Browsing by Subject "SELF-ESTEEM"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-10 of 10
  • Kellezi, Blerina; Guxholli, Aurora; Stevenson, Clifford; Ruth Helen Wakefield, Juliet; Bowe, Mhairi; Bridger, Kay (2021)
    Although Social Cure research shows the importance of family identification in one's ability to cope with stress, there remains little understanding of family responses to human rights violations. This is the first study to explore the role of family identity in the collective experience of such violations: meanings ascribed to suffering, family coping strategies, and family-based understandings of justice. Semi-structured interviews (N = 27) with Albanian dictatorship survivors were analysed using Social Identity Theory informed thematic analysis. The accounts reveal Social Cure processes at work, whereby family groups facilitated shared meaning-making, uncertainty reduction, continuity, resilience-building, collective self-esteem, and support, enhanced through common fate experiences. As well as being curative, families were contexts for Social Curse processes, as relatives shared suffering and consequences collectively, while also experiencing intergenerational injustice and trauma. Although seeking and achieving justice remain important, the preservation of family identity is one of the triumphs in these stories of suffering.
  • Henttonen, Pentti; Salmi, Juha; Peräkylä, Anssi; Krusemark, Elizabeth A. (2022)
    Continued interest in the distinction between grandiose narcissism, vulnerable narcissism and the fluctuation between grandiose and vulnerable states has expanded the repertoire of self-report instruments. The present study examined the psychometric properties of four brief narcissism measures [the Narcissistic Personality Inventory-13 (NPI-13), Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale (HSNS), Super-Brief Pathological Narcissism Inventory (SB-PNI), and the g-FLUX] in a Finnish sample of university students. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the reliability of the NPI-13, g-FLUX, SB-PNI Vulnerability, and two HSNS subfactors (Oversensitivity and Egocentrism). Tests of measurement invariance indicated the NPI-13, SB-PNI Vulnerability, HSNS Oversensitivity, and the g-FLUX perform similarly between males and females and are generally similar between individuals in younger and older age groups. Construct and predictive validity were evaluated by examining relations between narcissism measures and relevant criteria including psychopathology symptoms, self-esteem, well-being, five factor traits, and empathy. Results supported the construct validity of all four measures, while correlational profiles highlighted the convergence between the g-FLUX and measures of both grandiosity and vulnerability. The NPI-13 was most predictive of NPD symptoms, whereas vulnerable narcissism measures were most predictive of psychopathology. Results further establish the psychometric properties of the NPI-13, SB-PNI Vulnerability, HSNS Oversensitivity, Egocentrism, and provide new validation of the g-FLUX.
  • Gluschkoff, Kia; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Jokela, Markus; Viikari, Jorma; Raitakari, Olli; Hintsanen, Mirka (2017)
    Background: Both hostile parenting and parental psychopathology have been shown to predict depression in the offspring. However, whether and how they interact in predicting the longitudinal course of depression from adolescence to adulthood remains unclear. Methods: Participants were from the prospective Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study, aged 3-18 years at baseline in 1980. We used multilevel modeling for repeated measurements to examine the associations of hostile parenting (i.e., parental intolerance and emotional distance) and parental history of psychopathology with trajectories of depressive symptoms across five study phases from 1992 to 2012. Results: On average, depressive symptoms decreased in a curvilinear pattern with age. A relatively steep decreasing trend was also observed among offspring of parents with a history of psychopathology but low intolerance. By contrast, among the offspring of parents with a history of psychopathology and high intolerance there was a rising trend in depressive symptoms starting from young adulthood. There was no similar interaction between parental history of psychopathology, emotional distance, and age. Limitations: Non-standardized, parental self-report scales were used to measure hostile parenting. The observed effects were small, and the depressive symptoms scale applied in the study may not be used for measuring clinical depression. Conclusions: Parental psychopathology might render individuals sensitive to the unfavorable characteristics of the caregiving environment. Intolerance towards the child can exacerbate the effects of parental psychopathology and have a long-term significance on the developmental trajectory of depressive symptoms over the life course.
  • Kaakinen, Markus; Sirola, Anu; Savolainen, Iina; Oksanen, Atte (2020)
    Online hate is widely identified as a social problem, but its social psychological dimensions are yet to be explored. We used an integrative social psychological framework for analyzing online hate offending and found that both personal risk factors and online group behavior were associated with online hate offending. Study 1, based on socio-demographically balanced survey data (N = 1200) collected from Finnish adolescents and young adults, found that impulsivity and internalizing symptoms were positively associated with online hate offending. Furthermore, social homophily was positively associated with online hate offending but only among those with average or high level of internalizing symptoms. Social identification with online communities was not associated with hate offending. In Study 2, based on a vignette experiment (N = 160), online hate offenders were more likely than others to rely on in-group stereotypes (i.e. self-stereotype) in anonymous online interaction and, as a consequence, follow perceived group norms. These associations were found only when a shared group identity was primed. We conclude that both personal risk factors and group behavior are related to online hate but they have different implications for reducing hateful communication in social media.
  • Nukari, Johanna M.; Laasonen, Marja R.; Arkkila, Eva P.; Haapanen, Marja-Leena; Lipsanen, Jari O.; Poutiainen, Erja T. (2022)
    Effectiveness of individual- and group-based neuropsychological intervention on aspects of psychological well-being of dyslexic adults was evaluated. Dyslexic young adults (n = 120) were randomly assigned into individual intervention, group intervention or wait-list control group. Both interventions focussed on cognitive strategy learning, supporting self-esteem, and using psychoeducation. In group format peer support was also utilized. Cognitive and behavioural strategies, mood states, quality of life and self-esteem were assessed via self-report questionnaires at baseline, after the intervention/wait-list control time at 5 months and 10 months. Results indicated that the neuropsychological interventions had a positive effect on self-evaluated cognitive and behavioural strategies, especially in increasing success expectations and to a lesser degree in diminishing task-avoidance and in group intervention in diminishing social pessimism. The interventions also improved cognition-related quality of life and, to a lesser degree, self-esteem. These results indicate that structured neuropsychological interventions can positively affect self-evaluated psychological well-being, especially on cognitive and behavioural strategies. Considering the secondary consequences of dyslexia, support among young adults is often needed beyond the cognitive and reading-based challenges dyslexia poses.
  • Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Lankinen, Vilma; Marttunen, Mauri; Lindberg, Nina; Frojd, Sari (2016)
    Overweight is reportedly a risk factor for being bullied, and body image may mediate this association. Research on associations between overweight and bullying has so far only focused on children and early adolescents. We explored associations between actual and perceived overweight at age 15 and involvement in bullying at ages 15 and 17. A total of 2070 Finnish adolescents responded to a survey at ages 15 and 17. Self-reported weight and height, perceived weight and involvement in bullying were elicited. Being overweight at age 15 was not associated with being bullied or with being a bully at age 15 or 17. Perceived overweight among girls was associated with subsequent involvement in bullying as a bully and in feeling shunned. Weight related bullying may decrease from pre- and early adolescence to middle adolescence. The associations between perceived overweight and self-identification as a bully, and those between perceived overweight and feeling isolated may be explained by the phenomena representing psychological dysfunction. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Pelkonen, Mirjami; Marttunen, Mauri; Aro, Hillevi (2003)
    Background: Few longitudinal studies have attempted to identify risk factors in mid-adolescence for subsequent depression in young adulthood. Mid-adolescence is a critical developmental phase for studying vulnerability to depression due to high incidence and prevalence of depression. Methods: In a longitudinal study, following an urban Finnish community cohort (761 males and 887 females) from age 16, mid-adolescent risk factors for depression at age 22 years were studied. Data were collected by a questionnaire at school at age 16, and by a postal questionnaire at age 22. Results: Of the females 116 (13%) and of the males 69 (9%) had depression (S-BDI) in young adulthood. In multivariate analyses baseline depressive symptoms, low self-esteem, dissatisfaction with academic achievement, problems with the law, poor atmosphere at home and having no close friends predicted subsequent depression. Risk factors for males included more 'externalizing' aspects, for females more 'internalizing' factors. Conclusions: Mid-adolescence is an important age to study risk for depression, and self-reported perceptions of psychosocial well-being have predictive value. Preventive efforts can be selectively targeted at adolescents who have been exposed to identifiable risk factors. (C) 2002 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Berg, Noora; Kiviruusu, Olli; Grundström, Jenna; Huurre, Taina; Marttunen, Mauri (2021)
    Purpose This cohort profile describes the Stress, development and mental health study (TAM), which is a cohort study investigating risk and protective factors as well as longitudinal associations regarding mental health and well-being from adolescence to midlife. This interdisciplinary cohort study operates, for example, in the fields of public health, social medicine, psychiatry and the life course perspective. Participants In 1981 (n=2242, 98.0% of the target population), 1982 (n=2191, 95.6%) and 1983 (n=2194, 96.7%) during school classes, surveys were conducted to all Finnish-speaking pupils (mostly born 1967) in the Tampere region in Finland. Participants of the school study at age 16 in 1983 (n=2194) comprised the base population for the longitudinal data and were followed-up using postal questionnaires in the years 1989, 1999, 2009 and 2019 at ages 22 (n=1656, 75.5% of the age 16 participants), 32 (n=1471, 67.0%), 42 (n=1334, 60.8%) and 52 (n=1160, 52.9%). Findings to date The self-reported questionnaires include information on physical and mental health (eg, depression and mood disorders, anxiety disorders), health behaviour and substance misuse (eg, alcohol, tobacco and exercise), socioeconomic conditions, psychosocial resources (eg, self-esteem), social relationships and support, life events, etc. The numerous studies published to date have examined mental health and various factors from several perspectives such as risk and protective factors, individual developmental paths (eg, trajectories) and pathway models (mediation and moderation). Future plans Current and future research areas include, for example, longitudinal associations between mental health (eg, depressive symptoms, self-esteem) and (1) substance use (alcohol and tobacco), (2) family transitions (eg, parenthood, relationship status) and (3) retirement. Next follow-up is planned to be conducted at the latest at age 62 in 2029. Before that it is possible to link the data with cause-of-death register.
  • Savolainen, Iina; Oksanen, Atte; Kaakinen, Markus; Sirola, Anu; Zych, Izabela; Paek, Hye-Jin (2021)
    The Internet and technologies have increased gambling opportunities globally, normalizing gambling among young individuals. Youth are active Internet users and susceptible to group norms, but little is known about group behavior and norms in online interaction. This study examined if following perceived majority opinions about gambling content (i.e., gambling norms) in online interaction is associated with youth problem gambling. Participants were 15-25-year-old youths in Finland (n = 1200; 50% female), South Korea (n = 1192; 50.42% female), Spain (n = 1212; 48.76% female), and the United States (n = 1212; 50.17% female). The participants took an online survey including a vignette experiment. In the vignette experiment, half of the participants were assigned to an in-group condition. The participants saw simulated gambling-themed social media messages with manipulated majority reactions. Norm conformity online was assessed using a within-person calculation. Norm conformity online was associated with youth problem gambling in all countries. In South Korea, this association was moderated by in-group norm source. The results indicate that young people who engage in problematic gambling may be more susceptible to conforming to perceived gambling norms online, but cultural differences exist. Intervention strategies should utilize educative online programs providing young problem gamblers accurate information about gambling.
  • Kaakinen, Markus; Sirola, Anu; Savolainen, Iina; Oksanen, Atte (2020)
    Introduction and Aims Online gambling advertising and user-generated gambling content have increased. This study used a social psychological online experiment to analyse young people's reactions towards and self-reported interests in social media gambling messages. Design and Methods A vignette experiment with a two-level between-subjects factor (group condition or control condition) and three two-level within-subjects factors (expressed stance on gambling, narrative perspective and majority opinion) was conducted with two samples of young Finnish people aged 15 to 25 years (N = 1200, 50% female, mean age 21.29 years) and 15 to 30 years (N = 230, 53% female, mean age 24.35 years). Participants were asked to indicate how they would react to presented gambling messages (i.e. like or dislike the content) and how interesting would the content appear to them. In addition to experimental factors, the Attitudes Towards Gambling Scale and a global self-esteem measure were used as the independent variables. A statistical analysis included multilevel linear and logistic regressions. Results Young people preferred anti-gambling messages instead of pro-gambling messages. This effect was moderated by personal gambling attitudes as participants with highly positive gambling attitudes preferred pro-gambling content. Fact-driven messages were favoured over experience-driven messages. Positive majority opinions predicted more favourable reactions and positive interest. Discussion and Conclusions Young people prefer anti-gambling content and factual argumentation but their online behaviour is also influenced by perceived group norms. The potential risks of online gambling promotion mainly concern young people already interested in gambling.