Browsing by Subject "SCOTS PINE FOREST"

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  • Peltoniemi, Mikko; Pulkkinen, Minna; Aurela, Mika; Pumpanen, Jukka; Kolari, Pasi; Makela, Annikki (2015)
    Simple approaches to predicting ecosystem fluxes are useful in large-scale applications because existing data rarely support justified use of complex models. We developed a model of daily ecosystem gross primary production (P), evapotranspiration (E), and soil water content (theta), which only requires standard weather data and information about the fraction of absorbed radiation. We estimated the parameters of the model for two boreal Scots pine eddy-covariance sites (Hyytiala and Sodankyla). The model predicted P and E adequately for Hyytiala for both calibration and additional test years. The model calibrated for Hyytiala slightly overestimated P and E in Sodankyla, but its performance levelled with the model calibrated for Sodankyla in a dry year. Sensitivity analysis of the model implied that drought prediction is sensitive, not only to key E submodel parameters, but also to P submodel parameters. Further improvement and calibrations of the model could benefit from forest sites with varying canopy and different species structures.
  • Kajos, M. K.; Rantala, P.; Hill, M.; Hellen, H.; Aalto, J.; Patokoski, J.; Taipale, R.; Hoerger, C. C.; Reimann, S.; Ruuskanen, T. M.; Rinne, J.; Petäjä, T. (2015)
    Proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry GC-MS) are commonly used methods for automated in situ measurements of various volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere. In order to investigate the reliability of such measurements, we operated four automated analyzers using their normal field measurement protocol side by side at a boreal forest site. We measured methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, benzene and toluene by two PTR-MS and two GC-MS instruments. The measurements were conducted in southern Finland between 13 April and 14 May 2012. This paper presents correlations and biases between the concentrations measured using the four instruments. A very good correlation was found for benzene and acetone measurements between all instruments (the mean R value was 0.88 for both compounds), while for acetaldehyde and toluene the correlation was weaker (with a mean R value of 0.50 and 0.62, respectively). For some compounds, notably for methanol, there were considerable systematic differences in the mixing ratios measured by the different instruments, despite the very good correlation between the instruments (mean R = 0.90). The systematic difference manifests as a difference in the linear regression slope between measurements conducted between instruments, rather than as an offset. This mismatch indicates that the systematic uncertainty in the sensitivity of a given instrument can lead to an uncertainty of 50-100% in the methanol emissions measured by commonly used methods.
  • Hemmilä, Marja; Hellén, Heidi; Virkkula, Aki; Makkonen, Ulla; Praplan, Arnaud P.; Kontkanen, Jenni; Ahonen, Lauri; Kulmala, Markku; Hakola, Hannele (2018)
    We measured amines in boreal forest air in Finland both in gas and particle phases with 1 h time resolution using an online ion chromatograph (instrument for Measuring AeRosols and Gases in Ambient Air - MARGA) connected to an electrospray ionization quadrupole mass spectrometer (MS). The developed MARGA-MS method was able to separate and detect seven different amines: monomethylamine (MMA), dimethylamine (DMA), trimethylamine (TMA), ethylamine (EA), diethylamine (DEA), propylamine (PA), and butylamine (BA). The detection limits of the method for amines were low (0.2-3.1 ng m(-3)), the accuracy of ICMS analysis was 11-37 %, and the precision 10-15 %. The proper measurements in the boreal forest covered about 8 weeks between March and December 2015. The amines were found to be an inhomogeneous group of compounds, showing different seasonal and diurnal variability. Total MMA (MMA(tot)) peaked together with the sum of ammonia and ammonium ions already in March. In March, monthly means for MMA were 90 %, gas-phase DMA correlated well with 1.1-2 nm particle number concentration (R-2 = 0.63) suggesting that it participates in atmospheric clustering. EA concentrations were low all the time. Its July means were <0.36 and 0.4 +/- 0.4 ng m(-3) in gas and aerosol phases, respectively, but individual concentration data correlated well with monoterpene concentrations in July. Monthly means of PA and BA were below detection limits at all times.
  • Zhou, Putian; Ganzeveld, Laurens; Taipale, Ditte; Rannik, Ullar; Rantala, Pekka; Rissanen, Matti Petteri; Chen, Dean; Boy, Michael (2017)
    A multilayer gas dry deposition model has been developed and implemented into a one-dimensional chemical transport model SOSAA (model to Simulate the concentrations of Organic vapours, Sulphuric Acid and Aerosols) to calculate the dry deposition velocities for all the gas species included in the chemistry scheme. The new model was used to analyse in-canopy sources and sinks, including gas emissions, chemical production and loss, dry deposition, and turbulent transport of 12 featured biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) or groups of BVOCs (e.g. monoterpenes, isoprene+2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO), sesquiterpenes, and oxidation products of mono-and sesquiterpenes) in July 2010 at the boreal forest site SMEAR II (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations). According to the significance of modelled monthly-averaged individual source and sink terms inside the canopy, the selected BVOCs were classified into five categories: 1. Most of emitted gases are transported out of the canopy (monoterpenes, isoprene + MBO). 2. Chemical reactions remove a significant portion of emitted gases (sesquiterpenes). 3. Bidirectional fluxes occur since both emission and dry deposition are crucial for the in-canopy concentration tendency (acetaldehyde, methanol, acetone, formaldehyde). 4. Gases removed by deposition inside the canopy are compensated for by the gases transported from above the canopy (acetol, pinic acid, beta-caryophyllene's oxidation product BCSOZOH). 5. The chemical production is comparable to the sink by deposition (isoprene's oxidation products ISOP34OOH and ISOP34NO3). Most of the simulated sources and sinks were located above about 0.2 h(c) (canopy height) for oxidation products and above about 0.4 h(c) for emitted species except formaldehyde. In addition, soil deposition (including deposition onto understorey vegetation) contributed 11-61% to the overall in-canopy deposition. The emission sources peaked at about 0.8-0.9 h(c), which was higher than 0.6 h(c) where the maximum of dry deposition onto overstorey vegetation was located. This study provided a method to enable the quantification of the exchange between atmosphere and biosphere for numerous BVOCs, which could be applied in large-scale models in future. With this more explicit canopy exchange modelling system, this study analysed both the temporal and spatial variations in individual in-canopy sources and sinks, as well as their combined effects on driving BVOC exchange. In this study 12 featured BVOCs or BVOC groups were analysed. Other compounds could also be investigated similarly by being classified into these five categories.
  • Portillo-Estrada, Miguel; Pihlatie, Mari; Korhonen, Janne F. J.; Levula, Janne; Frumau, Arnoud K. F.; Ibrom, Andreas; Lembrechts, Jonas J.; Morillas, Lourdes; Horvath, Laszlo; Jones, Stephanie K.; Niinemets, Uelo (2016)
    Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling under future climate change is associated with large uncertainties in litter decomposition and the turnover of soil C and N. In addition, future conditions (especially altered precipitation regimes and warming) are expected to result in changes in vegetation composition, and accordingly in litter species and chemical composition, but it is unclear how such changes could potentially alter litter decomposition. Litter transplantation experiments were carried out across six European sites (four forests and two grasslands) spanning a large geographical and climatic gradient (5.6-11.4 degrees C in annual temperature 511-878mm in precipitation) to gain insight into the climatic controls on litter decomposition as well as the effect of litter origin and species. The decomposition k rates were overall higher in warmer and wetter sites than in colder and drier sites, and positively correlated with the litter total specific leaf area. Also, litter N content increased as less litter mass remained and decay went further. Surprisingly, this study demonstrates that climatic controls on litter decomposition are quantitatively more important than species or site of origin. Cumulative climatic variables, precipitation, soil water content and air temperature (ignoring days with air temperatures below zero degrees Celsius), were appropriate to predict the litter remaining mass during decomposition (M-r). M-r and cumulative air temperature were found to be the best predictors for litter carbon and nitrogen remaining during the decomposition. Using mean annual air temperature, precipitation, soil water content and litter total specific leaf area as parameters we were able to predict the annual decomposition rate (k) accurately.
  • Kulmala, Markku; Nieminen, Tuomo; Nikandrova, Anna; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Manninen, Hanna E.; Kajos, Maija K.; Kolari, Pasi; Lauri, Antti; Petaja, Tuukka; Krejci, Radovan; Hansson, Hans-Christen; Swietlicki, Erik; Lindroth, Anders; Christensen, Torben R.; Arneth, Almut; Hari, Pertti; Back, Jaana; Vesala, Timo; Kerminen, Veli-Matti (2014)
  • Makela, Jarmo; Susiluoto, Jouni; Markkanen, Tiina; Aurela, Mika; Järvinen, Heikki; Mammarella, Ivan; Hagemann, Stefan; Aalto, Tuula (2016)
    We examined parameter optimisation in the JSBACH (Kaminski et al., 2013; Knorr and Kattge, 2005; Reick et al., 2013) ecosystem model, applied to two boreal forest sites (Hyytiala and Sodankyla) in Finland. We identified and tested key parameters in soil hydrology and forest water and carbon-exchange-related formulations, and optimised them using the adaptive Metropolis (AM) algorithm for Hyytil with a 5-year calibration period (2000-2004) followed by a 4-year validation period (2005-2008). Sodankyla acted as an independent validation site, where optimisations were not made. The tuning provided estimates for full distribution of possible parameters, along with information about correlation, sensitivity and identifiability. Some parameters were correlated with each other due to a phenomenological connection between carbon uptake and water stress or other connections due to the set-up of the model formulations. The latter holds especially for vegetation phenology parameters. The least identifiable parameters include phenology parameters, parameters connecting relative humidity and soil dryness, and the field capacity of the skin reservoir. These soil parameters were masked by the large contribution from vegetation transpiration. In addition to leaf area index and the maximum carboxylation rate, the most effective parameters adjusting the gross primary production (GPP) and evapotranspiration (ET) fluxes in seasonal tuning were related to soil wilting point, drainage and moisture stress imposed on vegetation. For daily and half-hourly tunings the most important parameters were the ratio of leaf internal CO2 concentration to external CO2 and the parameter connecting relative humidity and soil dryness. Effectively the seasonal tuning transferred water from soil moisture into ET, and daily and half-hourly tunings reversed this process. The seasonal tuning improved the month-to-month development of GPP and ET, and produced the most stable estimates of water use efficiency. When compared to the seasonal tuning, the daily tuning is worse on the seasonal scale. However, daily parametrisation reproduced the observations for average diurnal cycle best, except for the GPP for Sodankyla validation period, where half-hourly tuned parameters were better. In general, the daily tuning provided the largest reduction in model-data mismatch. The models response to drought was unaffected by our parametrisations and further studies are needed into enhancing the dry response in JSBACH.
  • Rantala, Pekka; Taipale, Risto; Aalto, Juho; Kajos, Maija K.; Patokoski, Johanna; Ruuskanen, Taina M.; Rinne, Janne (2014)
  • Berg, Björn (2018)
    Decomposition of foliar litter may be complete or proceed at a progressively lower rate to become zero and a limit value for decomposition may be estimated. Limit values for decomposition have been found to range from 100% accumulated mass loss to 42%, resulting in 'stable' fractions of 0 and 58%, respectively. A limit value does not necessarily mean a complete stop in decomposition but litter mass loss may proceed at a very low rate. An asymptotic function is used to estimate limit value/stable fraction, separating a readily decomposed and a stable residue. The stabilized litter fraction defined as (100 - limit value)/100 may be used for estimating the accumulation rate of stable carbon (C) in organic layers.
  • Ulsig, Laura; Nichol, Caroline J.; Huemmrich, Karl F.; Landis, David R.; Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Mammarella, Ivan; Levula, Janne; Porcar-Castell, Albert (2017)
    Long-term observations of vegetation phenology can be used to monitor the response of terrestrial ecosystems to climate change. Satellite remote sensing provides the most efficient means to observe phenological events through time series analysis of vegetation indices such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). This study investigates the potential of a Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI), which has been linked to vegetation light use efficiency, to improve the accuracy of MODIS-based estimates of phenology in an evergreen conifer forest. Timings of the start and end of the growing season (SGS and EGS) were derived from a 13-year-long time series of PRI and NDVI based on a MAIAC (multi-angle implementation of atmospheric correction) processed MODIS dataset and standard MODIS NDVI product data. The derived dates were validated with phenology estimates from ground-based flux tower measurements of ecosystem productivity. Significant correlations were found between the MAIAC time series and ground-estimated SGS (R-2 = 0.36-0.8), which is remarkable since previous studies have found it difficult to observe inter-annual phenological variations in evergreen vegetation from satellite data. The considerably noisier NDVI product could not accurately predict SGS, and EGS could not be derived successfully from any of the time series. While the strongest relationship overall was found between SGS derived from the ground data and PRI, MAIAC NDVI exhibited high correlations with SGS more consistently (R-2 > 0.6 in all cases). The results suggest that PRI can serve as an effective indicator of spring seasonal transitions, however, additional work is necessary to confirm the relationships observed and to further explore the usefulness of MODIS PRI for detecting phenology.
  • Elm, Jonas; Passananti, Monica; Kurten, Theo; Vehkamäki, Hanna (2017)
    Recent experimental evidence suggests that diamines can enhance atmospheric new particle formation more efficiently compared to monoamines such as dimethylamine Here we investigate the molecular interactions between sulfuric acid (sa) and the diamine putrescine (put) using computational methods. The molecular structure of up to four sulfuric acid molecules and up to four putrescine molecules were obtained, at the omega B97X-D/6-31++G(d,p) level of theory. We utilized a domain local pair natural orbital coupled cluster method (DLPNO-CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ) to obtain highly accurate binding energies of the clusters. We find that the (sa)(1-4)(put)(1-4) clusters show more ionic character than clusters consisting of sulfuric acid and dimethylamine (dma) by readily forming several sulfate ions in the cluster. To estimate the stability of the clusters, we calculate the evaporation rates and compare them to ESI-APi-TOF measurements. Using the atmospheric cluster dynamics code (ACDC), we simulate and compare the new particle formation rates between the (sa)(1-4)(put)(1-4) and (sa),(1-4)(dma)(1-4) cluster systems. We find that putrescine significantly enhances the formation of new particles compared to dimethylamine. Our findings suggest that a large range of amines with different basicity is capable of explaining various regions of the observed new particle formation events. These results indicate that diamines, or related compounds with high basicity, might be important species in forming the initial cluster with sulfuric acid and subsequently more abundant amines with lower basicity can assist in the new particle formation process by attaching to the sulfuric acid-diamine nucleus.
  • Heiskanen, Jouni J.; Mammarella, Ivan; Haapanala, Sami; Pumpanen, Jukka; Vesala, Timo; Macintyre, Sally; Ojala, Anne (2014)
  • Riikonen, Anu; Järvi, Leena; Nikinmaa, Eero (2016)
    We investigated the drivers of street tree transpiration in boreal conditions, in order to better understand tree water use in the context of urban tree planning and stormwater management. Two streets built in Helsinki in 2002, hemiboreal zone that had been planted either with Tilia x vulgaris or Alnus glutinosa f. pyramidalis were used as the study sites. Tree water use was measured from sap flow over the 2008-2011 period by the heat dissipation method. Penman-Monteith based evapotranspiration models of increasing complexity were tested against the tree water use measurements to assess the role of environmental and tree related factors in tree transpiration. Alnus and Tilia respectively used 1.1 and 0.8 l of water per m(2) of leaf area per day under ample water conditions, but the annual variation was high. The Penman-Monteith evapotranspiration estimate and soil water status changes explained over 80 % of the variation in tree transpiration when the model was parameterized annually. The addition of tree crown surface area in the model improved its accuracy and diminished variation between years and sites. Using single parameterization over all four years instead of annually varying one did not produce reliable estimates of tree transpiration. Tree transpiration, scaled to different canopy cover percentages, implied that the columnar Alnus trees could transpire as much as all annual rainfall at or less than 50 % canopy cover.
  • Böttcher, Kristin; Markkanen, Tiina; Thum, Tea; Aalto, Tuula; Aurela, Mika; Reick, Christian H.; Kolari, Pasi; Arslan, Ali N.; Pulliainen, Jouni (2016)
    The objective of this study was to assess the performance of the simulated start of the photosynthetically active season by a large-scale biosphere model in boreal forests in Finland with remote sensing observations. The start of season for two forest types, evergreen needle-and deciduous broad-leaf, was obtained for the period 2003-2011 from regional JSBACH (Jena Scheme for Biosphere-Atmosphere Hamburg) runs, driven with climate variables from a regional climate model. The satellite-derived start of season was determined from daily Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) time series of Fractional Snow Cover and the Normalized Difference Water Index by applying methods that were targeted to the two forest types. The accuracy of the satellite-derived start of season in deciduous forest was assessed with bud break observations of birch and a root mean square error of seven days was obtained. The evaluation of JSBACH modelled start of season dates with satellite observations revealed high spatial correspondence. The bias was less than five days for both forest types but showed regional differences that need further consideration. The agreement with satellite observations was slightly better for the evergreen than for the deciduous forest. Nonetheless, comparison with gross primary production (GPP) determined from CO2 flux measurements at two eddy covariance sites in evergreen forest revealed that the JSBACH-simulated GPP was higher in early spring and led to too-early simulated start of season dates. Photosynthetic activity recovers differently in evergreen and deciduous forests. While for the deciduous forest calibration of phenology alone could improve the performance of JSBACH, for the evergreen forest, changes such as seasonality of temperature response, would need to be introduced to the photosynthetic capacity to improve the temporal development of gross primary production.
  • Kulmala, Markku; Lappalainen, Hanna K.; Back, Jaana; Laaksonen, An; Nikinmaa, Eero; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa; Vesala, Timo; Viisanen, Yrjo; Aalto, Tuula; Boy, Michael; Dal Maso, Miikka; Ehn, Mikael; Hakola, Hannele; Hari, Pertti; Hartonen, Kari; Hameri, Kaarle; Holtta, Teemu; Junninen, Heikki; Jarvi, Leena; Kurten, Theo; Lauri, Antti; Laurila, Tuomas; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Lihavainen, Heikki; Lintunen, Anna; Mammarella, Ivan; Manninen, Hanna E.; Petaja, Tuukka; Pihlatie, Mari; Pumpanen, Jukka; Rinne, Janne; Romakkaniemi, Sami; Ruuskanen, Taina; Sipila, Mikko; Sorvari, Sanna; Vehkamaki, Hanna; Virtanen, Annele; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Kerminen, Veli-Matti (2014)
  • Altimir, N.; Kolari, P.; Tuovinen, J. -P.; Vesala, T.; Bäck, Jaana; Suni, T.; Kulmala, M.; Hari, P. (2006)
  • Chen, Xuemeng; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Paatero, Jussi; Paasonen, Pauli; Manninen, Hanna E.; Nieminen, Tuomo; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kulmala, Markku (2016)
    Most of the ion production in the atmosphere is attributed to ionising radiation. In the lower atmosphere, ionising radiation consists mainly of the decay emissions of radon and its progeny, gamma radiation of the terrestrial origin as well as photons and elementary particles of cosmic radiation. These types of radiation produce ion pairs via the ionisation of nitrogen and oxygen as well as trace species in the atmosphere, the rate of which is defined as the ionising capacity. Larger air ions are produced out of the initial charge carriers by processes such as clustering or attachment to preexisting aerosol particles. This study aimed (1) to identify the key factors responsible for the variability in ionising radiation and in the observed air ion concentrations, (2) to reveal the linkage between them and (3) to provide an in-depth analysis into the effects of ionising radiation on air ion formation, based on measurement data collected during 2003-2006 from a boreal forest site in southern Finland. In general, gamma radiation dominated the ion production in the lower atmosphere. Variations in the ionising capacity came from mixing layer dynamics, soil type and moisture content, meteorological conditions, long-distance transportation, snow cover attenuation and precipitation. Slightly similar diurnal patterns to variations in the ionising capacity were observed in air ion concentrations of the cluster size (0.8-1.7 nm in mobility diameters). However, features observed in the 0.81 nm ion concentration were in good connection to variations of the ionising capacity. Further, by carefully constraining perturbing variables, a strong dependency of the cluster ion concentration on the ionising capacity was identified, proving the functionality of ionising radiation in air ion production in the lower atmosphere. This relationship, however, was only clearly observed on new particle formation (NPF) days, possibly indicating that charges after being born underwent different processes on NPF days and non-event days and also that the transformation of newly formed charges to cluster ions occurred in a shorter timescale on NPF days than on non-event days.
  • Zanella, Augusto; Berg, Björn; Ponge, Jean-Francois; Kemmers, Rolf H. (2017)
    Humusica 1 and 2 Applied Soil Ecology Special issues are field guides for humipedon classification. Contrary to other similar manuals dedicated to soil, the objects that one can describe with these guides are living, dynamic, functional, and relatively independent soil units. This is the reason to why the authors dedicated the whole article number 2 to functional considerations even before readers could go in the field and face the matter to be classified. Experienced lectors can overstep many of the sections reported in this article. If the titles of sections "1 A functional classification", "2 What is a humus system?" and "3 Energetic considerations in terrestrial systems" stimulate the reader's curiosity, then we suggest to pass through them. Otherwise, only section "4 Climatic, plant litter, or nutritional constraints?" is crucial. Readers will understand how the soil works in terms of litter and Carbon accumulation, which one(s) among climatic, vegetational, or geological factors that intervene and strongly affect the formation processes of terrestrial (oxygenated) soils. The article concludes with a debate about a tergiversated question: can temperature influence humus decomposition? Preceding statements were used for explaining how the biological soil net can store in the soil a maximum of energy in the form of SOM, by raising a plateau partially independent of climatic conditions.
  • Thum, Tea; Zaehle, Sönke; Köhler, Philipp; Aalto, Tuula; Aurela, Mika; Guanter, Luis; Kolari, Pasi; Laurila, Tuomas; Lohila, Annalea; Magnani, Federico; Van der Tol, Christiaan; Markkanen, Tiina (2017)
    Recent satellite observations of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) are thought to provide a large-scale proxy for gross primary production (GPP), thus providing a new way to assess the performance of land surface models (LSMs). In this study, we assessed how well SIF is able to predict GPP in the Fenno-Scandinavian region and what potential limitations for its application exist. We implemented a SIF model into the JSBACH LSM and used active leaf-level chlorophyll fluorescence measurements (Chl F) to evaluate the performance of the SIF module at a coniferous forest at Hyytiala, Finland. We also compared simulated GPP and SIF at four Finnish micrometeorological flux measurement sites to observed GPP as well as to satellite-observed SIF. Finally, we conducted a regional model simulation for the Fenno-Scandinavian region with JSBACH and compared the results to SIF retrievals from the GOME-2 (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2) space-borne spectrometer and to observation-based regional GPP estimates. Both observations and simulations revealed that SIF can be used to estimate GPP at both site and regional scales. At regional scale the model was able to simulate observed SIF averaged over 5 years with r(2) of 0.86. The GOME-2-based SIF was a better proxy for GPP than the remotely sensed fA-PAR (fraction of absorbed photosynthetic active radiation by vegetation). The observed SIF captured the seasonality of the photosynthesis at site scale and showed feasibility for use in improving of model seasonality at site and regional scale.