Browsing by Subject "SEEDS"

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  • Ramos-Diaz, Jose Martin; Sulyok, Michael; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik; Jouppila, Kirsi; Nathanail, Alexis V (2021)
    The consumption of high-quality Andean grains (a.k.a. pseudocereals) is increasing worldwide, and yet very little is known about the susceptibility of these crops to mycotoxin contamination. In this survey study, a multi-analyte liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) method was utilised to determine mycotoxin and fungal metabolite levels in Andean grains (quinoa and kañiwa) in comparison to cereal grains (barley, oats and wheat), cultivated in both South American (Bolivia and Peru) and North European (Denmark, Finland and Latvia) countries. A total of 101 analytes were detected at varying levels, primarily produced by Penicillium spp., Fusarium spp. and Aspergillus spp., depending on the type of crop, geographical location and agricultural practices used. Generally, Andean grains from South America showed lower mycotoxin contamination (concentration and assortment) than those from North Europe, while the opposite occurred with cereal grains. Mycotoxin contamination profiles exhibited marked differences between Andean and cereal grains, even when harvested from the same regions, highlighting the need for crop-specific approaches for mycotoxin risk mitigation. Lastly, the efficacy of grain cleaning in respect to total mycotoxin content was assessed, which resulted in significantly lower levels (overall reduction approx. 50%) in cleaned samples for the majority of contaminants.
  • Kuoppala, K.; Jaakkola, S.; Garry, B.; Ahvenjarvi, S.; Rinne, M. (2021)
    There is increasing interest in using locally produced protein supplements in dairy cow feeding. The objective of this experiment was to compare rapeseed meal (RSM), faba beans (FBs) and blue lupin seeds (BL) at isonitrogenous amounts as supplements of grass silage and cereal based diets. A control diet (CON) without protein supplement was included in the experiment. Four lactating Nordic Red cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin Square design with four 21 d periods. The milk production increased with protein supplementation but when expressed as energy corrected milk, the response disappeared due to substantially higher milk fat concentration with CON compared to protein supplemented diets. Milk protein output increased by 8.5, 4.4 and 2.7% when RSM, FB and BL were compared to CON. The main changes in rumen fermentation were the higher propionate and lower butyrate proportion of total rumen volatile fatty acids when the protein supplemented diets were compared to CON. Protein supplementation also clearly increased the ruminal ammonia N concentration. Protein supplementation improved diet organic matter and NDF digestibility but efficiency of microbial protein synthesis per kg organic matter truly digested was not affected. Flow of microbial N was greater when FB compared to BL was fed. All protein supplements decreased the efficiency of nitrogen use in milk production. The marginal efficiency (amount of additional feed protein captured in milk protein) was 0.110, 0.062 and 0.045 for RSM, FB and BL, respectively. The current study supports the evidence that RSM is a good protein supplement for dairy cows, and this effect was at least partly mediated by the lower rumen degradability of RSM protein compared to FB and BL. The relatively small production responses to protein supplementation with simultaneous decrease in nitrogen use efficiency in milk production suggest that economic and environmental consequences of protein feeding need to be carefully considered. (c) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of The Animal Consortium. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (
  • Khazaei, Hamid; Purves, Randy W.; Hughes, Jessa; Link, Wolfgang; O'Sullivan, Donal M.; Schulman, Alan H.; Bjornsdotter, Emilie; Geu-Flores, Fernando; Nadzieja, Marcin; Andersen, Stig U.; Stougaard, Jens; Vandenberg, Albert; Stoddard, Frederick L. (2019)
    Background: Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) seeds are an excellent source of plant-based protein. In spite of the vast nutritional and environmental benefits provided by faba bean cultivation, its use as a food crop has been restricted, primarily due to the presence of the pyrimidine glycosides vicine and convicine (v-c). Ingestion of v-c can cause favism in individuals with a genetically inherited deficiency in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). In monogastric animals, v-c can cause decreased feeding efficiency. The elimination of these glucosides is a goal of most faba bean breeding programs worldwide. Scope and approach: Our review focuses on the current genetic, molecular and biochemical knowledge surrounding the accumulation of v-c in faba beans. The gap between the current knowledge and what remains unknown is discussed. This review also explores historical and obscure information on v-c in faba bean. Key findings and conclusions: A low-v-c faba bean line was identified in the 1980s and this trait has been introduced into several modern cultivars. It has been shown that low-v-c faba beans are safe for G6PD-deficient individuals. A robust molecular marker is now available for marker-assisted breeding to reduce levels of v-c. The biosynthetic pathway of v-c is not yet understood and is currently under investigation. An international coordinated effort, led by the authors of this paper, is making progress towards full elucidation of the pathway. Further efforts in this direction could lead to lower levels of these compounds than the current low v-c genotypes offer, perhaps even complete elimination.
  • Wasowicz, Pawel; Sennikov, Alexander N.; Westergaard, Kristine B.; Spellman, Katie; Carlson, Matthew; Gillespie, Lynn J.; Saarela, Jeffery M.; Seefeldt, Steven S.; Bennett, Bruce; Bay, Christian; Ickert-Bond, Stefanie; Väre, Henry (2020)
    We present a comprehensive list of non-native vascular plants known from the Arctic, explore their geographic distribution, analyze the extent of naturalization and invasion among 23 subregions of the Arctic, and examine pathways of introductions. The presence of 341 non-native taxa in the Arctic was confirmed, of which 188 are naturalized in at least one of the 23 regions. A small number of taxa (11) are considered invasive; these plants are known from just three regions. In several Arctic regions there are no naturalized non-native taxa recorded and the majority of Arctic regions have a low number of naturalized taxa. Analyses of the non-native vascular plant flora identified two main biogeographic clusters within the Arctic: American and Asiatic. Among all pathways, seed contamination and transport by vehicles have contributed the most to non-native plant introduction in the Arctic.
  • EFSA Panel Nutr Novel Foods Food A; Turck, Dominique; Heinonen, Marina (2020)
    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Nutrition, Novel Foods and Food Allergens (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the safety of 'Hovenia dulcis fruit extract' as a novel food (NF) for its use in food supplements. The NF concerns a hot water extract of sliced and dried fruits and peduncles of Hovenia dulcis Thun. The production process is described in sufficient detail but contains contradictory information regarding the mixing with another ingredient of the NF. The NF is comprised of mostly carbohydrates (about 90%), about 2% proteins, 5% moisture, less than 1% fat and about 2% ash. In addition, the NF contains small amounts of flavonoids such as dihydromyricetin, myricetin and quercetin. The Panel notes limitations of the data provided from the batch testing regarding proximate analyses and plant secondary metabolites. Given these limitations, the Panel considers that the data provided by the applicant do not demonstrate that different batches produced with the described production process meet the proposed specifications. The target population is the general adult population excluding pregnant and lactating women and people with a chronic disease, such as liver malfunction. Limited information was provided on a history of consumption of Hovenia dulcis fruits and on an extract approved in South Korea. A number of toxicological studies were performed. However, the study reports did not allow to verify that the test item was representative of the NF. The same applied to a human study provided by the applicant. The Panel concludes that the safety of the NF has not been established. (c) 2020 European Food Safety Authority. EFSA Journal published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd on behalf of European Food Safety Authority.