Browsing by Subject "SCORE"

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  • Acosta, Tania; Barengo, Noel C.; Arrieta, Astrid; Ricaurte, Carlos; Tuomilehto, Jaakko O. (2018)
    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) imposes a heavy public health burden in both developed and developing countries. It is necessary to understand the effect of T2D in different settings and population groups. This report aimed to present baseline characteristics of study participants in the demonstration area for the Type 2 Diabetes Prevention in Barranquilla and Juan Mina (DEMOJUAN) project after randomization and to compare their fasting and 2-hour glucose levels according to lifestyle and T2D risk factor levels. The DEMOJUAN project is a randomized controlled field trial. Study participants were recruited from study sites using population-wide screening using the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) questionnaire. All volunteers with FINDRISC of >= 13 points were invited to undergo an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Participant inclusion criteria for the upcoming field trial were either FINDRISC of >= 13 points and 2-hour post-challenge glucose level of 7.0 to 11.0mmol/L or FINDRISC of >= 13 points and fasting plasma glucose level of 6.1 to 6.9mmol/L. Lifestyle habits and risk factors for T2D were assessed by trained interviewers using a validated questionnaire. Among the 14,193 participants who completed the FINDRISC questionnaire, 35% (n=4915) had a FINDRISC score of >= 13 points and 47% (n=2306) agreed to undergo the OGTT. Approximately, 33% (n=772) of participants underwent the OGTT and met the entry criteria; these participants were randomized into 3 groups. There were no statistically significant differences found in anthropometric or lifestyle risk factors, distribution of the glucose metabolism categories, or other diabetes risk factors between the 3 groups (P>.05). Women with a past history of hyperglycaemia had significantly higher fasting glucose levels than those without previous hyperglycaemia (103 vs 99mg/dL; P Lifestyle habits and risk factors were evenly distributed among the 3 study groups. No differences were found in fasting or 2-hour glucose levels among different lifestyle or risk factor categories with the exception of body mass index, past history of hyperglycaemia, and age of 64 years in women.
  • Heino, Anssi; Björkman, Johannes; Tommila, Miretta; Iirola, Timo; Jäntti, Helena; Nurmi, Jouni (2022)
    Objectives Prehospital critical care physicians regularly attend to patients with poor prognosis and may limit the advanced therapies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of poor prognosis given by prehospital critical care clinicians. Design Cohort study. Setting We performed a retrospective cohort study using the national helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) quality database. Participants Patients classified by the HEMS clinician to have survived until hospital admission solely because of prehospital interventions but evaluated as having no long-term survival by prehospital clinician, were included. Primary and secondary outcome The survival of the study patients was examined at 30 days, 1 year and 3 years. Results Of 36 715 patients encountered by the HEMS during the study period, 2053 patients were classified as having no long-term survival and included. At 30 days, 713 (35%, 95% CI 33% to 37%) were still alive and 69 were lost to follow-up. Furthermore, at 1 year 524 (26%) and at 3 years 267 (13%) of the patients were still alive. The deceased patients received more often prehospital rapid sequence intubation and vasoactives, compared with patients alive at 30 days. Patients deceased at 30 days were older and had lower initial Glasgow Coma Scores. Otherwise, no clinically relevant difference was found in the prehospital vital parameters between the survivors and non-survivors. Conclusions The prognostication of long-term survival for critically ill patients by a prehospital critical care clinician seems to fulfil only moderately. A prognosis based on clinical judgement must be handled with a great degree of caution and decision on limitation of advanced care should be made cautiously.
  • Pekkala, Timo; Hall, Anette; Mangialasche, Francesca; Kemppainen, Nina; Mecocci, Patrizia; Ngandu, Tiia; Rinne, Juha O.; Soininen, Hilkka; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Kivipelto, Miia; Solomon, Alina (2020)
    We explored the association of type 2 diabetes related blood markers with brain amyloid accumulation on PiB-PET scans in 41 participants from the FINGER PET sub-study. We built logistic regression models for brain amyloid status with12 plasma markers of glucose and lipid metabolism, controlled for diabetes and APOE epsilon 4 carrier status. Lower levels of insulin, insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), C-peptide, and plasminogen activator (PAI-1) were associated with amyloid positive status, although the results were not significant after adjusting for multiple testing. None of the models found evidence for associations between amyloid status and fasting glucose or HbA1c.
  • Maseide, Ragnhild J.; Berntorp, Erik; Nummi, Vuokko; Lassila, Riitta; Tjonnfjord, Geir E.; Holme, Pal A. (2021)
    Introduction Predicting the bleeding phenotype is crucial for the management of patients with moderate haemophilia. Global coagulation assays evaluate haemostasis more comprehensively than conventional methods. Aim To explore global coagulation assays and the bleeding phenotype of patients with moderate haemophilia A (MHA) and B (MHB). Methods The MoHem study is a cross-sectional, multicentre study covering Nordic patients with MHA and MHB. Thromboelastometry in whole blood and thrombin generation (TG) in platelet-poor plasma (1, 2.5 and 5 pM tissue factor (TF)) were compared with joint health (Haemophilia Joint Health Score (HJHS)) and treatment modality. Results We report on 61 patients from Oslo and Helsinki: 24 MHA and 37 MHB. By TG (2.5 pM TF), patients who had been without replacement therapy during the previous 12 months depicted higher endogenous thrombin potential (P = .03). In contrast, those who had low ETP (< median) captured higher HJHS (P = .02). Patients who had undergone orthopaedic surgery generated least thrombin (P = .02). By thromboelastometry, those without the need of factor consumption had short clotting times, and quick times to maximum velocity (< median values) (P = .03). Factor VIII/factor IX activity (FVIII/FIX:C) did not align with the bleeding phenotype, but FIX:C Conclusion TG differentiated patients with moderate haemophilia according to HJHS, annual factor consumption, and whether orthopaedic surgery had been performed. Thromboelastometry differentiated according to factor consumption only. Global coagulation assays may assist predicting the bleeding phenotype in moderate haemophilia.
  • SICS Study Grp; Hiemstra, Bart; Eck, Ruben J.; Wiersema, Renske; Pettilä, Ville; van der Horst, Iwan C. C. (2019)
    Objectives: Caregivers use clinical examination to timely recognize deterioration of a patient, yet data on the prognostic value of clinical examination are inconsistent. In the Simple Intensive Care Studies-I, we evaluated the association of clinical examination findings with 90-day mortality in critically ill patients. Design: Prospective single-center cohort study. Setting: ICU of a single tertiary care level hospital between March 27, 2015, and July 22, 2017. Patients: All consecutive adults acutely admitted to the ICU and expected to stay for at least 24 hours. Interventions: A protocolized clinical examination of 19 clinical signs conducted within 24 hours of admission. Measurements Main Results: Independent predictors of 90-day mortality were identified using multivariable logistic regression analyses. Model performance was compared with established prognostic risk scores using area under the receiver operating characteristic curves. Robustness of our findings was tested by internal bootstrap validation and adjustment of the threshold for statistical significance. A total of 1,075 patients were included, of whom 298 patients (28%) had died at 90-day follow-up. Multivariable analyses adjusted for age and norepinephrine infusion rate demonstrated that the combination of higher respiratory rate, higher systolic blood pressure, lower central temperature, altered consciousness, and decreased urine output was independently associated with 90-day mortality (area under the receiver operating characteristic curves = 0.74; 95% CI, 0.71-0.78). Clinical examination had a similar discriminative value as compared with the Simplified Acute Physiology Score-II (area under the receiver operating characteristic curves = 0.76; 95% CI, 0.73-0.79; p = 0.29) and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation-IV (using area under the receiver operating characteristic curves = 0.77; 95% CI, 0.74-0.80; p = 0.16) and was significantly better than the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (using area under the receiver operating characteristic curves = 0.67; 95% CI, 0.64-0.71; p <0.001). Conclusions: Clinical examination has reasonable discriminative value for assessing 90-day mortality in acutely admitted ICU patients. In our study population, a single, protocolized clinical examination had similar prognostic abilities compared with the Simplified Acute Physiology Score-II and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation-IV and outperformed the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score.
  • Paajanen, Juuso; Laaksonen, Sanna; Ilonen, Ilkka; Vehmas, Tapio; Mäyränpää, Mikko I.; Sutinen, Eva; Kettunen, Eeva; Salo, Jarmo A.; Räsänen, Jari; Wolff, Henrik; Myllärniemi, Marjukka (2020)
    Within a larger national malignant pleural mesothelioma cohort, we identified 43 patients with unusually long survival times. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy in this subgroup, and the diagnosis was confirmed to be correct in most cases. In addition, we searched for clinical factors related to the prolonged survival time. Introduction: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a fatal malignancy strongly associated with previous asbestos exposure. Overall survival remains dismal, partly owing to poor response to available treatment. The aims of this study were to evaluate diagnostic accuracy in a group of patients with MPM with an unusually long survival time and to assess the factors related to this prolonged survival. Materials and Methods: Forty-three patients with overall survival exceeding 5 years were accepted to the long-term survivor (LTS) group, and these patients were compared with 84 patients with epithelial MPM. Data were collected from various national registries and electronic medical records. In addition, all available histopathologic diagnostic samples and computed tomography studies were re-evaluated by experienced specialists. Results: Our study showed a good diagnostic accuracy, with only 1 (0.5%) patient having an incorrect MPM diagnosis. Two (0.9%) localized malignant mesotheliomas and 2 (0.9%) well-differentiated papillary mesotheliomas were also found. LTS patients were younger, more frequently female, had a better performance status at time of diagnosis, and had less evidence of prior asbestos exposure. In multivariate analysis, we showed tumor size, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, and first-line treatment (both surgery and chemotherapy) to be associated with survival time. Conclusion: We confirmed the diagnosis of MPM in an overwhelming majority of patients in the LTS group. An epithelial subtype of MPM behaving clinically more indolently seems to exist, but further tumor and genetic characterization is needed. The prolonged survival time is most likely explained by a combination of tumor-, patient-, and treatment-related factors. (C) 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Ritvonen, Juhani; Sairanen, Tiina; Silvennoinen, Heli; Virtanen, Pekka; Salonen, Oili; Lindsberg, Perttu J.; Strbian, Daniel (2021)
    Background: Around 30-60% of patients with basilar artery occlusion (BAO) present with coma, which is often considered as a hallmark of poor prognosis. Aim: To examine factors that will help predict outcomes in patients with BAO comatose on admission. Methods: A total of 312 patients with angiography-proven BAO were analyzed. Comas were assessed as Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) of Results: In total, 103/259 (39.8%) of BAO patients were comatose on admission. Factors associated with acute coma were higher age, coronary artery disease, convulsions, extent of early ischemia by posterior circulation Acute Stroke Prognosis Early CT Score (pc-ASPECTS) < 8, absence of patent posterior collateral vasculature, and occlusion over multiple segments of BA. A total of 21/103 (20.4%) of comatose patients had a favorable outcome (mRS 0-3), and 12/103 (11.7%) had a good outcome (mRS 0-2). Factors associated with a favorable outcome in comatose BAO patients were younger age (p = 0.010), less extensive baseline ischemia (p = 0.027), recanalization (p = 0.013), and avoiding symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH) (p = 0.038). Factors associated with the poorest outcome or death (mRS 5-6) were older age (p = 0.001), diabetes (p = 0.022), atrial fibrillation (p = 0.016), lower median GCS [4 (IQR 3.6) vs. 6 (5-8); p = 0.006], pc-ASPECTS < 8 (p = 0.003), unsuccessful recanalization (p = 0.006), and sICH (p = 0.010). Futile recanalization (mRS 4-6) was significantly more common in comatose patients (49.4 vs. 18.5%, p < 0.001). Conclusions: One in five BAO patients with acute coma had a favorable outcome. Older patients with cardiovascular comorbidities and already existing ischemic lesions before reperfusion therapies tended to have a poor prognosis, especially if no recanalization is achieved and sICH occurred.
  • Laakso, Sini M.; Myllynen, Chris; Strbian, Daniel; Atula, Sari (2021)
    Background: The effect of comorbidities on the prognosis of myasthenia gravis (MG) remains unclear. In particular, the role of other autoimmune diseases (AD) is controversial. Methods: In this retrospective single-center cohort study, we investigated 154 consecutive generalized thymectomized MG patients, with a mean follow-up time of 8.6 (+/- 5.0) years post-thymectomy. Comorbidities diagnosed at any timepoint were retrieved from medical records and Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) scores were calculated. Patients were categorized into subgroups MG alone (n = 45) and MG with any comorbidity (n = 109); the latter was further categorized into MG with other ADs (n = 33) and MG with non-AD comorbidities (n = 76). The endpoints analyzed were complete stable remission (CSR), minimal need for medications, and need for inhospital treatments. Results: CSR was more frequent in MG alone than in MG with any comorbidity group (26.7% vs 8.3%, p = 0.004). Minimal need for medication was reached more often in the MG alone than in the MG with non-AD comorbidities group (p = 0.047). Need for in-hospital treatments was lower in the MG alone group than in MG patients with any comorbidity (p = 0.046). Logistic regression analysis revealed that lower CCI scores increased the likelihood of CSR (p = 0.033). Lower CCI scores were more prevalent both in patients with minimal need for medication and in patients who did not need in-hospital treatments (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Patients with generalized MG and comorbidities have a poorer prognosis than patients with MG alone during almost 9 years follow-up after thymectomy. AD comorbidities appeared not to translate into a higher risk compared to other comorbidities.
  • Suomalainen, Olli P.; Abou Elseoud, Ahmed; Martinez-Majander, Nicolas; Tiainen, Marjaana; Forss, Nina; Curtze, Sami (2021)
    Introduction: Patients with small core infarction and salvageable penumbra are likely to benefit from endovascular treatment (EVT). As computed tomography perfusion imaging (CTP) is not always available 24/7 for patient selection, many patients are transferred to stroke centers for CTP. We compared automatically measured infarct core volume (NCCTcore) from the non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) with ischemic core volume (CTPcore) from CTP and the outcome of EVT to clarify if NCCTcore measurement alone is sufficient to identify patients that benefit from transfer to stroke centers for EVT. Patients and methods: We included all consecutive stroke-code patients imaged with both NCCT and CTP at Helsinki University Hospital during 9/2016-01/2018. NCCTcore and CTPcore volumes were automatically calculated from the acute NCCT images. Follow-up infarct volume (FIV) was measured from 24 h follow-up NCCT to evaluate efficacy of EVT. To study whether NCCTcore could be used to identify patients eligible to EVT, we subgrouped patients based on NCCTcore volumes (>50 mL and > 70 mL). Results: Out of 1743 patients, baseline NCCTcore, CTPcore and follow-up NCCT was available for 288 patients. Median time from symptom onset to baseline imaging was 74 min (IQR 52-118), and time to follow-up imaging 24.15 h (22.25-26.33). Baseline NCCTcore was 20 mL (10-42), CTPcore 4 mL (0-16), and FIV 5 mL (1-49). Out of 288 patients, 23 had NCCTcore > 70 mL and 26 had CTPcore > 70 mL. NCCTcore and CTPcore performed similarly well in predicting large FIV (>70 ml). Conclusion: NCCTcore is a promising tool to identify patients that are not eligible to EVT due to large ischemic cores at baseline imaging.
  • Airaksinen, N.; Nurmi-Luthje, I.; Luthje, P. (2016)
    Background and Aims: The coverage of the official statistics is poor in motorcycle and moped accidents. The aim of this study was to analyze the severity of motorcycle and moped crashes, and to define the degree of under-reporting in official statistics. Material and Methods: All first attendances due to an acute motorcyclist or moped driver injury registered in the emergency department between June 2004 and May 2006 were analyzed. The severity of the injuries was classified using the Abbreviated Injury Scale score and the New Injury Severity Score. The hospital injury data were compared to the traffic accident statistics reported by the police and compiled and maintained by Statistics Finland. Results: A total of 49 motorcyclists and 61 moped drivers were involved in crashes, leading to a total of 94 and 109 injuries, respectively. There were slightly more vertebral and midfoot fractures among motorcyclists than among moped drivers (p=0.038 and 0.016, respectively). No significant differences were found between the severity (maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale and median New Injury Severity Scores) of the motorcycle and moped crashes. There was no in-hospital mortality. The degree of agreement (overlap) between the hospital dataset and the official statistics was 32%. The rate of under-reporting was 68%. Conclusions: According to the maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale and New Injury Severity Scores, the injury severity was equal for motorcycle and moped crashes. The degree of agreement between the hospital dataset and the official statistics was 32%.
  • Settembre, Nicla; Biancari, Fausto; Spillerova, Kristyna; Albäck, Anders; Söderström, Maria; Venermo, Maarit (2020)
    Introduction In the context of chronic limb threatening ischemia (CLTI), the prognostic impact of angiosome-targeted revascularization and of the status of the pedal arch are debated. Materials and method This series includes 580 patients who underwent endovascular (n=407) and surgical revascularization (n=173) of the infrapopliteal arteries for CLTI associated with foot ulcer or gangrene. The risk of major amputation after infrapopliteal revascularization was assessed by a competing risk approach. A subanalysis was made separately for patients who underwent endovascular or open surgical revascualrization. Results At 2 years, survival was 65.1% and leg salvage was 76.1%. Multivariable competing risk analysis showed that C-reactive protein≥ 10 mg/dL, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, increased number of affected angiosomes and the incomplete or total absence of pedal arch compared to complete pedal arch were independent predictors of major amputation after infrapopliteal revascularization. Multivariable analysis showed increasing risk estimates of major amputation in patients with incomplete (SHR 2.131, 95%CI 1.282-3.543) and no visualized pedal arch (SHR 3.022, 95%CI 1.553-5.883) compared to complete pedal arch. Pedal arch was important even if angiosome-targeted revascularization was achieved: Angiosome-directed revascularization in presence of complete pedal arch had a lower risk of major amputation (adjusted SHR 0.463, 95%CI 0.240-0.894) compared to angiosome-directed revascularization without complete pedal arch. In the subanalysis, among patients who underwent endovascular revascularization, complete pedal arch (SHR 0.509, 95%CI 0.286-0.905) and angiosome-targeted revascularization (SHR 0.613, 95%CI 0.394-0.956) were associated with a lower risk of major amputation. Conclusions Competing risk analysis showed that a patent pedal arch had significant impact on leg salvage and that the subset of patients undergoing endovascular procedure may most benefit of an angiosome-targeted revascularization.
  • e-PREDICE Consortium; Gabriel, Rafael; Lindström, Jaana; Tuomilehto, Jaakko (2020)
    Objectives To assess the effects of early management of hyperglycaemia with antidiabetic drugs plus lifestyle intervention compared with lifestyle alone, on microvascular function in adults with pre-diabetes. Methods Trial design: International, multicenter, randomised, partially double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. Participants Males and females aged 45–74 years with IFG, IGT or IFG+IGT, recruited from primary care centres in Australia, Austria, Bulgaria, Greece, Kuwait, Poland, Serbia, Spain and Turkey. Intervention Participants were randomized to placebo; metformin 1.700 mg/day; linagliptin 5 mg/day or fixed-dose combination of linagliptin/metformin. All patients were enrolled in a lifestyle intervention program (diet and physical activity). Drug intervention will last 2 years. Primary Outcome: composite end-point of diabetic retinopathy estimated by the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Score, urinary albumin to creatinine ratio, and skin conductance in feet estimated by the sudomotor index. Secondary outcomes in a subsample include insulin sensitivity, beta-cell function, biomarkers of inflammation and fatty liver disease, quality of life, cognitive function, depressive symptoms and endothelial function. Results One thousand three hundred ninety one individuals with hyperglycaemia were assessed for eligibility, 424 excluded after screening, 967 allocated to placebo, metformin, linagliptin or to fixed-dose combination of metformin + linagliptin. A total of 809 people (91.1%) accepted and initiated the assigned treatment. Study sample after randomization was well balanced among the four groups. No statistical differences for the main risk factors analysed were observed between those accepting or rejecting treatment initiation. At baseline prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was 4.2%, severe neuropathy 5.3% and nephropathy 5.7%. Conclusions ePREDICE is the first -randomized clinical trial with the aim to assess effects of different interventions (lifestyle and pharmacological) on microvascular function in people with pre-diabetes. The trial will provide novel data on lifestyle modification combined with glucose lowering drugs for the prevention of early microvascular complications and diabetes. Registration - ClinicalTrials.Gov Identifier: NCT03222765 - EUDRACT Registry Number: 2013-000418-39
  • Solomon, Alina; Handels, Ron; Wimo, Anders; Antikainen, Riitta; Laatikainen, Tiina; Levälahti, Esko; Peltonen, Markku; Soininen, Hilkka; Strandberg, Timo; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Kivipelto, Miia; Ngandu, Tiia (2021)
    We investigated the effect of a multidomain lifestyle intervention on the risk of dementia estimated using the validated CAIDE risk score (post-hoc analysis). The Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER) is a 2-year randomized controlled trial among 1,260 at-risk older adults (60-77 years). Difference in the estimated mean change in CAIDE score at 2 years in the intervention compared to the control group was -0.16 (95 % CI -0.31 to 0.00) (p = 0.013), corresponding to a relative dementia risk reduction between 6.04-6.50%. This could be interpreted as a reflection of the prevention potential of the intervention.
  • Tarvainen, Timo; Siren, Jukka; Kokkola, Arto; Sallinen, Ville (2020)
    Importance Both hydrocortisone and pasireotide have been shown in randomized clinical trials to be effective in reducing postoperative complications of pancreatic surgery, but to date no randomized clinical trial has evaluated the effectiveness of pasireotide compared with hydrocortisone. Objective To assess the noninferiority of hydrocortisone compared with pasireotide in reducing complications after partial pancreatectomy. Design, Setting, and Participants A noninferiority, parallel-group, individually randomized clinical trial was conducted at a single academic center between May 19, 2016, and December 17, 2018. Outcome collectors and analyzers were blinded. A total of 281 patients undergoing partial pancreatectomy were assessed for inclusion. Patients younger than 18 years, those allergic to hydrocortisone or pasireotide, patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy with hard pancreas or dilated pancreatic duct, and patients not eventually undergoing partial pancreatectomy were excluded. Modified intention-to-treat analysis was used in determination of the results. Interventions Treatment included pasireotide, 900 mu g, subcutaneously twice a day for 7 days or hydrocortisone, 100 mg, intravenously 3 times a day for 3 days. Main Outcomes and Measures The primary outcome was the Comprehensive Complication Index (CCI) score within 30 days. The noninferiority limit was set to 9 CCI points. Results Of the 281 patients (mean [SD] age, 63.8 years) assessed for eligibility, 168 patients (mean [SD] age, 63.6 years) were randomized and 126 were included in the modified intention-to-treat analyses. Sixty-three patients received pasireotide (35 men [56%]; median [interquartile range] age, 64 [56-70] years) and 63 patients received hydrocortisone (25 men [40%]; median [interquartile range] age, 67 [56-73] years). The mean (SD) CCI score was 23.94 (17.06) in the pasireotide group and 30.11 (20.47) in the hydrocortisone group (mean difference, -6.16; 2-sided 90% CI, -11.73 to -0.60), indicating that hydrocortisone was not noninferior. Postoperative pancreatic fistula was detected in 34 patients (54%) in the pasireotide group and 39 patients (62%) in the hydrocortisone group (odds ratio, 1.39; 95% CI, 0.68-2.82; P = .37). One patient in the pasireotide group and 2 patients in the hydrocortisone group died within 30 days. In subgroup analyses of patients undergoing distal pancreatectomy, the CCI score was a mean of 10.3 points lower (mean [SD], 16.03 [11.94] vs 26.28 [21.76]; 2-sided 95% CI, -19.34 to -2.12; P = .03) and postoperative pancreatic fistula rate was lower (37% vs 67%; P = .02) in the pasireotide group compared with the hydrocortisone group. Conclusions and Relevance In this study, hydrocortisone was not noninferior compared with pasireotide in patients undergoing partial pancreatectomy. Pasireotide may be more effective than hydrocortisone in patients undergoing distal pancreatectomy.
  • Tefre, Sondre; Lilja-Cyron, Alexander; Arvidsson, Lisa; Bartek, Jiri; Corell, Alba; Forsse, Axel; Glud, Andreas Norgaard; Abu Hamdeh, Sami; Hansen, Frederik Lundgaard; Huotarinen, Antti; Johansson, Conny; Kamarainen, Olli-Pekka; Korhonen, Tommi; Kotkansalo, Anna; Mansoor, Nadia Mauland; Mireles, Eduardo Erasmo Mendoza; Miscov, Rares; Munthe, Sune; Nittby-Redebrandt, Henrietta; Obad, Nina; Pedersen, Lars Kjelsberg; Posti, Jussi; Raj, Rahul; Satopää, Jarno; Stahl, Nils; Tetri, Sami; Tobieson, Lovisa; Juhler, Marianne (2022)
    Introduction Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) is becoming an increasingly widespread treatment for hydrocephalus, but research is primarily based on paediatric populations. In 2009, Kulkarni et al created the ETV Success score to predict the outcome of ETV in children. The purpose of this study is to create a prognostic model to predict the success of ETV for adult patients with hydrocephalus. The ability to predict who will benefit from an ETV will allow better primary patient selection both for EN and shunting. This would reduce additional second procedures due to primary treatment failure. A success score specific for adults could also be used as a communication tool to provide better information and guidance to patients. Methods and analysis The study will adhere to the Transparent Reporting of a multivariable prediction model for Individual Prognosis Or Diagnosis reporting guidelines and conducted as a retrospective chart review of all patients >= 18 years of age treated with EN at the participating centres between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2018. Data collection is conducted locally in a standardised database. Univariate analysis will be used to identify several strong predictors to be included in a multivariate logistic regression model. The model will be validated using K-fold cross validation. Discrimination will be assessed using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) and calibration with calibration belt plots. Ethics and dissemination The study is approved by appropriate ethics or patient safety boards in all participating countries.
  • Rentola, Raisa R.; Skrifvars, Markus B.; Heinonen, Erkki; Häggblom, Tom; Hästbacka, Johanna (2020)
    Background Controlling arterial carbon dioxide is paramount in mechanically ventilated patients, and an accurate and continuous noninvasive monitoring method would optimize management in dynamic situations. In this study, we validated and further refined formulas for estimating partial pressure of carbon dioxide with respiratory gas and pulse oximetry data in mechanically ventilated cardiac arrest patients. Methods A total of 4741 data sets were collected retrospectively from 233 resuscitated patients undergoing therapeutic hypothermia. The original formula used to analyze the data is PaCO2-est1 = PETCO2 + k[(PIO2 - PETCO2) - PaO2]. To achieve better accuracy, we further modified the formula to PaCO2-est2 = k(1)*PETCO2 + k(2)*(PIO2 - PETCO2) + k(3)*(100-SpO(2)). The coefficients were determined by identifying the minimal difference between the measured and calculated arterial carbon dioxide values in a development set. The accuracy of these two methods was compared with the estimation of the partial pressure of carbon dioxide using end-tidal carbon dioxide. Results With PaCO2-est1, the mean difference between the partial pressure of carbon dioxide, and the estimated carbon dioxide was 0.08 kPa (SE +/- 0.003); with PaCO2-est2 the difference was 0.036 kPa (SE +/- 0.009). The mean difference between the partial pressure of carbon dioxide and end-tidal carbon dioxide was 0.72 kPa (SE +/- 0.01). In a mixed linear model, there was a significant difference between the estimation using end-tidal carbon dioxide and PaCO2-est1 (P <.001) and PaCO2-est2 (P <.001) respectively. Conclusions This novel formula appears to provide an accurate, continuous, and noninvasive estimation of arterial carbon dioxide.
  • Jongsma, Maria M. E.; Vuijk, Stephanie A.; Cozijnsen, Martinus A.; van Pieterson, Merel; Norbruis, Obbe F.; Groeneweg, Michael; Wolters, Victorien M.; van Wering, Herbert M.; Hojsak, Iva; Kolho, Kaija-Leena; van Wijk, Michiel P.; Teklenburg-Roord, Sarah T. A.; de Meij, Tim G. J.; Escher, Johanna C.; de Ridder, Lissy (2022)
    To induce remission in luminal paediatric Crohn's disease (CD), the ESPGHAN/ECCO guideline recommends treatment with exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) or oral corticosteroids. In newly diagnosed moderate-to-severe paediatric CD patients, we determined the proportion of patients in which EEN or corticosteroids induced remission and maintained remission on azathioprine monotherapy. We included patients from the "TISKids" study assigned to the conventional treatment arm. Patients were aged 3-17 years and had new-onset, untreated luminal CD with weighted paediatric CD activity index (wPCDAI)> 40. Induction treatment consisted of EEN or oral corticosteroids; all received azathioprine maintenance treatment from start of treatment. The primary outcome of this study was endoscopic remission defined as a SES-CD score Conclusion: In children with moderate-to-severe newly diagnosed CD, induction treatment with EEN or CS regularly is insufficient to achieve endoscopic remission without treatment escalation at week 10.
  • Mahajan, Anubha; Taliun, Daniel; Thurner, Matthias; Robertson, Neil R.; Torres, Jason M.; Rayner, N. William; Payne, Anthony J.; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Scott, Robert A.; Grarup, Niels; Cook, James P.; Schmidt, Ellen M.; Wuttke, Matthias; Sarnowski, Chloe; Magill, Reedik; Nano, Jana; Gieger, Christian; Trompet, Stella; Lecoeur, Cecile; Preuss, Michael H.; Prins, Bram Peter; Guo, Xiuqing; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Below, Jennifer E.; Bowden, Donald W.; Chambers, John Campbell; Kim, Young Jin; Ng, Maggie C. Y.; Petty, Lauren E.; Sim, Xueling; Zhang, Weihua; Bennett, Amanda J.; Bork-Jensen, Jette; Brummett, Chad M.; Canouil, Mickael; Kardt, Kai-Uwe Ec; Fischer, Krista; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Kronenberg, Florian; Lall, Kristi; Liu, Ching-Ti; Locke, Adam E.; Luan, Jian'an; Ntalla, Loanna; Nylander, Vibe; Schoenherr, Sebastian; Schurmann, Claudia; Yengo, Loic; Bottinger, Erwin P.; Brandslund, Ivan; Christensen, Cramer; Dedoussis, George; Florez, Jose C.; Ford, Ian; France, Oscar H.; Frayling, Timothy M.; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Hackinger, Sophie; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Herder, Christian; Ikram, M. Arfan; Ingelsson, Martin; Jorgensen, Marit E.; Jorgensen, Torben; Kriebel, Jennifer; Kuusisto, Johanna; Ligthart, Symen; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Linneberg, Allan; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Mamakou, Vasiliki; Meitinger, Thomas; Mohlke, Karen L.; Morris, Andrew D.; Nadkarni, Girish; Pankow, James S.; Peters, Annette; Sattar, Naveed; Stancakova, Alena; Strauch, Konstantin; Taylor, Kent D.; Thorand, Barbara; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Witte, Daniel R.; Dupuis, Josee; Peyser, Patricia A.; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Froguel, Philippe; Ingelsson, Erik; Lind, Lars; Groop, Leif; Laakso, Markku; Collins, Francis S.; Jukema, J. Wouter; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Grallert, Harald; Metspalu, Andres; Dehghan, Abbas; Koettgen, Anna; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Meigs, James B.; Rotter, Jerome; Marchini, Jonathan; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Langenberg, Claudia; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Stefansson, Kari; Gloyn, Anna L.; Morris, Andrew P.; Boehnke, Michael; McCarthy, Mark (2018)
    We expanded GWAS discovery for type 2 diabetes (T2D) by combining data from 898,130 European-descent individuals (9% cases), after imputation to high-density reference panels. With these data, we (i) extend the inventory of T2D-risk variants (243 loci,135 newly implicated in T2D predisposition, comprising 403 distinct association signals); (ii) enrich discovery of lower-frequency risk alleles (80 index variants with minor allele frequency 2); (iii) substantially improve fine-mapping of causal variants (at 51 signals, one variant accounted for >80% posterior probability of association (PPA)); (iv) extend fine-mapping through integration of tissue-specific epigenomic information (islet regulatory annotations extend the number of variants with PPA >80% to 73); (v) highlight validated therapeutic targets (18 genes with associations attributable to coding variants); and (vi) demonstrate enhanced potential for clinical translation (genome-wide chip heritability explains 18% of T2D risk; individuals in the extremes of a T2D polygenic risk score differ more than ninefold in prevalence).
  • Rodeghiero, Francesco; Pabinger, Ingrid; Ragni, Margaret; Abdul-Kadir, Rezan; Berntorp, Erik; Blanchette, Victor; Bodo, Imre; Casini, Alessandro; Gresele, Paolo; Lassila, Riitta; Leebeek, Frank; Lillicrap, David; Mezzano, Diego; Noris, Patrizia; Srivastava, Alok; Tosetto, Alberto; Windyga, Jerzy; Zieger, Barbara; Makris, Mike; Key, Nigel (2019)
    Healthy subjects frequently report minor bleedings that are frequently 'background noise' of normality rather than a true disorder. Nevertheless, unexpected or unusual bleeding may be alarming. Thus, the distinction between normal and pathologic bleeding is critical. Understanding the underlying pathologic mechanism in patients with an excessive bleeding is essential for their counseling and treatment. Most of these patients with significant bleeding will result affected by non-severe inherited bleeding disorders (BD), collectively denominated mild or moderate BD for their relatively benign course. Unfortunately, practical recommendations for the management of these disorders are still lacking due to the current state of fragmented knowledge of pathophysiology and lack of a systematic diagnostic approach. To address this gap, an International Working Group (IWG) was established by the European Hematology Association (EHA) to develop consensus-based guidelines on these disorders. The IWG agreed that grouping these disorders by their clinical phenotype under the single category of mild-to-moderate bleeding disorders (MBD) reflects current clinical practice and will facilitate a systematic diagnostic approach. Based on standardized and harmonized definitions a conceptual unified framework is proposed to distinguish normal subjects from affected patients. The IWG proposes a provisional comprehensive patient-centered initial diagnostic approach that will result in classification of MBD into distinct clinical-pathological entities under the overarching principle of clinical utility for the individual patient. While we will present here a general overview of the global management of patients with MBD, this conceptual framework will be adopted and validated in the evidence-based, disease-specific guidelines under development by the IWG.
  • Huvinen, Emilia; Lahti, Jari; Klemetti, Miira M.; Bergman, Paula H.; Räikkönen, Katri; Orho-Melander, Marju; Laivuori, Hannele; Koivusalo, Saila B. (2022)
    Aims/hypothesis The aim of this study was to assess the interaction between genetic risk and lifestyle intervention on the occurrence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and postpartum diabetes. Methods The RADIEL study is an RCT aimed at prevention of GDM and postpartum diabetes through lifestyle intervention. Participants with a BMI >= 30 kg/m(2) and/or prior GDM were allocated to intervention and control groups before pregnancy or in early pregnancy. The study visits took place every 3 months before pregnancy, once in each trimester, and at 6 weeks and 6 and 12 months postpartum. We calculated a polygenic risk score (PRS) based on 50 risk variants for type 2 diabetes. Results Altogether, 516 participants provided genetic and GDM data. The PRS was associated with higher glycaemic levels (fasting glucose and/or HbA(1c)) and a lower insulin secretion index in the second and third trimesters and at 12 months postpartum, as well as with a higher occurrence of GDM and glycaemic abnormalities at 12 months postpartum (n = 356). There was an interaction between the PRS and lifestyle intervention (p=0.016 during pregnancy and p=0.024 postpartum) when analysing participants who did not have GDM at the first study visit during pregnancy (n = 386). When analysing women in tertiles according to the PRS, the intervention was effective in reducing the age-adjusted occurrence of GDM only among those with the highest genetic risk (OR 0.37; 95% CI 0.17, 0.82). The risk of glycaemic abnormalities at 12 months postpartum was reduced in the same group after adjusting additionally for BMI, parity, smoking and education (OR 0.35; 95% CI 0.13, 0.97). Conclusions/interpretation Genetic predisposition to diabetes modifies the response to a lifestyle intervention aimed at prevention of GDM and postpartum diabetes. This suggests that lifestyle intervention may benefit from being tailored according to genetic risk.