Browsing by Subject "SCREENING TOOL"

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  • SECRETO Study Grp; Jaakonmäki, Nina; Zedde, Marialuisa; Sarkanen, Tomi; Martinez-Majander, Nicolas; Tuohinen, Suvi; Sinisalo, Juha; Ryödi, Essi; Autere, Jaana; Hedman, Marja; Junttola, Ulla; Huhtakangas, Jaana K.; Grimaldi, Teresa; Pascarella, Rosario; Nordanstig, Annika; Bech-Hanssen, Odd; Holbe, Christine; Busch, Raila; Fromm, Annette; Ylikotila, Pauli; Turgut, Esme Ekizoglu; Amorim, Isabel; Ryliskiene, Kristina; Tulkki, Lauri; Amaya Pascasio, Laura; Licenik, Radim; Ferdinand, Phillip; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Jatuzis, Dalius; Korv, Liisa; Korv, Janika; Pezzini, Alessandro; Fonseca, Ana Catarina; Yesilot, Nilufer; Roine, Risto O.; Waje-Andreassen, Ulrike; von Sarnowski, Bettina; Redfors, Petra; Huhtakangas, Juha; Numminen, Heikki; Jakala, Pekka; Putaala, Jukka (2022)
    Objectives: We examined the association between obesity and early-onset cryptogenic ischemic stroke (CIS) and whether fat distribution or sex altered this association. Materials and Methods: This prospective, multi-center, case-control study included 345 patients, aged 18-49 years, with first-ever, acute CIS. The control group included 345 age-and sex-matched stroke-free individuals. We measured height, weight, waist circumference, and hip circumference. Obesity metrics analyzed included body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-stature ratio (WSR), and a body shape index (ABSI). Models were adjusted for age, level of education, vascular risk factors, and migraine with aura. Results: After adjusting for demographics, vascular risk factors, and migraine with aura, the highest tertile of WHR was associated with CIS (OR for highest versus lowest WHR tertile 2.81, 95%CI 1.43-5.51; P=0.003). In sex-specific analyses, WHR tertiles were not associated with CIS. However, using WHO WHR cutoff values (>0.85 for women, >0.90 for men), abdominally obese women were at increased risk of CIS (OR 2.09, 95%CI 1.02-4.27; P=0.045). After adjusting for confounders, WC, BMI, WSR, or ABSI were not associated with CIS. Conclusions: Abdominal obesity measured with WHR was an independent risk factor for CIS in young adults after rigorous adjustment for concomitant risk factors.
  • Dent, E.; Morley, J. E.; Cruz-Jentoft, A. J.; Woodhouse, L.; Rodriguez-Manas, L.; Fried, L. P.; Woo, J.; Aprahamian; Sanford, A.; Lundy, J.; Landi, F.; Beilby, J.; Martin, F. C.; Bauer, J. M.; Ferrucci, L.; Merchant, R. A.; Dong, B.; Arai, H.; Hoogendijk, E. O.; Won, C. W.; Abbatecola, A.; Cederholm, T.; Strandberg, T.; Gutierrez Robledo, L. M.; Flicker, L.; Bhasin, S.; Aubertin-Leheudre, M.; Bischoff-Ferrari, H. A.; Guralnik, J. M.; Muscedere, J.; Pahor, M.; Ruiz, J.; Negm, A. M.; Reginster, J. Y.; Waters, D. L.; Vellas, B. (2019)
    Objective The task force of the International Conference of Frailty and Sarcopenia Research (ICFSR) developed these clinical practice guidelines to overview the current evidence-base and to provide recommendations for the identification and management of frailty in older adults. Methods These recommendations were formed using the GRADE approach, which ranked the strength and certainty (quality) of the supporting evidence behind each recommendation. Where the evidence-base was limited or of low quality, Consensus Based Recommendations (CBRs) were formulated. The recommendations focus on the clinical and practical aspects of care for older people with frailty, and promote person-centred care. Recommendations for Screening and Assessment The task force recommends that health practitioners case identify/screen all older adults for frailty using a validated instrument suitable for the specific setting or context (strong recommendation). Ideally, the screening instrument should exclude disability as part of the screening process. For individuals screened as positive for frailty, a more comprehensive clinical assessment should be performed to identify signs and underlying mechanisms of frailty (strong recommendation). Recommendations for Management A comprehensive care plan for frailty should address polypharmacy (whether rational or nonrational), the management of sarcopenia, the treatable causes of weight loss, and the causes of exhaustion (depression, anaemia, hypotension, hypothyroidism, and B12 deficiency) (strong recommendation). All persons with frailty should receive social support as needed to address unmet needs and encourage adherence to a comprehensive care plan (strong recommendation). First-line therapy for the management of frailty should include a multi-component physical activity programme with a resistance-based training component (strong recommendation). Protein/caloric supplementation is recommended when weight loss or undernutrition are present (conditional recommendation). No recommendation was given for systematic additional therapies such as cognitive therapy, problem-solving therapy, vitamin D supplementation, and hormone-based treatment. Pharmacological treatment as presently available is not recommended therapy for the treatment of frailty.
  • Frajkova, Zofia; Tedla, Miroslav; Tedlova, Eva; Suchankova, Magda; Geneid, Ahmed (2020)
    The COVID-19 is a global pandemic. Its rapid dissemination and serious course require a novel approach to healthcare practices. Severe disease progression is often associated with the development of the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome and may require some form of respiratory support, including endotracheal intubation, mechanical ventilation, and enteral nutrition through a nasogastric tube. These conditions increase the risk of dysphagia, aspiration, and aspiration pneumonia. The data on the incidence and risks of dysphagia associated with COVID-19 are not yet available. However, it is assumed that these patients are at high risk, because of respiratory symptoms and reduced lung function. These findings may exacerbate swallowing deficits. The aim of this review is to summarize available information on possible mechanisms of postintubation dysphagia in COVID-19 patients. Recommendations regarding the diagnosis and management of postintubation dysphagia in COVID-19 patients are described in this contemporary review.
  • Heikkilä, Anniina; Lehtonen, Lasse; Haukka, Jari; Havulinna, Satu; Junttila, Kristiina (2021)
    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Peninsula Health Fall Risk Assessment Tool (PHFRAT) in acute care in various medical specialties. The assessment has not been previously studied in acute care. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted in a large acute care hospital system. The retrospective medical data were used to explore the validity of the PHFRAT. The data consisted of all adult inpatients (>= 18 age) evaluated by the PHFRAT during 2014-2016 (n = 22,700). The Poisson regression, logistic regression, sensitivity, specificity, and the area under the ROC curve were evaluated. The data for the reliability study were collected in 2016 in twelve units by evaluating the patients (n = 359) twice using the PHFRAT. The prospective data were analyzed using Fleiss' Kappa, and the content validity index was also counted. Results: In the somatic data, the change in the risk level from low risk to high risk increases the probability of falls by a factor of 2.8 (p
  • FinnDiane Study Grp; Parente, Erika B.; Harjutsalo, Valma; Forsblom, Carol; Groop, Per-Henrik (2021)
    BackgroundObesity and type 2 diabetes are well-known risk factors for heart failure (HF). Although obesity has increased in type 1 diabetes, studies regarding HF in this population are scarce. Therefore, we investigated the impact of body fat distribution on the risk of HF hospitalization or death in adults with type 1 diabetes at different stages of diabetic nephropathy (DN).MethodsFrom 5401 adults with type 1 diabetes in the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy Study, 4668 were included in this analysis. The outcome was HF hospitalization or death identified from the Finnish Care Register for Health Care or the Causes of Death Register until the end of 2017. DN was based on urinary albumin excretion rate. A body mass index (BMI) >= 30 kg/m(2) defined general obesity, whilst WHtR >= 0.5 central obesity. Multivariable Cox regression was used to explore the associations between central obesity, general obesity and the outcome. Then, subgroup analyses were performed by DN stages. Z statistic was used for ranking the association.ResultsDuring a median follow-up of 16.4 (IQR 12.4-18.5) years, 323 incident cases occurred. From 308 hospitalizations due to HF, 35 resulted in death. Further 15 deaths occurred without previous hospitalization. The WHtR showed a stronger association with the outcome [HR 1.51, 95% CI (1.26-1.81), z = 4.40] than BMI [HR 1.05, 95% CI (1.01-1.08), z=2.71]. HbA(1c) [HR 1.35, 95% CI (1.24-1.46), z=7.19] was the most relevant modifiable risk factor for the outcome whereas WHtR was the third. Individuals with microalbuminuria but no central obesity had a similar risk of the outcome as those with normoalbuminuria. General obesity was associated with the outcome only at the macroalbuminuria stage.ConclusionsCentral obesity associates with an increased risk of heart failure hospitalization or death in adults with type 1 diabetes, and WHtR may be a clinically useful screening tool.
  • Parente, Erika B.; Mutter, S.; Harjutsalo, V.; Ahola, A. J.; Forsblom, C.; Groop, P-H (2020)
    Visceral fat is associated with cardiovascular and kidney disease. However, the relationship between body composition and anthropometric measures in type 1 diabetes is unknown. Using z-statistics, we ranked the ability of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio (WHR), waist-height ratio (WHtR) and a body shape index (ABSI) to capture measures of body composition from 603 Dual-energy-X-Ray-Absorptiometry scans of adults with type 1 diabetes. Albuminuria was defined as urinary albumin excretion rate of at least 30 mg/24 h. Women with albuminuria had higher visceral fat mass % (VFM%) (0.9 vs. 0.5%, p = 0.0017) and lower appendicular lean mass % (AppLM%) (25.4 vs 26.4%, p = 0.03) than those without. Men with albuminuria had higher VFM% (1.5 vs. 1.0%, p = 0.0013) and lower AppLM% (30.0 vs 32.3, p < 0.0001) than those without. In men, WHtR estimated VFM% best (z-statistics = 21.1), followed by WC (z = 19.6), BMI (z = 15.1), WHR (z = 14.6) and ABSI (z = 10.1). In women, the ranking was WC (z = 28.9), WHtR (z = 27.3), BMI (z = 20.5), WHR (z = 12.7) and ABSI (z = 10.5). Overall, the ranking was independent of albuminuria. Adults with type 1 diabetes and albuminuria have greater VFM% and lower AppLM% than those without. WHtR and WC best estimate the VFM% in this population, independently of albuminuria and sex.