Browsing by Subject "SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY"

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  • Holzer, Julia; Korlat, Selma; Haider, Christian; Mayerhofer, Martin; Pelikan, Elisabeth; Schober, Barbara; Spiel, Christiane; Toumazi, Toumazis; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Kaeser, Udo; Schultze-Krumbholz, Anja; Wachs, Sebastian; Dabas, Mukul; Verma, Suman; Iliev, Dean; Andonovska-Trajkovska, Daniela; Plichta, Piotr; Pyzalski, Jacek; Walter, Natalia; Michalek-Kwiecien, Justyna; Lewandowska-Walter, Aleksandra; Wright, Michelle F.; Lueftenegger, Marko (2021)
    The sudden switch to distance education to contain the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has fundamentally altered adolescents' lives around the globe. The present research aims to identify psychological characteristics that relate to adolescents' well-being in terms of positive emotion and intrinsic learning motivation, and key characteristics of their learning behavior in a situation of unplanned, involuntary distance education. Following Self-Determination Theory, experienced competence, autonomy, and relatedness were assumed to relate to active learning behavior (i.e., engagement and persistence), and negatively relate to passive learning behavior (i.e., procrastination), mediated via positive emotion and intrinsic learning motivation. Data were collected via online questionnaires in altogether eight countries from Europe, Asia, and North America (N = 25,305) and comparable results across countries were expected. Experienced competence was consistently found to relate to positive emotion and intrinsic learning motivation, and, in turn, active learning behavior in terms of engagement and persistence. The study results further highlight the role of perceived relatedness for positive emotion. The high proportions of explained variance speak in favor of taking these central results into account when designing distance education in times of COVID-19.
  • Teuber, Ziwen; Tang, Xin; Sielemann, Lena; Otterpohl, Nantje; Wild, Elke (2022)
    The important role of parenting is widely acknowledged, but as most studies have understood and examined it as a stable attribute (e.g., parenting style), the stability of and changes in parenting are less well understood. Using longitudinal person-oriented approaches (i.e., latent profile analyses and latent transition analyses), this study aimed to examine the stability of and changes in autonomy-related parenting profiles and their effects on adolescents' academic and psychological development. Four autonomy-related dimensions (i.e., autonomy support, warmth, psychological control, conditional regard) were chosen to identify parenting profiles on the basis of Self-Determination Theory. Using five-year longitudinal data from 789 German secondary school students (50.06% female, M-age at T1 = 10.82 years, age span = 10-17), four autonomy-related parenting profiles were found: Supportive (similar to 17%), Controlling (similar to 31%), Unsupportive-Uncontrolling (similar to 17%), and Limited Supportive (similar to 35%). The results suggest that the Supportive profile contributes to adolescents' positive academic and psychological development, whereas the Controlling profile, which thwarts autonomy development, exacerbates the development of psychopathology, and impairs academic achievement. More importantly, the Limited Supportive profile is as maladaptive as the Unsupportive-Uncontrolling profile. Regarding parenting profiles' stability and changes, the results showed that about half of each profile stayed in the same group. Overall, it could be observed that parents became more supportive and less controlling over time. However, the findings also indicate that parenting profiles are less stable than expected and can still change during early-to-mid adolescence.
  • Kytö, Mikko; Strömberg, Lisbeth; Tuomonen, Heli; Ruonala, Antti; Koivusalo, Saila; Jacucci, Giulio (2022)
    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has considerable and increasing health effects as it raises both the mother’s and offspring’s risk for short- and long-term health problems. GDM can usually be treated with a healthier lifestyle, such as appropriate dietary modifications and engaging insufficient physical activity. While telemedicine interventions requiring weekly or more frequent feedback from health care professionals have shown the potential to improve glycemic control amongst women with GDM, apps without extensive input from health care professionals are limited and have not shown to be effective. We aimed to improve the efficacy of GDM self-management apps by exploring desirable features in a review. We derived six desirable features from the multidisciplinary literature and we evaluated the state of implementation of these features in existing GDM apps. The results showed that features for increasing competence to manage GDM and for providing social support were largely lacking.
  • Hankonen, Nelli; Absetz, Pilvikki; Araujo-Soares, Vera (2020)
    Background:School-based interventions that increase physical activity (PA) in a sustainable way are lacking. Systematic and participatory, theory and evidence-based intervention development may enhance the effectiveness of complex behavioural interventions in the long term. However, detailed descriptions of the intervention development process are rarely openly published, hindering transparency and progress in the field. Aims:To illustrate a stepwise process to develop intervention targeting PA and sedentary behaviour (SB) among older adolescents, and to describe the final, optimised version of the intervention, detailing content of sessions by theoretical determinants and techniques. Methods:Two established intervention development frameworks (Intervention Mapping and Behaviour Change Wheel) were integrated, leading to a comprehensive evidence and theory-based process. It was informed by empirical studies, literature reviews, expert and stakeholder consultation, including scenario evaluation and component pre-testing. In all steps, contextual fit and potential for sustainability were ensured by stakeholder engagement. Results:As a large majority of youth opposed decreasing screen time, increasing PA and decreasing SB were defined as target behaviours, with peers and the school context including classroom practices as key social environments in influencing youth PA (problem specification, step 1). Behavioural diagnosis (step 2) identified a variety of determinants in the domains of capability (e.g. self-regulation skills), motivation (e.g. outcome expectations) and environmental opportunities. These were organised into an intervention theory integrating several formal theories, including Self-Determination Theory. Theory-aligned principles guided material design (Step 3). Feasibility RCT allowed optimisation into a final intervention protocol (step 4). Conclusions:Intervention elements target students directly, and indirectly by changing teacher behaviour and the school and wider environment. A systematic development and optimisation led to a high potential for sustainability. The detailed intervention content, with specification of the hypothesised mechanisms, allows for other researchers to replicate, adapt or refine parts or the whole intervention, considering specific target groups and (sub-)cultures.
  • Wackström, Nanna; Koponen, Anne M.; Suominen, Sakari; Tarkka, Ina M.; Simonsen, Nina (2020)
    ABSTRACT Background: Physical activity (PA) is a key component in management of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Pain might be a barrier to PA especially among older adults with T2D, but surprisingly few studies have investigated the association between chronic pain and PA. Our aim was to evaluate the prevalence of chronic pain among older adults with T2D and to examine the association between chronic pain and PA while taking important life-contextual factors into account. Methods: Data of this register-based, cross-sectional study were collected in a survey among adults with T2D (n=2866). In the current study, only respondents aged 65?75 years were included (response rate 63%, n=1386). Data were analysed by means of descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: In total, 64% reported chronic pain. In specific groups, e.g. women and those who were obese, the prevalence was even higher. Among respondents experiencing chronic pain, frequent pain among women and severe pain among both genders were independently associated with decreased likelihood of being physically active. Moreover, the likelihood of being physically active decreased with higher age and BMI, whereas it increased with higher autonomous motivation and feelings of energy. Among physically active respondents suffering from chronic pain, neither intensity nor frequency of pain explained engagement in exercise (as compared with incidental PA). Instead, men were more likely to exercise regularly as were those with good perceived health and higher autonomous motivation. Conclusions: The prevalence of chronic pain is high among older adults with T2D. This study shows that among those suffering from chronic pain, severe pain is independently and inversely associated with being physically active, as is frequent pain, but only among women. Moreover, the findings show the importance of autonomous motivation and health variables for both incidental PA and exercise among older adults with T2D experiencing chronic pain.
  • Nurmi, Johanna; Knittle, Keegan; Ginchev, Todor; Khattak, Fida; Helf, Christopher; Zwickl, Patrick; Castellano-Tejedor, Carmina; Lusilla-Palacios, Pilar; Costa-Requena, Jose; Ravaja, Niklas; Haukkala, Ari (2020)
    Background: Most adults do not engage in sufficient physical activity to maintain good health. Smartphone apps are increasingly used to support physical activity but typically focus on tracking behaviors with no support for the complex process of behavior change. Tracking features do not engage all users, and apps could better reach their targets by engaging users in reflecting their reasons, capabilities, and opportunities to change. Motivational interviewing supports this active engagement in self-reflection and self-regulation by fostering psychological needs proposed by the self-determination theory (ie, autonomy, competence, and relatedness). However, it is unknown whether digitalized motivational interviewing in a smartphone app engages users in this process. Objective: This study aimed to describe the theory- and evidence-based development of the Precious app and to examine how digitalized motivational interviewing using a smartphone app engages users in the behavior change process. Specifically, we aimed to determine if use of the Precious app elicits change talk in participants and how they perceive autonomy support in the app. Methods: A multidisciplinary team built the Precious app to support engagement in the behavior change process. The Precious app targets reflective processes with motivational interviewing and spontaneous processes with gamified tools, and builds on the principles of self-determination theory and control theory by using 7 relational techniques and 12 behavior change techniques. The feasibility of the app was tested among 12 adults, who were asked to interact with the prototype and think aloud. Semistructured interviews allowed participants to extend their statements. Participants’ interactions with the app were video recorded, transcribed, and analyzed with deductive thematic analysis to identify the theoretical themes related to autonomy support and change talk. Results: Participants valued the autonomy supportive features in the Precious app (eg, freedom to pursue personally relevant goals and receive tailored feedback). We identified the following five themes based on the theory-based theme autonomy support: valuing the chance to choose, concern about lack of autonomy, expecting controlling features, autonomous goals, and autonomy supportive feedback. The motivational interviewing features actively engaged participants in reflecting their outcome goals and reasons for activity, producing several types of change talk and very little sustain talk. The types of change talk identified were desire, need, reasons, ability, commitment, and taking steps toward change. Conclusions: The Precious app takes a unique approach to engage users in the behavior change process by targeting both reflective and spontaneous processes. It allows motivational interviewing in a mobile form, supports psychological needs with relational techniques, and targets intrinsic motivation with gamified elements. The motivational interviewing approach shows promise, but the impact of its interactive features and tailored feedback needs to be studied over time. The Precious app is undergoing testing in a series of n-of-1 randomized controlled trials. KEYWORDS health app; mHealth; human-computer interaction; prevention; service design; usability design; intrinsic motivation; reflective processes; spontaneous processes; engagement; self-determination theory; autonomous motivation; gamification; physical activity
  • Knittle, Keegan Phillip; Nurmi, Johanna; Crutzen, Rik; Hankonen, Nelli Elisa; Beattie, Marguerite; Dombrowski, Stephan (2018)
    Motivation is a proximal determinant of behaviour, and increasing motivation is central to most health behaviour change interventions. This systematic review and meta-analysis sought to identify features of physical activity interventions associated with favourable changes in three prominent motivational constructs: intention, stage of change and autonomous motivation. A systematic literature search identified 89 intervention studies (k=200; N=19,212) which assessed changes in these motivational constructs for physical activity. Intervention descriptions were coded for potential moderators, including behaviour change techniques (BCTs), modes of delivery and theory use. Random effects comparative subgroup analyses identified 18 BCTs and 10 modes of delivery independently associated with changes in at least one motivational outcome (effect sizes ranged from d=0.12 to d=0.74). Interventions delivered face-to-face or in gym settings, or which included the BCTs behavioural goal setting', self-monitoring (behaviour)' or behavioural practice/rehearsal', or which combined self-monitoring (behaviour) with any other BCT derived from control theory, were all associated with beneficial changes in multiple motivational constructs (effect sizes ranged from d=0.12 to d=0.46). Meta-regression analyses indicated that increases in intention and stage of change, but not autonomous motivation, were significantly related to increases in physical activity. The intervention characteristics associated with changes in motivation seemed to form clusters related to behavioural experience and self-regulation, which have previously been linked to changes in physical activity behaviour. These BCTs and modes of delivery merit further systematic study, and can be used as a foundation for improving interventions targeting increases in motivation for physical activity.
  • Puhakka, Ilmari J. A.; Nokelainen, Petri; Pylväs, Laura (2021)
    In addition to well-being, workplace learning has gained increasing interest in supporting employee and organizational development and success. Focusing on specific factors affecting workplace learning and well-being, this study examines the links between individual factors (basic psychological need satisfaction) and environmental factors (expansiveness of the workplace as a learning environment), job satisfaction, and turnover intention. Survey data were collected from the employees (N = 153) of two Finnish engineering companies from 2018 to 2019. The data were analyzed with correlation analysis and structural equation modeling (observed and latent variable path analysis). Results show that a more expansive workplace learning environment is associated with higher satisfaction of basic psychological needs. High levels of autonomy and competence need satisfaction, versatile work, promotion of learning, and acknowledgment of skills are positively associated with job satisfaction. Higher levels of autonomy and non-routine work tasks are associated with lower turnover intention. The results indicate that turnover intention is not necessarily associated with only negative conditions or perceptions, as high levels of competence and participation and understanding of the workplace are positively associated with turnover intention. The findings provide information about workplace factors that are relevant to improving employees' workplace learning and well-being. The results also highlight the ambiguous nature of turnover intention.
  • Raymond, Ivan J.; Raymond, Christopher M. (2019)
    Despite the increasing interest in the intersections among values, well-being and environmental outcomes in sustainability science, few studies have considered these relationships by drawing on well-established theories and methods from positive psychology. The aim of this paper is to review three approaches conceptually related to positive psychology (self-determination theory, SDT; character strengths and virtues, CSV; acceptancy and commitment therapy, ACT) and compare these to sustainability approaches to well-being and values. First, we critically compare how values are understood, constructed and operationalised within the positive psychology and environmental values literatures. We offer a summary table to detail key concepts (and articles) which sustainability scientists may draw upon in their work against the dimensions of (1) elicitation process, (2) value provider (3) value concept and (4) value indicators. Second, we critically compare how the positive psychology and environmental values literature have considered the intersections between values and well-being. We identify the positive psychology pathways of 'value activation' and 'healthy-values' as alternative methods for sustainability scientists to consider. Third, we offer future options for the integration of positive psychology and environmental values literatures to deliver interventions which may lead to well-being and sustainability outcomes. We suggest that mindfulness could be applied as a method to clarify and activate values within a nature exposure context, which harnesses the qualities of both disciplines. To demonstrate integrative possibilities, a case example is offered which brings focus to well-being and sustainability outcomes, the intersection of value pathways, and intervention components drawn from both disciplines.
  • Schneider, Jekaterina; Polet, Juho; Hassandra, Mary; Lintunen, Taru; Laukkanen, Arto; Hankonen, Nelli; Hirvensalo, Mirja; Tammelin, Tuija H.; Tormakangas, Timo; Hagger, Martin S. (2020)
    BackgroundInadequate physical activity in young people is associated with several physical and mental health concerns. Physical education (PE) is a potentially viable existing network for promoting physical activity in this population. However, little research has been conducted on whether PE teachers can influence students' engagement in leisure-time physical activity. The present study therefore examined the efficacy of an intervention aimed at increasing PE teachers' autonomy support on students' leisure-time physical activity (the PETALS trial). The intervention was guided by the trans-contextual model (TCM) explaining the processes by which PE teachers' provision of autonomy support during PE promotes students' motivation and engagement in physical activity in their leisure time.MethodsThe study adopted a cluster-randomized, waitlist control intervention design with randomization by school. Participants were PE teachers (N=29, 44.83%female; M age=42.83, SD=9.53yrs) and their lower secondary school students (N=502, 43.82%female; M age=14.52, SD=0.71yrs). We measured TCM constructs, including perceived autonomy support, autonomous motivation in PE and leisure time, beliefs and intentions towards leisure-time physical activity, and physical activity behavior at baseline, post-intervention, and at one-, three-, and six-months. Study hypotheses were tested through a series of ANOVAs and structural equation models using post-intervention and one-month follow-up data.ResultsWe found no changes in TCM constructs or physical activity behavior in either group at post-intervention or at 1 month. Path analyses supported two propositions of the TCM as change variables: perceived autonomy support had a significant effect on autonomous motivation in PE and autonomous motivation in PE had a significant effect on autonomous motivation in leisure time. Although we found a direct effect of autonomous motivation in leisure time on physical activity, we did not find support for the third premise of the TCM that autonomous motivation in leisure time indirectly affects physical activity through beliefs and intentions.ConclusionsCurrent findings did not support the efficacy of the PETALS intervention at changing physical activity behavior and TCM constructs. More research is required to determine whether the TCM predictive validity is supported when other model variables are manipulated through experimental and intervention studies.Trial registrationISRCTN, ISRCTN39374060. Registered 19 July 2018. Prospectively registered.
  • Tandon, Anushree; Dhir, Amandeep; Kaur, Puneet; Kushwah, Shiksha; Salo, Jari (2020)
    Although consumer interest in organic food has risen over time, resulting in a generally positive attitude toward these organic food products, scholarly research suggests a comparatively low volume of its consumption in the market. This has resulted in an urgent need to study the motivations which enhance consumers' proclivity to purchase food items produced organically. The current research attempts to understand potential associations between motivations (intrinsic and extrinsic), attitude, and buying behaviour towards organic food. Self-determination theory (SDT) was applied to develop a theoretically grounded framework which was evaluated with 378 organic food consumers. The hypotheses were tested by analyzing the data through structural equation modelling (SEM), wherein environmental concerns and trust were the moderating variables. The study results demonstrate the significant influence of intrinsic motivation, integrated and external regulation on consumer attitude, and buying behaviour. But, attitude had no significant association with buying behaviour. The findings indicate consumers' motivation may be stimulated to encourage higher frequencies of purchasing organic food by emphasizing values that reflect motivations arising from ethical or green consumerism, health, and social benefits. Furthermore, policymakers should focus on avenues to integrate organic food as permanent parts of individual lives and a socially exalting behavioral action.