Browsing by Subject "SCALES"

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  • Yurtseva, Anastasia; Noreikiene, Kristina; Lajus, Dmitry; Li, Zitong; Alapassi, Tarja; Ivanova, Tatiana; Ivanov, Mikhail; Golovin, Pavel; Vesala, Sami; Merilä, Juha (2019)
    In order to assess the accuracy and reliability of age estimates from calcified structures in the three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus, we evaluated intra and inter-reader repeatability from three structures: otoliths, gill covers and pelvic spines). Average age estimates were also compared between the structures. The overall intra-reader repeatability of age estimates were highest for otoliths (69%), lowest for gill covers (53%) and intermediate for spine cross-sections (63%). Although four of the seven readers had the highest intra-reader repeatability score for spine cross-sections, the inter-reader variance in this structure was much higher than in others. Otoliths were the easiest in terms of their pre-analysis treatment and exchange of materials (as digital images) between readers. In addition, otoliths are more well-studied compared with the other structures with respect to their development through ontogenesis; hence, age estimates based on otoliths should be the most reliable. Therefore, our recommendation is that whenever possible, analysis of otoliths should be the preferred approach for aging G. aculeatus.
  • Langenheder, Silke; Wang, Jianjun; Karjalainen, Satu Maaria; Laamanen, Tiina M.; Tolonen, Kimmo T.; Vilmi, Annika; Heino, Jani (2017)
    The spatial structure and underlying assembly mechanisms of bacterial communities have been studied widely across aquatic systems, focusing primarily on isolated sites, such as different lakes, ponds and streams. Here, our main aim was to determine the underlying mechanisms for bacterial biofilm assembly within a large, highly connected lake system in Northern Finland using associative methods based on taxonomic and phylogenetic alpha-and beta-diversity and a large number of abiotic and biotic variables. Furthermore, null model approaches were used to quantify the relative importance of different community assembly processes. We found that spatial variation in bacterial communities within the lake was structured by different assembly processes, including stochasticity, species sorting and potentially even dispersal limitation. Species sorting by abiotic environmental conditions explained more of the taxonomic and particularly phylogenetic turnover in community composition compared with that by biotic variables. Finally, we observed clear differences in alpha diversity (species richness and phylogenetic diversity), which were to a stronger extent determined by abiotic compared with biotic factors, but also by dispersal effects. In summary, our study shows that the biodiversity of bacterial biofilm communities within a lake ecosystem is driven by within-habitat gradients in abiotic conditions and by stochastic and deterministic dispersal processes.
  • Hulkkonen, S.; Repo, J. P.; Häkkinen, A.; Karppinen, J.; Ryhänen, J. (2020)
    Background and Aims: Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire is a widely used patient-reported outcome measure in hand surgery. The aim of this study was to translate and validate the Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire into Finnish for Finnish patients with hand problems following international standards and guidelines. Material and Methods: The original English Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire was translated into Finnish. Altogether, 115 patients completed the Finnish Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire, and reference outcomes: Disabilities of the Arm and Shoulder, EQ-5D 3L and pain intensity on a visual analog scale. Grip and key pinch forces were measured. After 1-2 weeks, 63 patients completed the Finnish Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire the second time. The Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire was analyzed for internal consistency, repeatability, correlations with the reference outcomes, and factor analysis. Results: Cronbach's alpha ranged from 0.90 to 0.97 in all the Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire subscales, showing high internal consistency. The intraclass correlation coefficient showed good to excellent test-retest reliability ranging from 0.66 to 0.91 in all the Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire subscales. In factor analysis, the structure with six subscales was not confirmed. All the subscales correlated with Disabilities of the Arm and Shoulder score, and five subscales correlated with EQ-5D index. Conclusion: The Finnish version of the Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire showed similar properties compared to the original English version and thus can be used as patient-reported outcome measure for Finnish patients with hand problems.
  • Tomppo, Liisa; Ekelund, Jesper; Lichtermann, Dirk; Veijola, Juha; Jaervelin, Marjo-Riitta; Hennah, William (2012)
  • Kosola, Silja; McCarthy, Maria C.; McNeil, Robyn; Orme, Lisa M.; Drew, Sarah; Sawyer, Susan M. (2018)
    Purpose: This study describes the early educational and vocational outcomes of Australian adolescents and young adults (AYAs) after cancer diagnosis and examines factors associated with these outcomes. Methods: Within this cross-sectional national Australian study, 196 AYAs aged 15-25 years at cancer diagnosis and within 6-24 months of diagnosis were recruited from 18 sites. Participants completed a survey that included questions about school and work outcomes, support received regarding necessary changes to education and vocation, and validated measures of anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress. Results: Almost half of the sample (43%) was not fully "back on track" with their previous educational and vocational plans. Post-traumatic stress and emotional symptoms were associated with poorer school/work functioning (beta = -0.95, p = 0.009 and beta = -1.27, p = 0.001, respectively). Higher PedsQL school/work functioning was associated with a slightly greater likelihood of being "back on track" with education and work plans (OR 1.03, p = 0.001). AYAs who felt well supported regarding changes to education and work plans more frequently reported receiving support from formal sources and from more sources than those who felt less supported. Unmet need of accessing an educational or vocational advisor was significantly more frequent in adult than in pediatric settings (42% vs. 17%; p = 0.024). Parents were the most common source of educational or vocational support for AYAs rather than professionals. Conclusion: This study highlights the connection between school and work participation and mental health in a national sample of AYAs with cancer. It suggests distinct benefits of educational and vocational support.
  • Vaissiere, James; Thorp, Jackson G.; Ong, Jue-Sheng; Ortega-Alonzo, Alfredo; Derks, Eske M. (2020)
    There is a well-established relationship between cannabis use and psychosis, although the exact nature of this relationship is not fully understood. Recent studies have observed significant genetic overlap between a diagnosis of schizophrenia and lifetime cannabis use. Expanding on this work, the current study aimed to examine whether genetic overlap also occurs for subclinical psychosis (schizotypy) and cannabis use, as well as examining the phenotypic association between the traits. Phenotypic correlations were calculated for a variety of schizotypy and cannabis phenotypes in the UK Biobank (UKB), and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based heritability estimates and genetic correlations were calculated for these UKB phenotypes as well as for several other variables taken from recent genomewide association studies. Positive phenotypic correlations were observed between 11 out of 12 pairs of the cannabis use and schizotypy phenotypes (correlation range .05-.18), indicating a robust association between increased symptoms of schizotypy and cannabis use. SNP-based heritability estimates for two schizotypy phenotypes remained significant after multiple testing correction:social anhedonia(h(SNP)(2)= .08,SE= .02,N= 4025) andever seen an unreal vision(h(SNP)(2)= .35,SE= .10,N= 150,717). Finally, one significant genetic correlation was observed between schizotypy and cannabis use, a negative correlation betweensocial anhedoniaandnumber of times used cannabis(r(g)= -.30,p= .012). The current study suggests the relationship between cannabis use and psychosis is also seen in subclinical symptoms of psychosis, but further research with larger samples is needed to determine the biological mechanisms underlying this association.
  • Buizer, Marleen; Elands, Birgit; Vierikko, Kati (2016)
    With the aim to embed ecology more forcefully into decision-making, the concept of Ecosystems Services (ES) has gained significant ground amongpolicy-makers and researchers. The increasing recognition of the importance of urban green areas for the quality of life in growing cities has led proponents of ES approaches to argue for an uptake of the approach in urban environmental decision-making. However, the ES approach has been criticized for standing too much at a distance from local communities and their day-to-day practices and for insufficiently taking into account the potential trade-offs between different qualities or preferences. In this paper we argue that other concepts, doing other work, need to be added to the debate about futures of urban governance and research. Biocultural diversity is suggested as one such alternative concept. By its emphasis On diversity, biocultural diversity can account for the many ways in which people live with green areas in the urban landscape, acknowledges the different knowledges this involves, and can reveal conflicts and ambivalence that may be at stake. This sets up for a reflexive, transdisciplinary research process that questions and contextualizes knowledge and worldviews including those of researchers. A reflexive, transdisciplinary research, then, is a productive catalyst for forms of reflexive urban governance that recognise and respond to this diversity and provide platforms for contestation. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Liuhanen, Johanna; Suvisaari, Jaana; Kajantie, Eero; Miettunen, Jouko; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Veijola, Juha; Paunio, Tiina (2018)
    Schizophrenia is a highly heritable disease, but despite extensive study, its genetic background remains unresolved. The lack of environmental measures in genetic studies may offer some explanation. In recent Finnish studies, high birth weight was found to increase the risk for familial schizophrenia. We examined the interaction between a polygenic risk score for schizophrenia and high birth weight on social anhedonia and schizophrenia in a general population birth cohort. The study sample included 4223 participants from the 1966 Northern Finland Birth Cohort. As a replication sample we used 256 participants from a systematically collected sample of Finnish schizophrenia families. The polygenic risk score comprised of variants published in the large genome-wide meta analysis for schizophrenia. We found the association between the polygenic risk score and social anhedonia stronger among those with high birth weight, and the same phenomenon was seen for schizophrenia among women, suggesting a gene-environment interaction. Similar results were found within the replication sample. Our results suggest a role for gene-environment interactions in assessing the risk of schizophrenia. Failure to take environmental effects into account may be one of the reasons why identifying significant SNPs for schizophrenia in genome-wide studies has been challenging.
  • Räty, Olle; Räisänen, Jouni; Bosshard, Thomas; Donnelly, Chantal (2018)
    In this paper, the ability of two joint bias correction algorithms to adjust biases in daily mean temperature and precipitation is compared against two univariate quantile mapping methods when constructing projections from years 1981-2010 to early (2011-2040) and late (2061-2090) 21st century periods. Using both climate model simulations and the corresponding hydrological model simulations as proxies for the future in a pseudo-reality framework, these methods are inter-compared in a cross-validation manner in order to assess to what extent the more sophisticated methods have added value, particularly from the hydrological modeling perspective. By design, bi-variate bias correction methods improve the inter-variable relationships in the baseline period. Cross-validation results show, however, that both in the early and late 21st century conditions the additional benefit of using bi-variate bias correction methods is not obvious, as univariate methods have a comparable performance. From the evaluated hydrological variables, the added value is most clearly seen in the simulated snow water equivalent. Although not having the best performance in adjusting the temperature and precipitation distributions, quantile mapping applied as a delta change method performs well from the hydrological modeling point of view, particularly in the early 21st century conditions. This suggests that retaining the observed correlation structures of temperature and precipitation might in some cases be sufficient for simulating future hydrological climate change impacts.
  • Angelstam, Per; Manton, Michael; Elbakidze, Marine; Sijtsma, Frans; Adamescu, Mihai Cristian; Avni, Noa; Beja, Pedro; Bezak, Peter; Zyablikova, Iryna; Cruz, Fatima; Bretagnolle, Vincent; Díaz-Delgado, Ricardo; Ens, Bruno; Fedoriak, Mariia; Flaim, Giovanna; Gingrich, Simone; Lavi-Neeman, Miri; Medinets, Sergey; Melecis, Viesturs; Muñoz-Rojas, Jose; Schäckermann, Jessica; Stocker-Kiss, Andrea; Setälä, Heikki; Stryamets, Natalie; Taka, Maija; Tallec, Gaelle; Tappeiner, Ulrike; Törnblom, Johan; Yamelynets, Taras (2019)
    Context Place-based transdisciplinary research involves multiple academic disciplines and non-academic actors. Long-Term Socio-Ecological Research (LTSER) platform is one concept with similar to 80 initiatives globally.Objectives As an exercise in learning through evaluation we audited (1) the siting, construction and maintenance of individual LTSER platforms, and (2) them as a distributed infrastructure for place-based transdisciplinary research with focus on the European continent.MethodsFirst, we defined a normative model for ideal performance at both platform and network levels. Second, four surveys were sent out to the 67 self-reported LTSER platforms officially listed at the end of 2016. Third, with a focus on the network level, we analyzed the spatial distribution of both long-term ecological monitoring sites within LTSER platforms, and LTSER platforms across the European continent. Fourth, narrative biographies of 18 platforms in different stages of development were analyzed.ResultsWhile the siting of LTSER platforms represented biogeographical regions well, variations in land use history and democratic governance were not well represented. Platform construction was based on 2.1 ecological monitoring sites, with 72% ecosystem and 28% social system research. Maintenance of a platform required three to five staff members, focused mostly on ecosystem research, was based mainly on national funding, and had 1-2years of future funding secured. Networking with other landscape approach concepts was common.ConclusionsIndividually, and as a network, LTSER platforms have good potential for transdisciplinary knowledge production and learning about sustainability challenges. To improve the range of variation of Pan-European social-ecological systems we encourage interfacing with other landscape approach concepts.
  • Fujikawa, Kazuo; Tureanu, Anca (2015)
    On the basis of a previously proposed mechanism of neutrino-antineutrino mass splitting in the Standard Model, which is Lorentz and SU(2) xU(1) invariant but non-local to evade the CPTtheorem, we discuss the possible implications of neutrino-antineutrino mass splitting on neutrino physics and baryogenesis. It is shown that non-locality within a distance scale of the Planck length, that may not be fatal to unitarity in a generic effective theory, can generate the neutrino-antineutrino mass splitting of the order of the observed neutrino mass differences, which is tested in oscillation experiments, and a non-negligible baryon asymmetry depending on the estimate of sphaleron dynamics. The one-loop order induced electron-positron mass splitting in the Standard Model is shown to be finite and estimated at similar to 10(-20)eV, well below the experimental bound
  • Repo, Jussi Petteri; Piitulainen, Kirsi; Häkkinen, Arja; Roine, Risto Paavo; Kautiainen, Hannu; Becker, Paju; Tukiainen, Erkki Juhani (2018)
    Background: Thus far there have been no specific patient-reported outcome instrument in Finnish for health-related quality of life (HRQoL) assessment after major lower extremity amputation and successful prosthesis fitting.Methods: The prosthesis evaluation questionnaire (PEQ) was translated and cross-culturally adapted into Finnish. Participants completed a questionnaire package including the Finnish version of the PEQ and the 15D HRQoL instrument. Scales (n=10) were tested for internal consistency, floor-ceiling effect, and reproducibility for which participants completed the PEQ twice within a 2-week interval. Validity was tested by estimating the correlation between the 15D index and the scales. The authors included 122 participants who had completed the questionnaire on two separate occasions in the final analysis.Results: Mean scale scores of the 10 scales varied from 52 to 83. Cronbach's alphas ranged from 0.67 to 0.96. The total score showed no floor-ceiling effect. Reproducibility of the scales was good (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.78-0.87; coefficient of repeatability, 19-36). Significant correlations were observed between the 15D index and the scales for ambulation, social burden, usefulness, and well-being.Conclusions: This study provided evidence of the reliability and validity of the Finnish version of the PEQ in assessing the HRQoL among major lower extremity amputated patients who have been fitted with prosthesis.Implications for rehabilitationMeasurement of quality of life during rehabilitation can provide important information on patients' well-being.The prosthesis evaluation questionnaire (PEQ) is a valid instrument for assessing health-related quality of life (HRQoL) after major lower extremity amputation.This study provided evidence of the reliability and validity of the Finnish version of the PEQ for assessing HRQoL among patient who have undergone major lower extremity amputation.
  • Paediat Rheumatology Int Trials (2018)
    The Juvenile Arthritis Multidimensional Assessment Report (JAMAR) is a new parent/patient-reported outcome measure that enables a thorough assessment of the disease status in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). We report the results of the cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the parent and patient versions of the JAMAR in the Finnish language. The reading comprehension of the questionnaire was tested in ten JIA parents and patients. Each participating centre was asked to collect demographic, clinical data and the JAMAR in 100 consecutive JIA patients or all consecutive patients seen in a 6-month period and to administer the JAMAR to 100 healthy children and their parents. The statistical validation phase explored descriptive statistics and the psychometric issues of the JAMAR: the three Likert assumptions, floor/ceiling effects, internal consistency, Cronbach's alpha, interscale correlations, test-retest reliability, and construct validity (convergent and discriminant validity). A total of 173 JIA patients (1.2% systemic, 46.2% oligoarticular, 39.9% RF-negative polyarthritis, 12.7% other categories) and 100 healthy children, were enrolled in five paediatric rheumatology centres. The JAMAR components discriminated well healthy subjects from JIA patients. All JAMAR components revealed good psychometric performances. In conclusion, the Finnish version of the JAMAR is a valid tool for the assessment of children with JIA and is suitable for use both in routine clinical practice and clinical research.
  • Junkkari, Antti; Roine, Risto P.; Luikku, Antti; Rauramaa, Tuomas; Sintonen, Harri; Nerg, Ossi; Koivisto, Anne M.; Hayrinen, Antti; Viinamaki, Heimo; Soininen, Hilkka; Jaaskelainen, Juha E.; Leinonen, Ville (2017)
    OBJECTIVE: Occasionally, a favorable clinical diseasespecific outcome does not reflect into improved generic health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) at 1 year after the installation of a cerebrospinal fluid shunt. Our aim was to identify factors causing this discrepancy. METHODS: The 1-year HRQoL outcomes of 141 patients with iNPH were evaluated with the generic 15D instrument, in which the minimum clinically important change/difference on the 0-1 scale has been estimated to be +/- 0.015.A 12-point iNPH grading scale (iNPHGS) was used as a clinical disease-specific outcome measure, in which a 1-point decrease is considered to be clinically important. We identified 29 (21%) patients with iNPH from our prospective study whose HRQoL deteriorated or remained the same despite of a favorable iNPHGS outcome. We analyzed this discrepancy using patients' clinical variables and characteristics. RESULTS: Multivariate binary logistic regression analysis indicated that a greater (worse) iNPHGS score at baseline (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3-2.3; P <0.001), comorbid chronic pulmonary disease (40% vs. 20%; adjusted OR 17.8; 95% CI 3.6-89.9; P <0.001), and any comorbid nonmetastatic tumor (62% vs. 17%; adjusted OR 11.5; 95% CI 1.5-85.3; P [0.017) predicted discrepancy between iNPHGS and 15D outcomes. - CONCLUSIONS: Frail patients suffering from certain preexisting comorbidities may not experience improvement in generic HRQoL despite of a favorable clinical diseasespecific response. Acknowledging the comorbidity burden of the patient may help clinicians and the patients to understand the conflict between patient-reported and clinical outcomes.