Browsing by Subject "SELECTIVE-ATTENTION"

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  • Linnavalli, Tanja; Ojala, Juha; Haveri, Laura; Putkinen, Vesa; Kostilainen, Kaisamari; Seppänen, Sirke; Tervaniemi, Mari (2020)
    CONSONANCE AND DISSONANCE ARE BASIC phenomena in the perception of chords that can be discriminated very early in sensory processing. Musical expertise has been shown to facilitate neural processing of various musical stimuli, but it is unclear whether this applies to detecting consonance and dissonance. Our study aimed to determine if sensitivity to increasing levels of dissonance differs between musicians and nonmusicians, using a combination of neural (electroencephalographic mismatch negativity, MMN) and behavioral measurements (conscious discrimination). Furthermore, we wanted to see if focusing attention to the sounds modulated the neural processing. We used chords comprised of either highly consonant or highly dissonant intervals and further manipulated the degree of dissonance to create two levels of dissonant chords. Both groups discriminated dissonant chords from consonant ones neurally and behaviorally. The magnitude of the MMN differed only marginally between the more dissonant and the less dissonant chords. The musicians outperformed the nonmusicians in the behavioral task. As the dissonant chords elicited MMN responses for both groups, sensory dissonance seems to be discriminated in an early sensory level, irrespective of musical expertise, and the facilitating effects of musicianship for this discrimination may arise in later stages of auditory processing, appearing only in the behavioral auditory task.
  • Heikkila, Jenni; Tiippana, Kaisa; Loberg, Otto; Leppänen, Paavo H. T. (2018)
    Seeing articulatory gestures enhances speech perception. Perception of auditory speech can even be changed by incongruent visual gestures, which is known as the McGurk effect (e.g., dubbing a voice saying /mi/ onto a face articulating /ni/, observers often hear /ni/). In children, the McGurk effect is weaker than in adults, but no previous knowledge exists about the neural-level correlates of the McGurk effect in school-age children. Using brain event-related potentials, we investigated change detection responses to congruent and incongruent audiovisual speech in school-age children and adults. We used an oddball paradigm with a congruent audiovisual /mi/ as the standard stimulus and a congruent audiovisual /ni/ or McGurk A/mi/V/ni/ as the deviant stimulus. In adults, a similar change detection response was elicited by both deviant stimuli. In children, change detection responses differed between the congruent and the McGurk stimulus. This reflects a maturational difference in the influence of visual stimuli on auditory processing.
  • Salmela, Viljami; Salo, Emma; Salmi, Juha; Alho, Kimmo (2018)
    The fronto-parietal attention networks have been extensively studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), but spatiotemporal dynamics of these networks are not well understood. We measured event-related potentials (ERPs) with electroencephalography (EEG) and collected fMRI data from identical experiments where participants performed visual and auditory discrimination tasks separately or simultaneously and with or without distractors. To overcome the low temporal resolution of fMRI, we used a novel ERP-based application of multivariate representational similarity analysis (RSA) to parse time-averaged fMRI pattern activity into distinct spatial maps that each corresponded, in representational structure, to a short temporal ERP segment. Discriminant analysis of ERP-fMRI correlations revealed 8 cortical networks-2 sensory, 3 attention, and 3 other-segregated by 4 orthogonal, temporally multifaceted and spatially distributed functions. We interpret these functions as 4 spatiotemporal components of attention: modality-dependent and stimulus-driven orienting, top-down control, mode transition, and response preparation, selection and execution.