Browsing by Subject "SELF-EFFICACY"

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  • Bjorklund, Katja; Liski, Antti; Samposalo, Hanna; Lindblom, Jallu; Hella, Juho; Huhtinen, Heini; Ojala, Tiina; Alasuvanto, Paula; Koskinen, Hanna-Leena; Kiviruusu, Olli; Hemminki, Elina; Punamaki, Raija-Leena; Sund, Reijo; Solantaus, Tytti; Santalahti, Paivi (2014)
  • Lazarides, Rebecca; Viljaranta, Jaana; Ranta, Mette; Salmela-Aro, Katariina (2017)
    This longitudinal study aims to test the concept of transition preparedness in the context of educational transitions. The study investigates how adolescents' transition preparedness, conceptualized as their self-efficacy beliefs and their inoculation against setbacks, before an educational transition affect the adolescents' school value and effort related to educational goals after the transition through the effects on achievement goal orientations. Student data from three waves of a longitudinal study are used, first collected in 2004 (before the students' transition from comprehensive school to upper secondary education) and then collected twice after the transition. The students included in the analyses are those who participated at all three measurement points (N = 588; 49.5% girls; age M-TI = 15.01, SD = 0.13). Longitudinal structural equation modeling revealed that adolescents' self-efficacy beliefs (Time 1) positively predicted school value and effort (Time 3) through their effect on mastery goal orientation (Time 2). Furthermore, self-efficacy moderated the relation between performance-approach goal orientation (Time 1) on school value (Time 2). Results are discussed in terms of their relevance for enhancing adolescents' adaptive motivational development across educational transitions. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Mattsson, Markus; Hailikari, Telle; Parpala, Anna (2020)
    Quantitative research into the nature of academic emotions has thus far been dominated by factor analyses of questionnaire data. Recently, psychometric network analysis has arisen as an alternative method of conceptualizing the composition of psychological phenomena such as emotions: while factor models view emotions as underlying causes of affects, cognitions and behavior, in network models psychological phenomena are viewed as arising from the interactions of their component parts. We argue that the network perspective is of interest to studies of academic emotions due to its compatibility with the theoretical assumptions of the control value theory of academic emotions. In this contribution we assess the structure of a Finnish questionnaire of academic emotions using both network analysis and exploratory factor analysis on cross-sectional data obtained during a single course. The global correlational structure of the network, investigated using the spinglass community detection analysis, differed from the results of the factor analysis mainly in that positive emotions were grouped in one community but loaded on different factors. Local associations between pairs of variables in the network model may arise due to different reasons, such as variable A causing variation in variable B or vice versa, or due to a latent variable affecting both. We view the relationship between feelings of self-efficacy and the other emotions as causal hypotheses, and argue that strengthening the students' self-efficacy may have a beneficial effect on the rest of the emotions they experienced on the course. Other local associations in the network model are argued to arise due to unmodeled latent variables. Future psychometric studies may benefit from combining network models and factor models in researching the structure of academic emotions.
  • Perander, Katarina; Londen, Monica; Holm, Gunilla (2020)
    Efforts to reach gender equality in education in Finland have been extensive. Both teacher education and policy documents for schools have focused on gender equality and gender-neutral treatment of students. The aim of this study is to explore if and how these efforts are manifested in upper secondary school teachers' and study counsellors' perceptions of students' self-belief, academic emotions, study habits and behaviour at school. Twenty-three interviews were conducted and analysed qualitatively through inductive content analysis. The results revealed that teachers and study counsellors perceive that girls' low self-belief and high achievement expectations affected their academic performance, while boys' insecurity or need for support was rarely mentioned. The teachers ascribed the students several gender-stereotypical attributes: girls were perceived as diligent and hard-working while boys were perceived as being indifferent towards school and achievements. The implications of these results for students' self-belief and for teacher education are discussed.
  • Myyry, Liisa; Kallunki, Veera; Katajavuori, Nina; Repo, Saara; Tuononen, Tarja; Anttila, Henrika; Kinnunen, Päivi Anneli; Haarala-Muhonen, Anne; Pyörälä, Eeva (2022)
    This study examines, using a cross-sectional approach, the digital competence of academic teachers at a time when teaching shifted to digital distance learning at the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. Teachers from different academic fields at a large multidisciplinary Finnish university (N = 265) responded to a questionnaire about the purposes for which they use digital tools in teaching, how they evaluated their competence at distance teaching during the lockdown of March-May 2020 and their beliefs about distance teaching. The respondents used digital tools in teaching mostly for delivering information. According to their evaluations, their competence in distance teaching increased during the early stages of COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, but their beliefs about distance teaching did not relate to the feelings of competence. Respondents with no experience in distance teaching before the lockdown evaluated their competence as having increased more than did respondents with previous experience. The implications of the findings for understanding competence development are then discussed.
  • Fagerholm, Fabian; Hellas, Arto; Luukkainen, Matti; Kyllönen, Kati; Yaman, Sezin; Mäenpää, Hanna (2018)
    Today’s students are prospective entrepreneurs, as well as potential employees in modern, start-up-like intrapreneurship environments within established companies. In these settings, software development projects face extreme requirements in terms of innovation and attractiveness of the end-product. They also suffer severe consequences of failure such as termination of the development effort and bankruptcy. As the abilities needed in start-ups are not among those traditionally taught in universities, new knowledge and skills are required to prepare students for the volatile environment that new market entrants face. This article reports experiences gained during seven years of teaching start-up knowledge and skills in a higher-education institution. Using a design-based research approach, we have developed the Software Factory, an educational environment for experiential, project-based learning. We offer a collection of patterns and anti-patterns that help educational institutions to design, implement and operate physical environments, curricula and teaching materials, and to plan interventions that may be required for project-based start-up education.
  • Miihkinen, Antti; Virtanen, Tuija Helena (2018)
    This study describes the results of a project that focused on developing an assessment rubric to be used as the assessment criteria for the written thesis of accounting majors and the quality of the coursework during the seminar. We used descriptive analysis and the survey method to collect information for the development work and to examine the effect of the rubric on learning. We find that the rubric has a positive effect on students' understanding, self-assessment, confidence, and integration. We contribute to the extant literature by adding to prior work that has examined factors that can improve students' learning outcomes. By synthesizing theories on approaches to learning and self-regulation, and combining them with literature on self-efficacy and social/academic integration, we bring conceptual clarity to the elements of learning in a course, which consist of written assignments and the accompanying group work. The paper demonstrates a way to help university students to learn via explicit assessment rubrics, and thus offers novel ideas for accounting educators.
  • Heikonen, Lauri; Pietarinen, Janne; Pyhältö, Kirsi; Toom, Auli; Soini, Tiina (2017)
    Teachers' capacity to learn intentionally and responsively in the classroom is particularly vulnerable during the first years in the profession. This study investigated the interrelations between early career teachers' turnover intentions, perceived inadequacy in teacher-student interaction, and sense of professional agency in the classroom. The survey data were collected from 284 in-service teachers with not more than 5 years of experience and analysed by structural equation modelling (SEM). The results showed that the negative relation between turnover intentions and early career teachers' sense of professional agency was completely mediated by perceived inadequacy in teacher-student interaction. The results indicate that experiences of insufficient abilities to solve pedagogically and socially challenging student situations have a crucial effect on early career teacher's capacity for adaptive reflection and active transformation of instruction.
  • Suvanto, Hannele; Niemi, Jarkko K.; Lahdesmaki, Merja (2020)
    Protein crops are important in enhancing sustainable and self-contained agriculture and food security in Europe. Individual farmers are key players in protein crop production. The aim of this research is to understand how an entrepreneurial identity affects strategic cultivation decisions in the context of protein-rich crop farming. In this study, entrepreneurial identity consists of a farmer's personal and entrepreneurial orientations. Data on 308 Finnish farmers were gathered and statistically tested. Our findings clarify that entrepreneurial identity increases the probability of beginning protein-rich crop cultivation, especially if the farmer in question is innovative, a risk-taker and highly educated. This article contributes to the understanding of agricultural entrepreneurship and strategic cultivation decisions made by different kinds of farmers. We further claim that profitable but risky and demanding crops have tempted farmers with a high entrepreneurial identity for the most part, which would not suffice for protein crops to become mainstream.
  • Laine, Anna; Välimäki, Maritta; Pekurinen, Virve; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Marttunen, Mauri; Anttila, Minna (2019)
    Background: Web-based interventions are promising tools for increasing the understanding of illness and treatment among patients with serious mental disorders. Objective: This study aimed to test the feasibility and acceptability of a Web-based patient education intervention using a quasi-experimental cluster design to report feedback on patient education sessions and the website used and to report preliminary evidence of the intervention's impact on patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder. Methods: A single-blind, parallel, quasi-experimental cluster study over a 6-month period comparing Web-based education (n=33) with a nonequivalent control group (treatment as usual, n=24) for people with schizophrenia spectrum disorder was conducted. Participants (N=57) were recruited from one psychiatric hospital (6 wards). Feasibility was assessed by participants' commitment (refusal rate, dropout rate) to the study. Acceptability was assessed as participants' commitment to the intervention. Patient education sessions and website feedback were assessed by the patients and health care professionals. The preliminary impact of the sessions on patients' self-efficacy, self-esteem, illness cognition, and knowledge level was measured at baseline and follow-ups (8 weeks, 6 months) with self-rated questionnaires. Results: The refusal rate among patients was high with no statistically significant difference (69% [74/107] in the intervention group, 76% [76/100] in the control group; P =.21). The same result was found for the dropout rates (48% [16/33] vs 58% [14/24]; P=. 46). The acceptability of the intervention was good; 31 participants out of 33 (94%) completed all five sessions. Feedback on the intervention was mainly positive; three out of four subscales of session were rated above the midpoint of 4.0. Feedback on the website was also positive, with a grade of good for content (69%, 20/29 patients; 75%, 21/28 professionals), layout (62%, 18/29 patients; 61%, 17/28 professionals), and usability (62%, 18/29 patients; and 68%, 19/28 professionals). The patients using the intervention had significantly higher scores 6 months after the sessions in self-efficacy (baseline mean 26.12, SD 5.64 vs 6-month mean 29.24, SD 6.05; P=.003) and regarding knowledge level about schizophrenia (mean 11.39, SD 4.65 vs 6-month mean 15.06, SD 5.26; P=. 002), and lower scores in the subscale of helplessness in illness cognition (mean 2.26, SD 0.96 vs 6-month mean 1.85, SD 0.59; P=.03). Differences from the control group were not significant. No differences were found in patients' self-esteem or other subscales in illness cognition. Conclusions: The patients were reluctant to participate in the study and tended to drop out before the follow-ups. Once they had participated, their acceptance of the intervention was high. A more effective recruitment strategy and monitoring method will be needed in future studies. To assess the impact of the intervention, a more rigorous study design with an adequately powered sample size will be used in cooperation with outpatient mental health services.
  • Asikainen, Henna; Blomster, Jaanika; Virtanen, Viivi (2018)
    Teacher support is an important factor affecting academic and social integration into the university. However, studies have been very scarce concerning both students' and teachers' experiences of their relationship in higher education. The purpose of this study is to examine students' and teachers' experiences of communality and interaction as well as the support given by teachers in the academic community. A total of 68 teachers and 104 students participated in this study by answering both Likert-scale and an open-ended question. The results show wide variation in both students' and teachers' experiences. The experiences varied from descriptions of a good and functional communality to a gap between teachers and students or even hostile behaviour towards students. Five main categories emerged from the data: (1) functioning interaction and communality, (2) good quality contacts between students and teachers, (3) variable experiences of interaction and communality, (4) low quality interaction and communality, and (5) dysfunctional contacts between students and teachers. The results indicate that teachers experience the support given to students more positively than the students. In addition, the results concerning the open-ended question also indicated that teachers experience the communality and interaction between teachers and students more positively than the students. More attention should be given to the teacher-student relationship at the higher education level. In addition, general skills such as ability to interact with others and social behaviour should be emphasised to a greater degree when recruiting staff.
  • Kahlert, Daniela; Unyi-Reicherz, Annelie; Stratton, Gareth; Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Fogelholm, Mikael; Raben, Anne; Schlicht, Wolfgang (2016)
    Background: Losing excess body weight and preventing weight regain by changing lifestyle is a challenging but promising task to prevent the incidence of type-2 diabetes. To be successful, it is necessary to use evidence-based and theory-driven interventions, which also contribute to the science of behavior modification by providing a deeper understanding of successful intervention components. Objective: To develop a physical activity and dietary behavior modification intervention toolbox (PREMIT) that fulfills current requirements of being theory-driven and evidence-based, comprehensively described and feasible to evaluate. PREMIT is part of an intervention trial, which aims to prevent the onset of type-2 diabetes in pre-diabetics in eight clinical centers across the world by guiding them in changing their physical activity and dietary behavior through a group counseling approach. Methods: The program development took five progressive steps, in line with the Public Health Action Cycle: (1) Summing-up the intervention goal(s), target group and the setting, (2) uncovering the generative psychological mechanisms, (3) identifying behavior change techniques and tools, (4) preparing for evaluation and (5) implementing the intervention and assuring quality. Results: PREMIT is based on a trans -theoretical approach referring to valid behavior modification theories, models and approaches. A major "product" of PREMIT is a matrix, constructed for use by onsite-instructors. The matrix includes objectives, tasks and activities ordered by periods. PREMIT is constructed to help instructors guide participants' behavior change. To ensure high fidelity and adherence of program -implementation across the eight intervention centers standardized operational procedures were defined and "train-the-trainer" workshops were held. In summary PREMIT is a theory-driven, evidence-based program carefully developed to change physical activity and dietary behaviors in pre diabetic people.
  • Päivärinne, Ville; Kautiainen, Hannu; Heinonen, Ari; Kiviranta, Ilkka (2019)
    Purpose Leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) is known to be associated with positive health benefits, but the role of occupational physical demands remains inconsistent. The purpose of the current study was to assess the relationship between LTPA and work ability in different occupational physical activity (OPA) levels between young adult men. Methods We performed physical activity measurements in work and leisure time with the long version of International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and work ability with the Work Ability Index (WAI) in 921 Finnish employed male volunteer participants. The participants were divided into LTPA tertiles I (<8 MET-h/week), II (8-28 MET-h/week), and III (> 28 MET-h/week) and OPA tertiles I (0 MET-h/week), II (<64 MET-h/week), and III (>= 64 MET-h/week). Results There was a significant relationship between LTPA and WAI in OPA tertiles (adjusted for age, alcohol consumption, working class status, BMI, and employment years). Moreover, each LTPA tertile showed significant linear associations with WAI (P <0.001). Conclusion LTPA is positively associated with work ability among young adult men. More specifically, the relationships between LTPA and WAI were significantly greater in physically demanding jobs than in more passive jobs. Our results indicate the importance of LTPA, particularly with individuals under higher work-related physical strain.
  • Huttunen-Lenz, Maija; Raben, Anne; Meinert-Larsen, Thomas; Drummen, Mathijs; Macdonald, Ian; Martínez, José Alfredo; Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora; Poppitt, Sally D.; Jalo, Elli; Muirhead, Roslyn; Schlicht, Wolfgang (2020)
    Abstract Introduction Major risk factors for type 2 diabetes are lifestyle choices such as lack of physical activity (PA) and poor diet. Many individuals either do not take part or struggle to complete interventions supporting lifestyle changes. Demographic and theory-based sociocognitive factors associated with PREVIEW intervention attrition after successful weight loss were examined. Methods Participants (1,856) who started the weight maintenance phase after completion of low-energy diet were retrospectively divided into three clusters depending on the point they left the trial. Discriminant analysis examined which demographic and theory-based sociocognitive variables were associated with cluster membership. Results Most of the participants were women and well-educated. Two discriminant functions were calculated (?2(24) = 247.0, p ≥ .05, d = 0.78). The demographic variables, such as age and ethnicity, and the social cognitive variable outcome expectancies on the other side were associated with cluster membership. Older age, Caucasian ethnicity, and fewer expected disadvantages of PA were associated with high success. Discussion The discriminant model gave insight into some factors associated with early attrition. For practitioners planning interventions it underlines the necessity to take extra attention to younger participants and to those being afraid that being physically active causes unpleasant ramifications.
  • Ekstam, Ulrika; Korhonen, Johan; Linnanmäki, Karin; Aunio, Pirjo (2017)
    Teacher efficacy beliefs is an important characteristic to predict instructional quality and the level of cognitive activation and educational support. Since teacher efficacy beliefs are context and domain specific, this study focuses on how special education pre-service teachers' individual interest and subject knowledge in mathematics predict their efficacy beliefs in teaching mathematics. Data were collected from 57 special education pre-service teachers. The results indicated that the individual interest of pre-service teachers has a strong effect on teacher efficacy beliefs, while subject knowledge has only an indirect effect. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Tuominen, Heta; Juntunen, Henriikka Mira Maria; Niemivirta, Markku (2020)
    Most studies utilizing a person-oriented approach to investigating students’ achievement goal orientation profiles have been domain-general or focused on a single domain (usually mathematics), thus excluding the possibility of identifying distinct subject-specific motivational profiles. In this study, we looked into this by examining upper secondary school students’ subject-specific achievement goal orientation profiles simultaneously in mathematics and English. As distinct profiles might contribute to how students invest time and effort in studying, we also examined differences in perceived subject-specific cost (i.e., effort required, emotional cost, opportunity cost) among students with different profiles, and how this was linked with students’ more general academic well-being (i.e., school engagement, burnout). The 434 Finnish general upper secondary school students participating in the study were classified based on their achievement goal orientations in the two subjects using latent profile analysis, and the predictions of the latent profile on distal outcomes (i.e., measures of cost and academic well-being) were examined within the mixture model. Five divergent achievement goal orientation profiles were identified: indifferent (29%), success-oriented (26%), mastery-oriented (25%), English-oriented, math-avoidant (14%), and avoidance-oriented (6%). The English-oriented, math-avoidant students showed the most distinct domain-specificity in their profile but, in general, profiles indicated more cross-domain generality than specificity. Overall, mastery-oriented students showed the most adaptive academic well-being, while avoidance-oriented students were the least engaged. Success-oriented students were characterised by high multiple goals in both subjects, elevated costs, and high scores on both positive (engagement) and negative (burnout) well-being indicators. The English-oriented, math-avoidant students perceived studying math as costly. The findings suggest that addressing students’ achievement motivation in different subjects may be useful for recognising factors endangering or fostering student learning and well-being.
  • Väisänen, Sanna; Pietarinen, Janne; Pyhältö, Kirsi; Toom, Auli; Soini, Tiina (2018)
    The study aims to gain a better understanding of the function of proactive strategies in buffering study burnout among student teachers at the early stage of their studies. There is some evidence that the use of active social coping strategies during studies is related to reduced burnout levels among early career teachers. Less is known about the association between the proactive strategies and burnout among student teachers. Altogether, 244 Finnish student teachers completed the survey. The data were analysed by using SEM. The results suggested that the proactive strategies adopted by student teachers seem to prevent study-related burnout, especially in terms of exhaustion in studies and inadequacy in studying, but not directly the perceived cynicism towards studies. The results imply that learning how to use proactive strategies is functional in coping with study-related stressors, by reducing the risk of student teachers' burnout.
  • Sepp, Anu; Hietanen, Lenita; Enbuska, Jukka; Tuisku, Vesa; Ruokonen, Inkeri; Ruismäki, Heikki (2018)
    In Finland, music subject is part of National Core Curriculum and in the primary school stage (grades 1-6) usually taught by primary school teachers. To assure instruction of music education on a highly professional level, pre-service teachers are taught piano course as part of music didactics. This article reports findings of the pilot study carried out as part of ArcTop research project between University of Lapland and University of Helsinki to develop and improve primary school teacher education in both institutions. Students' expectations and reflections are examined through the lens of self-efficacy theory by Bandura (1977, 1986, 1997). The data were collected using an open-ended questionnaire to find out students experiences in piano playing and music reading as well as their self-reflections about the learning process. The answers (n = 97) were processed statistically and analysed using qualitative content analysis. The results revealed that most of the participants (n = 64) were inexperienced in piano playing. At the same time they were highly motivated and eager to learn and practice. The students also mentioned the lack of elementary music literacy knowledge and the insufficient number of contact lessons which give grounds for making further arrangements in the curriculum.
  • Ranta, Mette; Salmela-Aro, Katariina (2018)
    A key developmental task in young adulthood is acquiring financial capability (Serido, Shim, & Tang, 2013), meaning competent financial management skills and the responsibilities that these involve. This study extends previous research on the theoretical model of the development of financial capability, including financial confidence (or financial self-efficacy) and financial behavior as factors contributing to subjective and financial well-being. It is part of the Finnish Educational Transitions Studies (FinEdu) longitudinal research project. Participants were 418 young adults aged 24–25 at Time 1 and 26–27 at Time 2. Path and mediation models and Structural Equation Modeling following a modified theoretical model of financial capability were estimated. The results support the theoretical model of financial capability among young adults in Finland. The study complements previous research by investigating the associations between subjective financial situation and financial capability and their respective mediation effects over time.
  • Pyhältö, Kirsi; Pietarinen, Janne; Haverinen, Kaisa; Tikkanen, Lotta; Soini, Tiina (2021)
    Teacher burnout has been identified as a significant occupational hazard. However, our understanding about individual variations in burnout risk among in-service teachers is still less than sufficient. This study explored socio-contextual burnout risk profiles and their association with the reported use of proactive strategies among in-service teachers by using a person-oriented approach. The survey data were collected from 2310 Finnish in-service primary and lower secondary school teachers using a probability sampling method. In the latent profile analysis, five socio-contextual burnout profiles were identified. The profiles differed from each other in terms of burnout symptoms and proactive strategy use. Results suggested that there is individual variation in teachers’ risk of burnout. In addition, the results imply that well-developed proactive strategies, both in terms of self- and co-regulative strategies, are related to lower risk of experiencing socio-contextual burnout. The utilization of strong co-regulative strategies was related to lower risk of experiencing exhaustion and inadequacy during teacher-pupil interactions. However, strong self-regulation combined with low levels of co-regulation was related to an increased risk of experiencing cynicism. This implies that learning proactive strategies may be useful in preventing teacher burnout.