafsson, Camilla (2018)
    Aquatic plant meadows are valuable components to the 'coastal filter' and it is important to understand the processes that drive their ability to cycle nutrients. However, at present, the field-based evidence for understanding the drivers of nutrient uptake by plants is lacking. This study aimed to investigate how well individual shoots of aquatic plants could meet their nitrogen demands using the sediment nutrient pool (porewater ammonium) and to explore which traits helped to facilitate such uptake. Several species were investigated in shallow, submerged (2-4 m) mixed-species communities in the northern Baltic Sea using incubation experiments with enriched ammonium. After a 3.5 h incubation time, individuals were collected and analysed for nitrogen (% DW) and N-15 (at-%) concentrations. Uptake by plants was calculated per unit nitrogen in response to the N-15 labelled source and to overall nitrogen availability. Background porewater ammonium availability was highly variable between individual plants. Species identity did not significantly affect uptake metrics and the effect of ambient porewater availability was weak. As biomass increased there were significant logarithmic declines in the 95th quantiles of nutrient uptake rates, ambient porewater nutrient availability and aboveground nitrogen tissue concentrations (% DW). Such findings suggested that uptake rates of plants were significantly demand driven and the nutrient conditions of the porewater were significantly driven by the demands of the plant. Findings parameterised the unfulfilled potential for some aquatic plants to cycle nutrients more efficiently and highlighted the potential importance of access to new nutrient sources as a way of enhancing nutrient cycling by aquatic plants. Plant traits and community properties such as the activity of infauna could facilitate such an access and are likely important for nutrient uptake.
  • Honkalampi, Kirsi; Jokela, Markus; Lehto, Soili M.; Kivimäki, Mika; Virtanen, Marianna (2022)
    Alexithymia has been associated with substance use, but the magnitude of the association has not been evaluated and sub-group differences, if any, are unknown. The aim of this meta-analysis is to systematically review the association between alexithymia and substance use (alcohol or illicit drugs). We identified studies through a systematic review of PubMed and Web of Science and obtained a total of 52 publications using the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 scale. Random effects meta-analysis was used to evaluate the overall and sub-group associations. Of the studies, 50 were cross-sectional and two longitudinal. Alexithymia was associated with any substance use (Cohen's d = 0.62, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.49-0.76), with little difference between estimates for use of alcohol or illicit drugs. A stronger association was observed for the alexithymia dimension "Difficulty in Identifying Feelings" (d = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.47-0.81) and "Difficulty in Describing Feelings" (d = 0.44, 95% CI = 0.32-0.55) than for "Externally Oriented Thinking" (d = 0.19, 95% CI = 0.09-0.28). The association was stronger in studies with clinical patient populations (d = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.62-1.05) than in those investigating general or student populations, and in studies with a majority of male rather than female participants. These findings suggest a strong overall association between alexithymia and substance use and a very strong association among clinical patient populations. The association may be stronger with the emotion-related dimensions than with the cognition-related dimension of alexithymia. As nearly all the studies were cross-sectional, more longitudinal studies are needed.
  • van Soest, Annick P. M.; Hermes, Gerben D. A.; Berendsen, Agnes A. M.; van de Rest, Ondine; Zoetendal, Erwin G.; Fuentes, Susana; Santoro, Aurelia; Franceschi, Claudio; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.; de Vos, Willem M. (2020)
    Dietary modulation of the gastro-intestinal microbiota is a potential target in improving healthy ageing and age-related functional outcomes, including cognitive decline. We explored the association between diet, gastro-intestinal microbiota and cognition in Dutch healthy older adults of the 'New dietary strategies addressing the specific needs of the elderly population for healthy aging in Europe' (NU-AGE) study. The microbiota profile of 452 fecal samples from 226 subjects was determined using a 16S ribosomal RNA gene-targeted microarray. Dietary intake was assessed by 7-day food records. Cognitive functioning was measured with an extensive cognitive test battery. We observed a dietary and microbial pro- to anti-inflammatory gradient associated with diets richer in animal- or plant-based foods. Fresh fruits, nuts, seeds and peanuts, red and processed meat and grain products were most strongly associated to microbiota composition. Plant-rich diets containing fresh fruits, nuts, seeds and peanuts were positively correlated with alpha-diversity, various taxa from the Bacteroidetes phylum and anti-inflammatory species, including those related to Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Eubacterium rectale and E. biforme. Animal product-rich diets associated with pro-inflammatory species, including those related to Ruminococcus gnavus and Collinsella spp.. Cognition was neither associated with microbiota composition nor alpha-diversity. In conclusion, diets richer in animal- and plant-based foods were related to a pro- and anti-inflammatory microbial profile, while cognition was associated with neither.
  • Heinonen, Erkki; Knekt, Paul; Härkänen, Tommi; Virtala, Esa; Lindfors, Olavi (2018)
    Childhood adversities frequently precede adulthood depression and anxiety. Yet, how they impact needed treatment duration, type or focus in these common disorders, is unclear. For developing more individualized and precise interventions, we investigated whether specific early adversities associate with patients' distinct psychiatric problems, psychological vulnerabilities, and suitability for psychotherapy. A total of 221 depressed and anxious adult outpatients (excluding psychotic, severe personality, bipolar, and substance abuse disorders) referred from community, student, occupational, and private healthcare services filled the Childhood Family Atmosphere Questionnaire (CFAQ). They also filled self-reports on interpersonal behavior and problems, perceived competence, dispositional optimism, sense of coherence, defenses, and psychiatric history. Clinicians assessed the patients' symptomatology, personality, object relations, cognitive performance, and psychotherapy suitability. Regression analyses were conducted. Childhood adversities predicted both worse current psychological functioning (e.g., interpersonal problems), and better clinician-rated capacities for benefiting from psychotherapy (e.g. self-reflection, capacity for interaction). Parental problems had the most numerous negative associations to psychological functioning. Best capacities for psychotherapy were predicted by recollected family unhappiness. Associations with psychiatric criteria were, however, largely non-significant. In conclusion, for psychosocial treatment planning, patients' early adversities may indicate both vulnerability and resources. As childhood adversities are frequent among treatment-seekers, further studies examining how early adversities predict psychotherapy outcome are needed.
  • Matsubara, L. M.; Luna, S. P. L.; Teixeira, L. R.; Castilho, M. S.; Bjorkman, A. H.; Oliveira, H. S.; Anunciacao, L. F. C. (2019)
    We aimed to determine validity, reliability, and sensitivity of Helsinki's chronic pain index (HCPI) and stablish a correlation between HCPI in dogs with hip dysplasia (HD) using pressure sensitive walkway. Forty-owners of dogs with HD and 16 owners of health dogs filled a questionnaire. Dogs with HD were treated with carprofen 4.4mg/ kg (GT n=21) or with placebo (GP n=19), both were administered once a day for 4 weeks. Evaluation was performed by the owners using the questionnaire (HCPI), the Visual Analogue Scale for pain (VASpain) and the VAS for locomotion (VASloc). The evaluation was performed 2 weeks before the treatment began (A1), immediately after treatment (A2), two (S2), four (S4) and two weeks after the end of treatment (S6) and the lameness was evaluated by pressure sensitive walkway. The internal consistency of the data was considered excellent (Cronbach alpha coefficient=0.89). There was a moderate correlation between the HCPI and VASpain. For VASloc the correlation was good. However, there was no difference between treatments, indicating low sensibility. No correlation was observed between pressure sensitive walkway and HCPI. We concluded that the questionnaire has construct and criterion validity, reliability and can be applied in dogs with osteoarthritis in Portuguese-speaking countries.
  • Petsch, Danielle K.; Saito, Victor S.; Landeiro, Victor L.; Silva, Thiago S. F.; Bini, Luis M.; Heino, Jani; Soininen, Janne; Tolonen, Kimmo T.; Jyrkankallio-Mikkola, Jenny; Pajunen, Virpi; Siqueira, Tadeu; Melo, Adriano S. (2021)
    Previous studies have found mixed results regarding the relationship between beta diversity and latitude. In addition, by influencing local environmental heterogeneity, land use may modify spatial taxonomic and functional variability among communities causing biotic differentiation or homogenization. We tested 1) whether taxonomic and functional beta diversities among streams within watersheds differ between subtropical and boreal regions and 2) whether land use is related to taxonomic and functional beta diversities in both regions. We sampled aquatic insects in 100 subtropical (Brazil) and 100 boreal (Finland) streams across a wide gradient of land use, including agriculture and exotic planted, secondary, and native forests. We calculated beta diversity at the watershed scale (among 5 streams in each watershed). We found higher taxonomic beta diversity among subtropical than among boreal streams, whereas functional beta diversity was similar between the 2 regions. Total land use was positively correlated with taxonomic and functional beta diversity among subtropical streams, while local environmental heterogeneity was positively correlated with beta diversity among boreal streams. We suggest that different types and intensities of land use may increase among-stream heterogeneity, promoting distinct insect assemblage compositions among streams. Our findings also suggest that beta diversity patterns and their underlying determinants are highly context dependent.
  • Passy, Sophia I.; Larson, Chad A.; Jamoneau, Aurelien; Budnick, William; Heino, Jani; Leboucher, Thibault; Tison-Rosebery, Juliette; Soininen, Janne (2018)
    In this intercontinental study of stream diatoms, we asked three important but still unresolved ecological questions: (1) What factors drive the biogeography of species richness and species abundance distribution (SAD)? (2) Are climate-related hypotheses, which have dominated the research on the latitudinal and altitudinal diversity gradients, adequate in explaining spatial biotic variability? and (3) Is the SAD response to the environment independent of richness? We tested a number of climatic theories and hypotheses (i.e., the species-energy theory, the metabolic theory, the energy variability hypothesis, and the climatic tolerance hypothesis) but found no support for any of these concepts, as the relationships of richness with explanatory variables were nonexistent, weak, or unexpected. Instead, we demonstrated that diatom richness and SAD evenness generally increased with temperature seasonality and at mid- to high total phosphorus concentrations. The spatial patterns of diatom richness and the SADmainly longitudinal in the United States but latitudinal in Finlandwere defined primarily by the covariance of climate and water chemistry with space. The SAD was not entirely controlled by richness, emphasizing its utility for ecological research. Thus, we found support for the operation of both climate and water chemistry mechanisms in structuring diatom communities, which underscores their complex response to the environment and the necessity for novel predictive frameworks.
  • Söderholm, John J.; Socada, J. Lumikukka; Rosenström, Tom; Ekelund, Jesper; Isometsä, Erkki (2022)
    Background: Major depressive episodes (MDEs) of major depressive (MDD) or bipolar disorders (BD) are frequently complicated by features of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Mixed features are a hallmark of BD and affective lability of BPD, and both may markedly influence illness course. However, direct comparisons of outcome of depression in MDD, BD, and BPD are scarce.Methods: In a cohort study based on stratified sampling, we diagnosed psychiatric MDE patients with SCID-I/P and SCID-II interviews and examined mixed symptoms using the Mix-MDE scale and borderline symptoms using the Borderline Personality Disorder Severity Index. During a six-month prospective follow-up, the MDE patients with MDD (n = 39), BD (n = 33), or BPD (n = 23) completed biweekly online assessments. Using life chart methodology, we divided the follow-up period into qualitatively different mood state periods. We investigated durations of mood episodes, times to first full symptomatic remission, and their predictors.Results: Remission rates were similar in MDD, MDE/BD, and MDE/BPD patients. MDE/BD patients experienced more numerous and shorter distinct mood state periods during follow-up than the others. MDE/BD was associated with shorter (HR = 2.44, 95 % CI = 1.27-4.67) and dimensionally assessed BPD severity with longer time to first remission (HR = 0.95, 95 % CI = 0.91-1.00). Limitations: Moderate sample size and follow-up duration.Conclusions: Course of illness over six months differs between the three depressive groups. Bipolar depressive patients have the most alternating course and the shortest time to first period of remission. Dimensionally assessed severity of BPD may predict longer time to remission from depression.
  • Voutilainen, Mikko; Miettinen, Arttu; Sardini, Paul; Parkkonen, Joni; Sammaljärvi, Juuso; Gylling, Björn; Selroos, Jan-Olof; Yli-Kaila, Maarit; Koskinen, Lasse; Siitari-Kauppi, Marja (2019)
    The spatial porosity and mineral distribution of geological materials strongly affects transport processes in them. X-ray micro computed tomography (X-mu CT) has proven to be a powerful tool for characterizing the spatial mineral distribution of geological samples in 3-D. However, limitations in resolution prevent an accurate characterization of pore space especially for tight crystalline rock samples and 2-D methods such as C-14-polymethylmethacrylate (C-14-PMMA) autoradiography and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are needed. The spatial porosity and mineral distributions of tight crystalline rock samples from Aspo, Sweden, and Olkiluoto, Finland, were studied here. The X-mu CT were used to characterize the spatial distribution of the main minerals in 3-D. Total porosities, fracture porosities, fracture densities and porosity distributions of the samples were determined using the C-14-PMMA autoradiography and characterization of mineral-specific porosities were assisted using chemical staining of rock surfaces. SEM and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) were used to determine pore apertures and identify the minerals. It was shown that combination of the different imaging techniques creates a powerful tool for the structural characterization of crystalline rock samples. The combination of the results from different methods allowed the construction of spatial porosity, mineral and mineral grain distributions of the samples in 3-D. These spatial distributions enable reactive transport modeling using a more realistic representation of the heterogeneous structure of samples. Furthermore, the realism of the spatial distributions were increased by determinig the densities and porosities of fractures and by the virtual construction heterogeneous mineral distributions of minerals that cannot be separated by X-mu CT.
  • Kaps, Manfred; Grittner, Ulrike; Jungehuelsing, Gerhard; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Kessler, Christoph; Schmidt, Reinhold; Putaala, Jukka; Norrving, Bo; Rolfs, Arndt; Tanislav, Christian; Sifap1 Investigators (2014)
  • Liesto, Sanna; Sipilä, Reetta; Hietanen, Marja; Kalso, Eija (2022)
    Many patients return to cognitively demanding work after breast cancer treatments. This makes treatment-related cognitive decline an important research topic. Psychological resilience, cognitive reserve and better perceived general health may work as protective factors against cognitive decline. The aim of this study was to analyse whether these factors are associated with cognitive function among such women. Data from 384 breast cancer survivors who underwent neuropsychological examination at follow-up 4-9 years after surgery were used. The neurocognitive domain variable Learning and Memory was computed from Wechsler Memory Scale-III subtests Learning and Delayed Recall. Another variable, Attention, Processing speed and Executive function, was computed from semantic and verbal fluency tests, Trail Making Test A and B, and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Test-IV subtest Coding. Psychological resilience was measured with Resilience Scale-14, and perceived general health with RAND-36 subitem General Health. Results: showed that levels of cognitive performance and general health were statistically higher than population average. Resilience and general health in separate models were associated with Attention, Processing speed and Executive function (beta = 0.14, p = 0.01; beta = 0.13, p = 0.03, respectively). When added simultaneously in the same model, resilience was significant (beta = 0.13, p = 0.04), but general health was not. These associations were nonsignificant after controlling for confounding factors. Learning and Memory was not associated with resilience or general health. Future research should focus on longitudinal studies identifying patients at a high risk of developing cognitive decline after breast cancer treatments and on preventive and therapeutic approaches.
  • Burgazzi, Gemma; Laini, Alex; Ovaskainen, Otso; Sacco, Mattia; Stubbington, Rachel; Viaroli, Pierluigi (2020)
    According to metacommunity theories, the structure of natural communities is the result of both environmental filtering and spatial processes, with their relative importance depending on factors including local habitat characteristics, functional features of organisms, and the spatial scale considered. However, few studies have explored environmental and spatial processes in riverine systems at local scales, explicitly incorporating spatial coordinates into multi-taxa distribution models. To address this gap, we conducted a small-scale study to discriminate between abiotic and biotic factors affecting the distribution of aquatic macroinvertebrates, applying metacommunity concepts. We studied a mountain section in each of three perennial streams within the Po River Basin (northern Italy). We sampled macroinvertebrates both in summer and winter, using specific in situ 50-point random sampling grids. Environmental factors, including benthic organic matter (BOM), flow velocity, water depth, and substrate were recorded together with spatial coordinates for each sampling point. The relationships between community metrics (taxon richness, abundance, biomass, biomass-abundance ratio, and functional feeding groups) and explanatory variables (environmental and spatial) were assessed using generalised additive models. The influence of the explanatory variables on community structure was analysed with joint species distribution models. Environmental variables-primarily BOM-were the main drivers affecting community metrics, whereas the effects of spatial variables varied among metrics, streams, and seasons. During summer, community structure was strongly affected by BOM and spatial position within the riverbed, the latter probably being a proxy for mass effects mediated by biotic and stochastic processes. In contrast, community structure was mainly shaped by hydraulic variables in winter. Using macroinvertebrate communities as a model group, our results demonstrate that metacommunity concepts can explain small-scale variability in community structure. We found that both environmental filtering and biotic processes shape local communities, with the strength of these drivers depending on the season. These insights provide baseline knowledge that informs our understanding of ecological responses to environmental variability in contexts including restoration ecology, habitat suitability modelling, and biomonitoring.
  • Voutilainen, Mikko; Kekäläinen, Pekka; Poteri, Antti; Siitari-Kauppi, Marja; Helariutta, Kerttuli; Andersson, Peter; Nilsson, Kersti; Byegård, Johan; Skålberg, Mats; Yli-Kaila, Maarit; Koskinen, Lasse (2019)
    In some countries the spent nuclear fuel produced by nuclear power plants will be deposited in crystalline granitic rock formations. In Finland, a repository for the spent nuclear fuel is being built at Olkiluoto. The safety assessment of the repository requires a careful determination of the transport properties of the bedrock. The porosity of the bedrock and the effective diffusion coefficients and distribution coefficients of different radio-nuclides for the bedrock are used as the main parameters in the safety assessment calculations. It has been questioned whether the parameters determined using laboratory experiments can be used to estimate the parameters in the in situ conditions. In this study, laboratory and in situ water phase diffusion experiments (WPDEs) were performed to resolve the issue. In the experiments, the transport of tritiated water (HTO), Cl-36, and Na-22 was studied using similar experimental setups. Mathematical models were constructed and solved to determine the transport parameters from the measured breakthrough curves. On average, the in situ WPDEs resulted in 20 (+/- 6)% smaller porosities and 32 (+/- 10)% smaller effective diffusion coefficients for HTO and Cl-36 than the laboratory WPDEs. It was also found that in veined gneiss, the most dominant rock type of the Olkiluoto bedrock, anion exclusion reduced the retention parameters of Cl-36 compared with those of HTO. Furthermore, the distribution coefficient of Na-22 for veined gneiss was about one order of magnitude smaller in the in situ conditions than in previous laboratory batch sorption experiments. The effects of the results on the safety assessment were evaluated and discussed.
  • Jeon, Yunsuk; Lakanmaa, Riitta-Liisa; Meretoja, Riitta; Leino-Kilpi, Helena (2017)
    Purpose: To identify competence assessment instruments in perianesthesia nursing care and to describe the validity and reliability of the instruments. Design: A scoping review in a systematic manner. Methods: A search in CINAHL, MEDLINE, and ERIC was carried out to identify empirical studies from 1994 to 2015. A narrative synthesis approach was undertaken to analyze the data. Findings: Nine competence assessment instruments in perianesthesia nursing care were identified. The instruments used three types of data collection methods: Self-report, observation, and written examinations. The most commonly reported validity method was content validity involving expert panels and reliability tests for internal consistency and inter-rater's consistency. Conclusions: Integrating more than one data collection method may give support to overcoming some of the limitations, such as lack of objectivity and misinterpretation of the assessment results. In an ever-changing environment, perianesthesia nursing competence requires constant reassessment from the perspective of content validity, scoring methods, and reliability.
  • Liao, Ziyan; Chen, Youhua; Pan, Kaiwen; Dakhil, Mohammed A.; Lin, Kexin; Tian, Xianglin; Zhang, Fengying; Wu, Xiaogang; Pandey, Bikram; Wang, Bin; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; Zhang, Lin; Nobis, Michael P. (2022)
    Background: We aimed to characterise the geographical distribution of Sorensen-based multi-site dissimilarity (beta(sor)) and its underlying true turnover (beta(sim)) and nestedness (beta(sne)) components for Chinese Lauraceae and to analyse their relationships to current climate and past climate change. Methods: We used ensembles of small models (ESMs) to map the current distributions of 353 Lauraceae species in China and calculated beta(sor) and its beta(sim) and beta(sne) components. We tested the relationship between beta(sor), beta s(ne) and beta(sim) with current climate and past climate change related predictors using a series of simultaneous autoregressive (SAR(err)) models. Results: Spatial distribution of beta(sor) of Lauraceae is positively correlated with latitude, showing an inverse relationship to the latitudinal alpha-diversity (species richness) gradient. High beta(sor) occurs at the boundaries of the warm temperate and subtropical zones and at the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau due to high beta(sne). The optimized SAR(err) model explains beta(sor) and beta(sne) well, but not beta(sim). Current mean annual temperature determines beta(sor) and beta(sne) of Lauraceae more than anomalies and velocities of temperature or precipitation since the Last Glacial Maximum. Conclusions: Current low temperatures and high climatic heterogeneity are the main factors explaining the high multi-site beta-diversity of Lauraceae. In contrast to analyses of the beta-diversity of entire species assemblages, studies of single plant families can provide complementary insights into the drivers of beta-diversity of evolutionarily more narrowly defined entities.
  • Mäntylä, Teemu; Kieseppä, Tuula; Suvisaari, Jaana; Raij, Tuukka T. (2021)
    Poor insight is a central characteristic of psychotic disorders, and it has been suggested to result from a general dysfunction in self-reflection. However, brain processing of clinical insight and more general self-reflection has not been directly compared. We compared tasks on (1) self-reflection on psychosis-related mental functioning (clinical insight, in patients only), (2) self-reflection on mental functioning unrelated to psychosis (general metacognition), and (3) semantic control during blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging with 19 first-episode psychosis patients and 24 control participants. Arterial-spin-labeling (ASL) images were collected at rest. Clinical insight was evaluated with the Schedule for the Assessment of Insight. In patients, posterosuperior precuneus showed stronger activation during the insight task than during the semantic control task, while anteroinferior precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) showed stronger activation during the insight task than during the general metacognition task. No significant group differences in brain activation emerged during the general metacognition task. Although the BOLD measures did not correlate with clinical insight measures, ASL-measured cerebral blood flow (CBF) values did correlate when extracted from the task-selective precuneus/PCC areas: higher CBF correlated with higher clinical insight scores. These results suggest that regions in the posteromedial cortex are selective for clinical insight.