Browsing by Subject "SELECTIVE SWEEPS"

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  • Kess, Tony; Bentzen, Paul; Lehnert, Sarah J.; Sylvester, Emma V.A.; Lien, Sigbjorn; Kent, Matthew P.; Sinclair-Waters, Marion; Morris, Corey J.; Regular, Paul; Fairweather, Robert; Bradbury, Ian R. (2019)
    Chromosome structural variation may underpin ecologically important intraspecific diversity by reducing recombination within supergenes containing linked, coadapted alleles. Here, we confirm that an ancient chromosomal rearrangement is strongly associated with migratory phenotype and individual genetic structure in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) across the Northwest Atlantic. We reconstruct trends in effective population size over the last century and reveal declines in effective population size matching onset of industrialized harvest (after 1950). We find different demographic trajectories between individuals homozygous for the chromosomal rearrangement relative to heterozygous or homozygous individuals for the noninverted haplotype, suggesting different selective histories across the past 150 years. These results illustrate how chromosomal structural diversity can mediate fine-scale genetic, phenotypic, and demographic variation in a highly connected marine species and show how overfishing may have led to loss of biocomplexity within Northern cod stock.
  • Miraldo, Andreia; Duplouy, Anne (2019)
    Determining the drivers of diversity is a major topic in biology. Due to its high level of micro-endemism in many taxa, Madagascar has been described as one of Earth's biodiversity hotspot. The exceptional Malagasy biodiversity has been shown to be the result of various eco-evolutionary mechanisms that have taken place on this large island since its isolation from other landmasses. Extensive phylogenetic analyses have, for example, revealed that most of the dung beetle radiation events have arisen due to allopatric speciation, and adaptation to altitudinal and/or longitudinal gradients. But other biotic factors, that have yet to be identified, might also be at play. Wolbachia is a maternally transmitted endosymbiotic bacterium widespread in insects. The bacterium is well-known for its ability to modify its host reproductive system in ways that may lead to either discordance patterns between the host mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenies, and in some cases to speciation. Here, we used theMultiLocus Sequence Typing system, to identify and characterize five Wolbachia strains infecting several species within the Nanos clypeatus dung beetle clade. We discuss the implications of these Wolbachia strains for the evolution and diversification of their dung beetle hosts in Madagascar.
  • Seabra, Sofia G.; Rodrigues, Ana S. B.; Silva, Sara E.; Neto, Ana Carina; Pina-Martins, Francisco; Marabuto, Eduardo; Thompson, Vinton; Wilson, Michael R.; Yurtsever, Selcuk; Halkka, Antti; Rebelo, Maria Teresa; Borges, Paulo A.; Quartau, Jose A.; Jiggins, Chris D.; Paulo, Octavio S. (2021)
    Understanding patterns of population differentiation and gene flow in insect vectors of plant diseases is crucial for the implementation of management programs of disease. We investigated morphological and genome-wide variation across the distribution range of the spittlebug Philaenus spumarius (Linnaeus, 1758) (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Aphrophoridae), presently the most important vector of the plant pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa Wells et al., 1987 in Europe. We found genome-wide divergence between P. spumarius and a very closely related species, P. tesselatus Melichar, 1899, at RAD sequencing markers. The two species may be identified by the morphology of male genitalia but are not differentiated at mitochondrial COI, making DNA barcoding with this gene ineffective. This highlights the importance of using integrative approaches in taxonomy. We detected admixture between P. tesselatus from Morocco and P. spumarius from the Iberian Peninsula, suggesting gene-flow between them. Within P. spumarius, we found a pattern of isolation-by-distance in European populations, likely acting alongside other factors restricting gene flow. Varying levels of co-occurrence of different lineages, showing heterogeneous levels of admixture, suggest other isolation mechanisms. The transatlantic populations of North America and Azores were genetically closer to the British population analyzed here, suggesting an origin from North-Western Europe, as already detected with mitochondrial DNA. Nevertheless, these may have been produced through different colonization events. We detected SNPs with signatures of positive selection associated with environmental variables, especially related to extremes and range variation in temperature and precipitation. The population genomics approach provided new insights into the patterns of divergence, gene flow and adaptation in these spittlebugs and led to several hypotheses that require further local investigation.