Browsing by Subject "SEA"

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  • Haapasaari, Päivi; van Tatenhove, Jan P. M. (2022)
    The EU Maritime Spatial Planning Directive (MSPD) requires the member states (MS) to pursue Blue Growth while ensuring good environmental status (GES) of sea areas. An ecosystem-based approach (EBA) should be used for the integration of the aims. However, the MSPD does not specify how the MS should arrange their MSP governance, which has led to a variety of governance arrangements and solutions in addressing the aims. We analysed the implementation of the MSPD in Finland, to identify conditions that may enable or constrain the integration of Blue Growth and GES in the framework of EBA. MSP in Finland is an expert-driven regionalized approach with a legally non-binding status. The results suggest that this MSP framework supports the implementation of EBA in MSP. Yet, unpredictability induced by the non-binding status of MSP, ambiguity of the aims of MSP and of the concept of EBA, and the need to pursue economic viability in the coastal municipalities may threaten the consistency of MSP in both spatial and temporal terms. Developing MSP towards a future-oriented adaptive and collaborative approach striving for social learning could improve the legitimacy of MSP and its capacity to combine Blue Growth and GES. The analysis indicates, that in the delivery of successful MSP adhering to the principles of EBA should permeate all levels of governance. The study turns attention to the legal status of MSP as a binding or non-binding planning instrument and the role the legal status plays in facilitating or constraining predictability and adaptability required in MSP.
  • Coppock, Rachel L.; Lindeque, Penelope K.; Cole, Matthew; Galloway, Tamara S.; Nakki, Pinja; Birgani, Hannah; Richards, Saskiya; Queiros, Ana M. (2021)
    Microplastics are ubiquitous in the marine environment, however, the mechanisms governing their uptake by, and burial within, seabed habitats are poorly understood. In this study, microplastic burial and its impact on fauna-mediated sedimentary processes was quantified at three coastal sites, and the potential contribution of burrowing faunal communities to this process assessed via functional trait diversity analysis of field data. In addition, laboratory exposures were used to assess whether sediment-processing undertaken by the brittlestar Amphiura filiformis, a key species in the sampled area, could explain the burial of microplastic fibres. Field observations confirmed broad-scale burial of microplastics across the coastal seabed, consistent across sites and seasons, with microplastic sequestration linked to benthic-pelagic exchange pathways, driven by burrowing fauna. Brittlestars were observed to bury and line their burrow walls with microfibres during experiments, and their burial activity was also modified following exposure to nylon fibres, relative to controls. Collectively, these results indicate that biodiverse and functionally important seabed habitats act as microplastic sinks, with burrowing fauna contributing to this process via well-known benthic-pelagic pathways, the rates of which are modified by plastic exposure.
  • Villnäs, Anna; Janas, Urzsula; Josefson, Alf B.; Kendzierska, Halina; Nygård, Henrik; Norkko, Joanna; Norkko, Alf (2019)
    Benthic macrofaunal communities have a profound impact on organic matter turnover and nutrient cycling in marine sediments. Their activities are of particular importance in the coastal filter, where nutrients and organic matter from land are transformed and/or retained before reaching the open sea. The benthic fauna modify the coastal filter directly (through consumption, respiration, excretion and biomass production) and indirectly (through bioturbation). It is hard to experimentally quantify faunal contribution to the coastal filter over large spatial and temporal scales that encompass significant environmental and biological heterogeneity. However, estimates can be obtained with biological trait analyses. By using benthic biological traits, we explored how the potential contribution of macrofaunal communities to the coastal filter differ between inner and outer sites in an extensive archipelago area and examine the generality of the observed pattern across contrasting coastal areas of the entire Baltic Sea. Estimates of benthic bioturbation, longevity and size (i.e. ‘stability’) and total energy and nutrient contents differed between coastal areas and inner versus outer sites. Benthic traits indicative of an enhanced nutrient turnover but a decreased capacity for temporal nutrient retention dominated inner sites, while outer sites were often dominated by larger individuals, exhibiting traits that are likely to enhance nutrient uptake and retention. The overarching similarities in benthic trait expression between more eutrophied inner vs. less affected outer coastal sites across the Baltic Sea suggest that benthic communities might contribute in a similar manner to nutrient recycling and retention in the coastal filter over large geographical scales.
  • Brandão, L. P. M.; Brighenti, L. S.; Staehr, P. A.; Asmala, E.; Massicotte, P.; Tonetta, D.; Barbosa, F. A. R.; Pujoni, D.; Bezerra-Neto, J. F. (2018)
    Despite the increasing understanding about differences in carbon cycling between temperate and tropical freshwater systems, our knowledge on the importance of organic matter (OM) pools on light absorption properties in tropical lakes is very scarce. We performed a factorial mesocosm experiment in a tropical lake (Minas Gerais, Brazil) to evaluate the effects of increased concentrations of al-lochthonous and autochthonous OM, and differences in light availability on the light absorption characteristics of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM). Autochthonous OM deriving from phytoplankton (similar to Chl a) was stimulated by addition of nutrients, while OM from degradation of terrestrial leaves increased allochthonous OM, and neutral shading was used to manipulate light availability. Effects of the additions and shading on DOC, Chl a, nutrients, total suspended solid concentrations (TSM) and spectral CDOM absorption were monitored every 3 days. CDOM quality was characterized by spectral indices (S250-450, S275-295, S350-450, S-R and SUVA(254)). Effects of carbon sources and shading on the spectral CDOM absorption was investigated through principal component (PCA) and redundancy (RDA) analyses. The two different OM sources affected CDOM quality very differently and shading had minor effects on OM levels, but significant effects on OM quality, especially in combination with nutrient additions. Spectral indices (S250-450 and S-R) were mostly affected by allochthonous OM addition. The PCA showed that enrichment by allochthonous carbon had a strong effect on the CDOM spectra in the range between 300 and 400 nm, while the increase in autochthonous carbon increased absorption at wavelengths below 350 nm. Our study shows that small inputs of allochthonous OM can have large effects on the spectral light absorption compared to large production of autochthonous OM, with important implications for carbon cycling in tropical lakes.
  • Staehr, Peter A.; Asmala, Eero; Carstensen, Jacob; Krause-Jensen, Dorte; Reader, Heather (2018)
    Long-term deterioration of water quality is known to reduce the importance of benthic ecosystem metabolism in shallow coastal ecosystems, but drivers of spatial and short-term variability in ecosystem metabolism are poorly understood. We addressed this knowledge gap through detailed seasonal measurements of ecosystem metabolism across depth gradients from shallow (2 to 3 m) eelgrass-dominated to deeper (4 to 5 m) muddy regions of a shallow, productive estuary. Combined measurements of gross primary production (GPP), respiration (R) and, by difference, net ecosystem production (NEP) by the open-water diel oxygen technique and in situ chamber incubations showed high importance of shallow eelgrass habitats for metabolism at the system scale. Seasonal variations in GPP, R and NEP increased with light availability and temperature with highest NEP in all habitats during the warm and sunny mid-summer. The shallow eelgrass-dominated and neighboring habitats were seasonally net autotrophic (NEP = 0.54 and 0.31 mg O2 m-2 d-1, respectively), compared to net heterotrophy (NEP = -0.26 mg O2 m-2 d-1) at the deeper muddy site. Detailed studies along depth gradients further confirmed the role of eelgrass as a key driver of spatial differences in ecosystem metabolism across the estuary. Strong northerly winds (>8 m s-1) caused short-term (<24 h) periods of similar oxygen dynamics and similar apparent productivity in shallow and deeper waters, indicative of efficient lateral mixing, while calm periods (<4 m s-1) enabled formation of ‘pockets’, i.e. water masses with limited connectivity, which exacerbated the metabolic differences between shallow and deep sites.
  • Salonen, I. S.; Chronopoulou, P-M; Bird, C.; Reichart, G-J; Koho, K. A. (2019)
    Benthic foraminifera are known to play an important role in marine carbon and nitrogen cycles. Here, we report an enrichment of sulphur cycle -associated bacteria inside intertidal benthic foraminifera (Ammonia sp. (T6), Haynesina sp. (S16) and Elphidium sp. (S5)), using a meta barcoding approach targeting the 16S rRNA and aprA -genes. The most abundant intracellular bacterial groups included the genus Sulfurovum and the order Desulfobacterales. The bacterial 16S OTUs are likely to originate from the sediment bacterial communities, as the taxa found inside the foraminifera were also present in the sediment. The fact that 16S rRNA and aprA -gene derived intracellular bacterial OTUs were species-specific and significantly different from the ambient sediment community implies that bacterivory is an unlikely scenario, as benthic foraminifera are known to digest bacteria only randomly. Furthermore, these foraminiferal species are known to prefer other food sources than bacteria. The detection of sulphur-cycle related bacterial genes in this study suggests a putative role for these bacteria in the metabolism of the foraminiferal host. Future investigation into environmental conditions under which transcription of S-cycle genes are activated would enable assessment of their role and the potential foraminiferal/endobiont contribution to the sulphur-cycle.
  • Gamboa-Sojo, Viviana M.; Husum, Katrine; Morigi, Caterina; Divine, Dmitry; Miettinen, Arto (2022)
    Environmental changes for the past ca. 50 years were studied in a short sediment core from inner Krossfjorden, Svalbard, investigating benthic foraminifera and stable isotopes (delta O-18, delta C-13). A depth-age model based on anthropogenic Cs-137 time markers indicates that record covers the period from 1955 to 2007 and has sediment accumulation rates of ca. 0.3 to 1 cm/year. The benthic foraminifera are arctic and/or common in glaciomarine environments. Six fauna assemblages were identified using stratigraphically constrained cluster analysis. Benthic foraminiferal fauna assemblages are mainly dominated by Cassidulina reniforme. Elphidium clavatum is dominant from 1973 to 1986 and 2002 to 2007, likely due to greater turbidity in the water column. We interpret the increased percentages of Spiroplectammina biformis over the same intervals to reflect a slightly lower salinity probably caused by meltwater. During a short time period, 1970 to 1973, Stainforthia concava dominates the benthic foraminiferal fauna interpreted to reflect increased productivity within a marginal ice zone. Other species as Islandiella norcrossi, Nonionellina labradorica, Islandiella helenae, and Melonis barleanus also indicate more nutrient-rich waters are present but not very abundant throughout the record probably due to the glacier proximal position of the study site. The stable isotope record (delta O-18) shows lighter values from 2001 to 2007, which seem to correlate well with oceanographic monitoring data showing increasing core temperatures of West Spitsbergen Current.
  • Radnaeva, Larisa D.; Popov, Dmitry V.; Grahl-Nielsen, Otto; Khanaev, Igor V.; Bazarsadueva, Selmeg V.; Kakela, Reijo (2017)
    Lake Baikal is a unique freshwater environment with maximum depths over 1600 m. The high water pressure at the lakebed strengthens the solidifying effect of low water temperature on animal tissue lipids, and thus the effective temperatures in the depths of the lake equal subzero temperatures in shallow waters. Cottoidei species has colonized the different water layers of the lake, and developed different ecology and physiology reflected in their tissue biochemistry. We studied by gas chromatography the composition of fatty acids (FAs), largely responsible for tissue lipid physical properties, in the white muscle tissue of 13 species of the Cottoidei fish; five benthic abyssal, six benthic eurybathic and two benthopelagic species. The FA profiles reflected habitat depth. The muscles of the deepest living species contained little polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) and were instead rich in monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs), which may be due to occasional weak food web links to the PUFA-rich primary producers of the photic water layer, high MUFA supply from their benthic diet, and conversion of saturated FAs (SFAs) to MUFAs in the tissues of the fish. Despite the MUFA percentage among the abyssal species reached even 50% (by weight) of total FAs, the PUFA percentage still remained above 20% in every species. The muscle MUFA/SFA ratio correlated negatively with the PUFA content of the fish muscle, suggesting viscosity control integrating the fluidity contributions from the dietary PUFAs and potentially endogenous MUFAs.
  • Hirase, Shotaro; Yamasaki, Yo Y.; Sekino, Masashi; Nishisako, Masato; Ikeda, Minoru; Hara, Motoyuki; Merilä, Juha; Kikuchi, Kiyoshi (2021)
    How early stages of speciation in free-spawning marine invertebrates proceed is poorly understood. The Western Pacific abalones, Haliotis discus, H. madaka, and H. gigantea, occur in sympatry with shared breeding season and are capable of producing viable F-1 hybrids in spite of being ecologically differentiated. Population genomic analyses revealed that although the three species are genetically distinct, there is evidence for historical and ongoing gene flow among these species. Evidence from demographic modeling suggests that reproductive isolation among the three species started to build in allopatry and has proceeded with gene flow, possibly driven by ecological selection. We identified 27 differentiation islands between the closely related H. discus and H. madaka characterized by high F-ST and d(A), but not high d(XY) values, as well as high genetic diversity in one H. madaka population. These genomic signatures suggest differentiation driven by recent ecological divergent selection in presence of gene flow outside of the genomic islands of differentiation. The differentiation islands showed low polymorphism in H. gigantea, and both high F-ST, d(XY), and d(A) values between H. discus and H. gigantea, as well as between H. madaka and H. gigantea. Collectively, the Western Pacific abalones appear to occupy the early stages speciation continuum, and the differentiation islands associated with ecological divergence among the abalones do not appear to have acted as barrier loci to gene flow in the younger divergences but appear to do so in older divergences.
  • Haapasaari, Paivi; Ignatius, Suvi; Pihlajamaki, Mia; Sarkki, Simo; Tuomisto, Jouni; Delaney, Alyne (2019)
    This article focuses on the dioxin problem of Baltic herring and salmon fisheries and its governance that is based on natural scientific knowledge. The dioxin problem weakens the perceived quality of Baltic salmon and herring as food and affects the way the catches can be used. This influences negatively the fishing livelihood, the coastal culture, and the availability of the fish for consumers. We explored how the governance of the dioxin problem could be improved, to better address its socio-economic and cultural implications. We identified four main actions: (1) adopt environmental, economic and social sustainability, and food security and safety as shared principles between the environmental, food safety/public health, and fisheries policies, (2) establish collaboration between the environmental, public health, and fisheries sectors at the regional level, (3) enhance interaction around the dioxin problem within the fisheries sector, and (4) support the participation of the Baltic fisheries stakeholders in the EU-level food safety governance. Viewing dioxins in fish not only as a natural scientific problem but as a multidimensional one would enable a wider toolbox of governing instruments to be developed to better address the different dimensions. This would support steps towards collaborative governance and a food system approach.
  • Helle, Inari; Mäkinen, Jussi Antti-Eerikki; Nevalainen, Maisa Katariina; Afenyo, Mawuli; Vanhatalo, Jarno (2020)
    Oil spills resulting from maritime accidents pose a poorly understood risk to the Arctic environment. We propose a novel probabilistic method to quantitatively assess these risks. Our method accounts for spatiotemporally varying population distributions, the spreading of oil, and seasonally varying species-specific exposure potential and sensitivity to oil. It quantifies risk with explicit uncertainty estimates, enables one to compare risks over large geographic areas, and produces information on a meaningful scale for decision-making. We demonstrate the method by assessing the short-term risks oil spills pose to polar bears, ringed seals, and walrus in the Kara Sea, the western part of the Northern Sea Route. The risks differ considerably between species, spatial locations, and seasons. Our results support current aspirations to ban heavy fuel oil in the Arctic but show that we should not underestimate the risks of lighter oils either, as these oils can pollute larger areas than heavier ones. Our results also highlight the importance of spatially explicit season-specific oil spill risk assessment in the Arctic and that environmental variability and the lack of data are a major source of uncertainty related to the oil spill impacts.
  • Kauppinen, A.; Al-Hello, H.; Zacheus, O.; Kilponen, J.; Maunula, L.; Huusko, S.; Lappalainen, M.; Miettinen, I.; Blomqvist, S.; Rimhanen-Finne, R. (2017)
  • Ignatius, Suvi Helka Maria; Haapasaari, Päivi Elisabet (2018)
    The ecosystem approach to fisheries management requires ecosystems to be perceived in a holistic way, including the dynamics not only within an ecosystem but also between the ecosystem and society. This implies that people involved in decision-making processes should understand why fish and fisheries are important for society, that is, be aware of the socio-cultural values that people associate with fisheries. In this paper, the justification theory of Boltanski and Thevenot is applied to material collected through a literature review to identify sociocultural values relating to Baltic salmon, and the potential of the approach for fisheries governance is discussed. The analysis demonstrates that fish resources can have multiple meanings to society. Justification theory is found useful for identifying socio-cultural values related to fisheries, since it suggests shifting attention from opposing interests to the common good. Agreeing on the common good is crucial for the legitimacy of governance. However, because the common good can be defined in multiple ways, these definitions have to be made transparent through empirical analysis so that they can be further deliberated, evaluated and agreed upon by governors, stakeholders and others involved.
  • Chronopoulou, Myrsini; Salonen, Iines; Bird, Clare; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Koho, Karoliina (2019)
    Foraminifera are ubiquitous marine protists with an important role in the benthic carbon cycle. However, morphological observations often fail to resolve their exact taxonomic placement and there is a lack of field studies on their particular trophic preferences. Here, we propose the application of metabarcoding as a tool for the elucidation of the in situ feeding behavior of benthic foraminifera, while also allowing the correct taxonomic assignment of the feeder, using the V9 region of the 18S (small subunit; SSU) rRNA gene. Living foraminiferal specimens were collected from two intertidal mudflats of the Wadden Sea and DNA was extracted from foraminiferal individuals and from the surrounding sediments. Molecular analysis allowed us to confirm that our foraminiferal specimens belong to three genetic types: Ammonia sp. T6, Elphidium sp. S5 and Haynesina sp. S16. Foraminiferal intracellular eukaryote communities reflected to an extent those of the surrounding sediments but at different relative abundances. Unlike sediment eukaryote communities, which were largely determined by the sampling site, foraminiferal intracellular eukaryote communities were driven by foraminiferal species, followed by sediment depth. Our data suggests that Ammonia sp. T6 can predate on metazoan classes, whereas Elphidium sp. S5 and Haynesina sp. S16 are more likely to ingest diatoms. These observations, alongside the use of metabarcoding in similar ecological studies, significantly contribute to our overall understanding of the ecological roles of these protists in intertidal benthic environments and their position and function in the benthic food webs.
  • Vuorinen, Pekka J.; Rokka, Mervi; Nikonen, Soili; Juntunen, Esa-Pekka; Ritvanen, Tiina; Heinimaa, Petri; Keinänen, Marja (2021)
    Thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency of salmonines, caused by an abundant lipid-rich fish diet and consequently, the abundance of polyunsaturated fatty acids, is called the M74 syndrome in the Baltic Sea. Because of its deleterious effects on wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) stocks and progeny production in fish cultivation, a model was developed to derive the annual female-specific mortality percentages of yolk-sac fry (YSFM) from the free thiamine concentrations of unfertilized eggs. In years with a high M74 incidence, thiamine-deficient females were larger, with a larger condition factor (CF) than non-M74 females. Otherwise, M74 females were generally smaller. The mean CF of M74 females was in most years higher than that of non-M74 females. The model compiled enables the cost-effective estimation of YSFM of individual female salmon, without the incubation of eggs and hatched yolk-sac fry for several months, thus benefitting the management of salmon stocks and their efficient utilization.
  • Plado, Juri; Preeden, Ulla; Joeleht, Argo; Pesonen, Lauri J.; Mertanen, Satu (2016)
    The hill range of Vaivara Sinimaed in northeast Estonia consists of several narrow east-to northeast-trending glaciotectonic fold structures. The folds include tilted (dips 4-75 degrees) Middle Ordovician (early Darriwilian) layered carbonate strata that were studied by mineralogical, palaeomagnetic, and rock magnetic methods in order to specify the post-sedimentational history of the area and to obtain a better control over the palaeogeographic position of Baltica during the Ordovician. Mineralogical studies revealed that (titano) magnetite, hematite, and goethite are carriers of magnetization. Based on data from 5 sites that positively passed a DC tilt test, a south-easterly downward directed component A (D-ref = 154.6 degrees +/- 15.3 degrees, I-ref = 60.9 degrees +/- 9.7 degrees) was identified. The component is carried by (titano) magnetite, dates to the Middle Ordovician (Plat = 17.9 degrees, Plon = 47.3 degrees, K = 46.7, A95 = 11.3 degrees), and places Baltica at mid-southerly latitudes. Observations suggest that in sites that do not pass the tilt test, the glaciotectonic event has caused some rotation of blocks around their vertical axis.
  • Svedäng, Henrik; Savchuk, Oleg P; Villnäs, Anna; Norkko, Alf; Gustafsson, Bo; Wikström, Sofia A.; Humborg, Christoph (2022)
    Hypoxia is presently seen as the principal driver behind the decline of the former dominating Eastern Baltic cod stock (EBC; Gadus morhua). It has been proposed that both worsening conditions for reproduction and lower individual growth, condition, and survival are linked to hypoxia. Here, we elucidate the ecological envelope of EBC in terms of salinity stratification, oxygen content, and benthic animal biomasses, and how it has affected EBC productivity over time. The spawning conditions started deteriorating in the Gotland Deep in the 1950s due to oxygen depletion. In contrast, in the Bornholm Basin, hydrographic conditions have remained unchanged over the last 60 years. Indeed, the current extent of both well-oxygenated areas and the frequency of hypoxia events do not differ substantially from periods with high EBC productivity in the 1970s–1980s. Furthermore, oxygenated and therefore potentially suitable feeding areas are abundant in all parts of the Baltic Sea, and our novel analysis provides no evidence of a reduction in benthic food sources for EBC over the last 30 years. We find that while reproduction failure is intricately linked to hydrographic dynamics, a relationship between the spread of hypoxia and the decline in EBC productivity during the last decades cannot be substantiated.
  • Asmala, Eero; Virtasalo, Joonas J.; Scheinin, Matias; Newton, Sara; Jilbert, Tom (2022)
    Multiple biogeochemical processes in estuaries modulate the flux of nutrients from land to sea, thus contributing to the coastal filter. The role of particle dynamics in regulating the fate of terrestrial nutrients in estuaries is poorly constrained. To address this issue, we resolved the particle size distribution of suspended material, and quantified size-fractionated particulate nitrogen (PN) and phosphorus (PP), in a stratified mesotrophic estuary (Pojoviken, Finland). We also carried out a mixing experiment where the effects of salt-induced flocculation on particle size distribution and concentrations of PN and PP were examined. The experimental results showed that salt-induced flocculation at already very low salinities increases the total particle concentration and mean particle size, indicating transfer of dissolved material into particulates. Correspondingly, a significant increase in PP and particulate iron (Fe) was observed in the experiment results, suggesting coupled flocculation of P-containing organic matter (OM) and ferrihydrite. Particle dynamics in the field data were dominated by processes occurring downstream of the flocculation zone. Primary production created a downward flux of autochthonous OM particles, promoting passive aggregation by random collisions with terrestrial material in the water column. Maximum particle concentrations were observed at and below the halocline. The highest PN and PP concentrations were observed in the subhalocline layer, 3.5 and 0.14 mu mol L-1, respectively. Molar ratios of N:P in this material were >40, consistent with typical marine snow in the early stages of microbial processing. Our study provides a mechanistic overview of the biogeochemical drivers of particulate nutrient dynamics in stratified estuarine environments.
  • Yang, Fang; Feng, Weiying; Matti, Leppäranta; Yang, Yu; Merkouriadi, Ioanna; Cen, Rui; Bai, Yangwei; Li, Changyou; Liao, Haiqing (2020)
    The intra-annual heat exchange process has a considerable influence on the energy circulation, material metabolism, and ecological succession of lakes. The input and output of heat in an ice-covered lake provide the basic dynamic force driving changes in the biochemical state of the lake. Based on the heat balance between the lake surface and the atmosphere, we established a thermodynamic model for calculating the thermodynamic factors of shallow inland lakes during the ice and open seasons. The data of the Ulansuhai Lake, Inner Mongolia, from two years (2012 and 2013) are used to analyze the seasonal characteristics and associated influences of the heat budget on the ecosystem. The results indicated that the monthly mean lake temperature over the past 10 years was 1.7-2.2 degrees C lower than in the previous 50 years. The absorbed solar radiation reached up to 210 W/m(2) in 2012 and 179 W/m(2) in 2013, and there were clear differences in the heat budget between the ice-covered and open seasons. The mean net heat fluxes in the ice season were -33.8 and -38.5 W/m(2) in 2012 and 2013, respectively; while in the open season water, these fluxes were 62.5 and 19.1 W/m(2). In the simulations, the wind was an important factor for intensive evaporation in summer and the main driver of the ice cover formation patterns in winter, involving the transmission and diffusion of material and energy in the lake. The results provide a theoretical foundation for simulating ice cover growth and ablation processes in shallow lakes. They also present data on the ecological evolution in these lacustrine environments.