Browsing by Subject "SCHOOLCHILDREN"

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  • Alaraudanjoki, Viivi; Laitala, Marja-Liisa; Tjaderhane, Leo; Pesonen, Paula; Lussi, Adrian; Anttonen, Vuokko (2016)
    Background: The main aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence and severity of erosive tooth wear and its association with dental caries and socio-demographic factors among middle-aged Finnish adults. Methods: Of the total Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (n = 12,058), a convenience sample (n = 3181 adults) was invited for an oral health examination of which 1962 (61.7 %) participated, comprising the final study group. Clinical examinations were carried out by trained and calibrated dentists. Erosive tooth wear was assessed by sextants using the Basic Erosive Wear Examination Index (BEWE, 0-18) and dental caries at surface level using the ICDAS criteria (0-6). Socio-demographic data were obtained from a postal questionnaire. A logistic regression model was generated to test the association of the variables. Results: The prevalence of erosive tooth wear was 75 % and the mean of the BEWE sum score was 3.4 (SD 3.30). Almost half of the members needed non-invasive or invasive measures to prevent further progression of the condition. Of those with erosive lesions, 14.6 % suffered from severe erosive tooth wear. There was a strong positive relationship between the presence of severe erosive tooth wear (BEWE sum score >= 9) and male gender and restorative treatment need. Conclusions: Erosive tooth wear is a common finding in Finnish adult population; almost one in ten suffer from severe erosive tooth wear. Restorative treatment need seems to be associated with severe erosive tooth wear.
  • Savelieva, Kateryna; Marttila, Tero; Lampi, Jussi; Ung-Lanki, Sari; Elovainio, Marko; Pekkanen, Juha (2019)
  • Pärssinen, Olavi; Lassila, Essi; Kauppinen, Markku (2022)
    Purpose: To study the association of parents' reports about their children's near work and outdoor habits with myopia in their children. Methods: Data from a questionnaire study conducted in 1983 among Finnish schoolchildren were reanalyzed. Vision screening had been performed for all the schoolchildren (n = 4961) in the 1st, 5th, and 8th grades (7-, 11-, and 15-year-olds) in an area of Central Finland. The questionnaire, including information about myopia, was returned by 4305 (86.7%) participants. Items concerned parents' estimates of their child's habitual reading distance, time spent indoors as compared with age peers, daily near work, outdoors time, and parents' myopia. The associations of myopia with these factors were studied. Results: Myopia prevalence in those with a habitual close reading distance vs. others was 14.3% vs. 2.1%, 28.7% vs. 13.1% and 45.8% vs. 24.7% for the 7-, 11- and 15-year-olds (p < 0.001 in all age-groups). Myopia prevalence in children reported by their parents as spending more time indoors than age peers was 10.9% vs. 2.8% (p < 0.001), 25.0% vs. 14.7% (p = 0.004) and 41.9% vs. 25.7% (p < 0.001) in the three age groups. Myopia prevalence among those reported as spending both more time indoors and reading at a close distance vs. others was 44.2% vs. 11.9% (Fisher's exact t-test, p < 0.001). In the multiple logistic regression models, parental myopia almost doubled the risk of myopia in the 11- and 15-year-olds. ORs (95% CI) for myopia adjusted for parental myopia and sex were for close reading distance 7.381 (4.054-13.440), 2.382 (1.666-3.406), 2.237 (1.498-3.057), (p < 0.001), and for more time spent indoors, 3.692 (1.714-7.954), p = 0.001, 1.861 (1.157-2.992), p = 0.010), 1.700 (1.105-2.615), p = 0.016, in the three age groups. Conclusion: Children, especially 7-year-olds, reported by their parents as having a close reading distance and spending a lot of time indoors were associated with a higher risk for myopia.
  • Pärssinen, Olavi; Lassila, Essi; Kauppinen, Markku (2022)
    Purpose: To study the association of parents' reports about their children's near work and outdoor habits with myopia in their children. Methods: Data from a questionnaire study conducted in 1983 among Finnish schoolchildren were reanalyzed. Vision screening had been performed for all the schoolchildren (n = 4961) in the 1st, 5th, and 8th grades (7-, 11-, and 15-year-olds) in an area of Central Finland. The questionnaire, including information about myopia, was returned by 4305 (86.7%) participants. Items concerned parents' estimates of their child's habitual reading distance, time spent indoors as compared with age peers, daily near work, outdoors time, and parents' myopia. The associations of myopia with these factors were studied. Results: Myopia prevalence in those with a habitual close reading distance vs. others was 14.3% vs. 2.1%, 28.7% vs. 13.1% and 45.8% vs. 24.7% for the 7-, 11- and 15-year-olds (p < 0.001 in all age-groups). Myopia prevalence in children reported by their parents as spending more time indoors than age peers was 10.9% vs. 2.8% (p < 0.001), 25.0% vs. 14.7% (p = 0.004) and 41.9% vs. 25.7% (p < 0.001) in the three age groups. Myopia prevalence among those reported as spending both more time indoors and reading at a close distance vs. others was 44.2% vs. 11.9% (Fisher's exact t-test, p < 0.001). In the multiple logistic regression models, parental myopia almost doubled the risk of myopia in the 11- and 15-year-olds. ORs (95% CI) for myopia adjusted for parental myopia and sex were for close reading distance 7.381 (4.054-13.440), 2.382 (1.666-3.406), 2.237 (1.498-3.057), (p < 0.001), and for more time spent indoors, 3.692 (1.714-7.954), p = 0.001, 1.861 (1.157-2.992), p = 0.010), 1.700 (1.105-2.615), p = 0.016, in the three age groups. Conclusion: Children, especially 7-year-olds, reported by their parents as having a close reading distance and spending a lot of time indoors were associated with a higher risk for myopia.
  • Korpelainen, Helena; Pietiläinen, Maria (2017)
    In the present study, we conducted DNA metabarcoding (the nuclear ITS2 region) for indoor fungal samples originating from two nursery schools with a suspected mould problem (sampling before and after renovation), from two university buildings, and from an old farmhouse. Good-quality sequences were obtained, and the results showed that DNA metabarcoding provides high resolution in fungal identification. The pooled proportions of sequences representing filamentous ascomycetes, filamentous basidiomycetes, yeasts, and other fungi equalled 62.3%, 8.0%, 28.3%, and 1.4%, respectively, and the total number of fungal genera found during the study was 585. When comparing fungal diversities and taxonomic composition between different types of buildings, no obvious pattern was detected. The average pairwise values of Sorensen(Chao) indices that were used to compare similarities for taxon composition between samples among the samples from the two university buildings, two nurseries, and farmhouse equaled 0.693, 0.736, 0.852, 0.928, and 0.981, respectively, while the mean similarity index for all samples was 0.864. We discovered that making explicit conclusions on the relationship between the indoor air quality and mycoflora is complicated by the lack of appropriate indicators for air quality and by the occurrence of wide spatial and temporal changes in diversity and compositions among samples.
  • Boettiger, B. W.; Bossaert, L. L.; Castren, M.; Cimpoesu, D.; Georgiou, M.; Greif, R.; Gruenfeld, M.; Lockey, A.; Lott, C.; Maconochie, I.; Melieste, R.; Monsieurs, K. G.; Nolan, J. P.; Perkins, G. D.; Raffay, V.; Schlieber, J.; Semeraro, F.; Soar, J.; Truhlar, A.; Van de Voorde, P.; Wyllie, J.; Wingen, S.; Board European Resuscitation Counc (2016)
  • Bottiger, B. W.; Bossaert, L. L.; Castren, Maaret Kaarina; Cimpoesu, D.; Georgiou, M.; Greif, R.; Grunfeld, M.; Lockey, A.; Lott, C.; Maconochie, I.; Melieste, R.; Monsieurs, K. G.; Nolan, J. P.; Perkins, G. D.; Raffay, V.; Schlieber, J.; Semeraro, F.; Soar, J.; Truhlar, A.; Van de Voorde, P.; Wyllie, J.; Wingen, S. (2016)
  • Adams, Rachel I.; Leppanen, Hanna; Karvonen, Anne M.; Jacobs, Jose; Borras-Santos, Alicia; Valkonen, Maria; Krop, Esmeralda; Haverinen-Shaughnessy, Ulla; Huttunen, Kati; Zock, Jan-Paul; Hyvärinen, Anne; Heederik, Dick; Pekkanen, Juha; Täubel, Martin (2021)
    Moisture-damaged buildings are associated with respiratory symptoms and underlying diseases among building occupants, but the causative agent(s) remain a mystery. We first identified specific fungal and bacterial taxa in classrooms with moisture damage in Finnish and Dutch primary schools. We then investigated associations of the identified moisture damage indicators with respiratory symptoms in more than 2700 students. Finally, we explored whether exposure to specific taxa within the indoor microbiota may explain the association between moisture damage and respiratory health. Schools were assessed for moisture damage through detailed inspections, and the microbial composition of settled dust in electrostatic dustfall collectors was determined using marker-gene analysis. In Finland, there were several positive associations between particular microbial indicators (diversity, richness, individual taxa) and a respiratory symptom score, while in the Netherlands, the associations tended to be mostly inverse and statistically non-significant. In Finland, abundance of the Sphingomonas bacterial genus and endotoxin levels partially explained the associations between moisture damage and symptom score. A few microbial taxa explained part of the associations with health, but overall, the observed associations between damage-associated individual taxa and respiratory health were limited.
  • Viljakainen, Heli T.; Figueiredo, Rejane A. O.; Rounge, Trine B.; Weiderpass, Elisabete (2019)
    Background Picky eating (PE) is the most common cause of early-life feeding problems. However, the consequences of PE on food intake and weight development in general populations have not been established. Objectives: This study aims to investigate the associations of PE and food neophobia (FN) with weight status in 5700 Finnish preadolescents. In addition, we described food consumption by PE/FN status. Material and methods: We utilised the Finnish Health in Teens (Fin-HIT) cohort of 9-12-year-old preadolescents, who were categorised as having PE and FN based on answers from parental questionnaires. Weight was categorised as underweight, normal weight, and overweight/obesity based on body mass index (BMI) according to IOTF age- and sex-specific cut-offs. Eating patterns were obtained with a 16-item food frequency questionnaire. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: The overall prevalence of PE and FN were 34% and 14%, respectively. PE was inversely associated with overweight/obesity (OR = 0.7; 95% CI 0.6-0.8) and led to a higher risk of underweight (OR = 2.0; 95% CI 1.7-2.4), while this was not observed with FN. Compared with preadolescents without PE/FN, those with PE/FN reported consuming unhealthy foods such as pizza, hamburgers/hot dogs, and salty snacks more frequently (p <0.0038). By the same token, these preadolescents reported consuming healthy foods such as cooked vegetables, fresh vegetables/salad, fruit/berries, milk/soured milk, and dark bread less frequently. Conclusions: Among Finnish preadolescents, only PE was associated with a higher risk for underweight and inversely with overweight/obesity. PE and FN were accompanied with unhealthy eating patterns. Management of PE in children may be explored as a potential strategy for improving healthy eating and avoiding underweight in preadolescents.
  • Lampi, Jussi; Ung-Lanki, Sari; Santalahti, Päivi; Pekkanen, Juha (2018)
    Background: Questionnaires can be used to assess perceived indoor air quality and symptoms in schools. Questionnaires for primary school aged children have traditionally been parent-administered, but self-administered questionnaires would be easier to administer and may yield as good, if not better, information. Our aim was to compare the repeatability of self- and parent-administered indoor air questionnaires designed for primary school aged pupils. Methods: Indoor air questionnaire with questions on child's symptoms and perceived indoor air quality in schools was sent to parents of pupils aged 7-12 years in two schools and again after two weeks. Slightly modified version of the questionnaire was administered to pupils aged 9-12 years in another two schools and repeated after a week. 351 (52%) parents and 319 pupils (86%) answered both the first and the second questionnaire. Test-retest repeatability was assessed with intra-class correlation (ICC) and Cohen's kappa coefficients (k). Results: Test-retest repeatability was generally between 0.4-0.7 (ICC; k) in both self-and parent-administered questionnaire. In majority of the questions on symptoms and perceived indoor air quality test-retest repeatability was at the same level or slightly better in self-administered compared to parent-administered questionnaire. Agreement of self-and parent administered questionnaires was generally <0.4 (ICC; k) in reported symptoms and 0.4-0.6 (ICC; k) in perceived indoor air quality. Conclusions: Children aged 9-12 years can give as, or even more, repeatable information about their respiratory symptoms and perceived indoor air quality than their parents. Therefore, it may be possible to use self-administered questionnaires in future studies also with children.
  • Hemilä, Harri (1999)
    Placebo-controlled trials have shown that vitamin C supplementation decreases the duration and severity of common cold infections. However, the magnitude of the benefit has substantially varied, hampering conclusions about the clinical significance of the vitamin. In this paper, 23 studies with regular vitamin C supplementation (> or = 1 g/day) were analyzed to find out factors that may explain some part of the variation in the results. It was found that on average, vitamin C produces greater benefit for children than for adults. The dose may also affect the magnitude of the benefit, there being on average greater benefit from > or = 2 g/day compared to 1 g/day of the vitamin. In five studies with adults administered 1 g/day of vitamin C, the median decrease in cold duration was only 6%, whereas in two studies with children administered 2 g/day the median decrease was four times higher, 26%. The trials analyzed in this work used regular vitamin C supplementation, but it is conceivable that therapeutic supplementation starting early at the onset of the cold episode could produce comparable benefits. Since few trials have examined the effects of therapeutic supplementation and their results have been variable, further therapeutic trials are required to examine the role of vitamin C in the treatment of colds.
  • Hemilä, Harri (1996)
    In 1971, Linus Pauling carried out a meta-analysis of four placebo-controlled trials and concluded that it was highly unlikely that the decrease in the "integrated morbidity of the common cold" in vitamin C groups was caused by chance alone (P < 0.00003). Studies carried out since then have consistently found that vitamin C (> or = 1 g/d) alleviates common cold symptoms, indicating that the vitamin does indeed have physiologic effects on colds. However, widespread conviction that the vitamin has no proven effects on the common cold still remains. Three of the most influential reviews drawing this conclusion are considered in the present article. Two of them are cited in the current edition of the RDA nutritional recommendations as evidence that vitamin C is ineffective against colds. In this article, these three reviews are shown to contain serious inaccuracies and shortcomings, making them unreliable sources on the topic. The second purpose is to suggest possible conceptual reasons for the persistent resistance to the notion that vitamin C might have effects on colds. Although placebo-controlled trials have shown that vitamin C does alleviate common cold symptoms, important questions still remain.
  • Hemilä, Harri (1997)
    In 1970 Linus Pauling claimed that vitamin C prevents and alleviates the episodes of the common cold. Pauling was correct in concluding from trials published up till then, that in general vitamin C does have biological effects on the common cold, but he was rather over-optimistic as regards the size of benefit. His quantitative conclusions were based on a single placebo-controlled trial on schoolchildren in a skiing camp in the Swiss Alps, in which a significant decrease in common cold incidence and duration in the group administered 1 g/day of vitamin C was found. As children in a skiing camp are not a representative sample of the general population, Pauling's extrapolation to the population at large was too bold, erring as to the magnitude of the effect. Nevertheless, Pauling's general conclusion that vitamin C has physiological effects on the common cold is of major importance as it conflicts with the prevailing consensus that the only physiological effect of vitamin C on human beings is to prevent scurvy.