Browsing by Subject "SELF-RATED HEALTH"

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  • Lautamatti, E.; Sumanen, M.; Raivio, R.; Mattila, K. J. (2020)
    Background Satisfaction is a major element in assessing quality of care. It has decreased in Finland in recent decades as well as continuity of care. We investigated which demographic, health-related, and local health care service factors, especially continuity of care, are associated with the population's satisfaction with local health care services. Methods The data are part of the Health and Social Support (HeSSup) study's follow-up questionnaire in 2012. The study is based on a random Finnish population sample. Satisfaction was studied based on the question "How satisfied are you with your local health care services?" Demographic factors, obesity, self-assessed health status, depressive mood (BDI-12 questionnaire), New York Heart Association class, and chronic diseases were asked in the questionnaire. Questions describing local health care services were also presented. We assessed the association of an assigned and named GP and the respondents' proactivity in contacting the same doctor with satisfaction. We used crosstabulation and binary logistic regression in the analyses. Results The Health and Social Support study was answered in 2012 by 15,993 participants (45.4%) and majority (61.3%) was satisfied with their local health care services. An assigned and named GP (OR 1.79; 95% CI 1.67-1.92) and the respondent's proactivity in contacting the same doctor (OR 1.23; 95% CI 1.15-1.32) were associated with satisfaction in the adjusted multivariate analysis. BDI score <19 had the strongest association with satisfaction (OR 1.91; 95% CI 1.65-2.23). Older participants, males, and those in a relationship were more likely to be satisfied. Conclusions A named GP in primary care proved to have a positive correlation with patient satisfaction. Depression was associated with decreased satisfaction. A named GP indicates continuity of care, and it should be seriously considered when planning treatment for patients with chronic conditions.
  • Vos, Theo; Allen, Christine; Arora, Megha; Barber, Ryan M.; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Brown, Alexandria; Carter, Austin; Casey, Daniel C.; Charlson, Fiona J.; Chen, Alan Z.; Coggeshall, Megan; Cornaby, Leslie; Dandona, Lalit; Dicker, Daniel J.; Dilegge, Tina; Erskine, Holly E.; Ferrari, Alize J.; Fitzmaurice, Christina; Fleming, Tom; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.; Fullman, Nancy; Gething, Peter W.; Goldberg, Ellen M.; Graetz, Nicholas; Haagsma, Juanita A.; Johnson, Catherine O.; Kassebaum, Nicholas J.; Kawashima, Toana; Kemmer, Laura; Khalil, Ibrahim A.; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kyu, Hmwe H.; Leung, Janni; Liang, Xiaofeng; Lim, Stephen S.; Lopez, Alan D.; Lozano, Rafael; Marczak, Laurie; Mensah, George A.; Mokdad, Ali H.; Naghavi, Mohsen; Nguyen, Grant; Nsoesie, Elaine; Olsen, Helen; Pigott, David M.; Pinho, Christine; Lallukka, Tea; Meretoja, Atte; Meretoja, Tuomo J.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; GBD 2015 Dis Injury Incidence (2016)
    Background Non-fatal outcomes of disease and injury increasingly detract from the ability of the world's population to live in full health, a trend largely attributable to an epidemiological transition in many countries from causes affecting children, to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) more common in adults. For the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015), we estimated the incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for diseases and injuries at the global, regional, and national scale over the period of 1990 to 2015. Methods We estimated incidence and prevalence by age, sex, cause, year, and geography with a wide range of updated and standardised analytical procedures. Improvements from GBD 2013 included the addition of new data sources, updates to literature reviews for 85 causes, and the identification and inclusion of additional studies published up to November, 2015, to expand the database used for estimation of non-fatal outcomes to 60 900 unique data sources. Prevalence and incidence by cause and sequelae were determined with DisMod-MR 2.1, an improved version of the DisMod-MR Bayesian meta-regression tool first developed for GBD 2010 and GBD 2013. For some causes, we used alternative modelling strategies where the complexity of the disease was not suited to DisMod-MR 2.1 or where incidence and prevalence needed to be determined from other data. For GBD 2015 we created a summary indicator that combines measures of income per capita, educational attainment, and fertility (the Socio-demographic Index [SDI]) and used it to compare observed patterns of health loss to the expected pattern for countries or locations with similar SDI scores. Findings We generated 9.3 billion estimates from the various combinations of prevalence, incidence, and YLDs for causes, sequelae, and impairments by age, sex, geography, and year. In 2015, two causes had acute incidences in excess of 1 billion: upper respiratory infections (17.2 billion, 95% uncertainty interval [UI] 15.4-19.2 billion) and diarrhoeal diseases (2.39 billion, 2.30-2.50 billion). Eight causes of chronic disease and injury each affected more than 10% of the world's population in 2015: permanent caries, tension-type headache, iron-deficiency anaemia, age-related and other hearing loss, migraine, genital herpes, refraction and accommodation disorders, and ascariasis. The impairment that affected the greatest number of people in 2015 was anaemia, with 2.36 billion (2.35-2.37 billion) individuals affected. The second and third leading impairments by number of individuals affected were hearing loss and vision loss, respectively. Between 2005 and 2015, there was little change in the leading causes of years lived with disability (YLDs) on a global basis. NCDs accounted for 18 of the leading 20 causes of age-standardised YLDs on a global scale. Where rates were decreasing, the rate of decrease for YLDs was slower than that of years of life lost (YLLs) for nearly every cause included in our analysis. For low SDI geographies, Group 1 causes typically accounted for 20-30% of total disability, largely attributable to nutritional deficiencies, malaria, neglected tropical diseases, HIV/AIDS, and tuberculosis. Lower back and neck pain was the leading global cause of disability in 2015 in most countries. The leading cause was sense organ disorders in 22 countries in Asia and Africa and one in central Latin America; diabetes in four countries in Oceania; HIV/AIDS in three southern sub-Saharan African countries; collective violence and legal intervention in two north African and Middle Eastern countries; iron-deficiency anaemia in Somalia and Venezuela; depression in Uganda; onchoceriasis in Liberia; and other neglected tropical diseases in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Interpretation Ageing of the world's population is increasing the number of people living with sequelae of diseases and injuries. Shifts in the epidemiological profile driven by socioeconomic change also contribute to the continued increase in years lived with disability (YLDs) as well as the rate of increase in YLDs. Despite limitations imposed by gaps in data availability and the variable quality of the data available, the standardised and comprehensive approach of the GBD study provides opportunities to examine broad trends, compare those trends between countries or subnational geographies, benchmark against locations at similar stages of development, and gauge the strength or weakness of the estimates available. Copyright (C) The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Dobewall, Henrik; Lindfors, Pirjo; Karvonen, Sakari; Koivusilta, Leena; Vainikainen, Mari-Pauliina; Hotulainen, Risto; Rimpelä, Arja (2019)
  • Strandberg, T.; Levalahti, E.; Ngandu, T.; Solomon, A.; Kivipelto, M.; Lehtisalo, J.; Laatikainen, T.; Soininen, H.; Antikainen, R.; Jula, A.; Tuomilehto, J.; Peltonen, M.; Lindstrom, J.; Rauramaa, R.; Pajala, S.; Hanninen, T.; Solomon, A.; Paajanen, T.; Mangialasche, F.; FINGER Study Grp (2017)
    Introduction: The Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER) successfully demonstrated that multidomain lifestyle intervention can improve or maintain cognitive functioning in at-risk individuals. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was a secondary endpoint. Methods: The intervention (n = 631) aimed at healthy diet, increased physical activity, cognitive training, and vascular risk management. The control group (n = 629) was given general health advice. HRQoL was assessed at baseline, 12, and 24 months using validated RAND-36 (SF-36) instrument with 8 scales. Results: During the 2-year intervention period, mean scores in all scales decreased in the control group, but increased in the intervention group for vitality (12 months), social function (12 months), and especially general health at both 12 and 24 months. There was a statistically significant beneficial effect of intervention on the change in general health and physical function at 12 and 24 months. Conclusion: Multidomain lifestyle intervention improved also important dimensions of HRQoL. (C) 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS and European Union Geriatric Medicine Society. All rights reserved.
  • Einiö, Elina; Goisis, Alice; Myrskylä, Mikko (2019)
    Becoming a father, particularly for the first time, is a central transition in men's lives, and whether this transition takes place early or later in life may have important ramifications on the whole later life course. Previous research has shown that men who father their first child early in life have poorer later-life health than men who postpone having children. However, it is not known how selection by cognitive ability and other childhood characteristics confound the association between the timing of fatherhood and later-life health, or how the association is changing over time as parenthood is postponed to an older age. We investigate the association between men's age at the birth of their first child and midlife self-rated health in two British cohorts born in 1958 and 1970. The study employs logit models. Relative to men who had their first child when they were between 25 and 29 years old, men who had their first child before the age of 20 have the poorest health, followed by men who had a child when they were 20-24 years old. This result was observed in both cohorts. Childhood cognitive ability, which previous research has not analyzed, strongly contributed to this association, and to a greater extent than other childhood characteristics. For the 1970 cohort, those who became fathers at age 35 or older had the best health. This advantage was not found for the 1958 cohort. These findings suggest that the relationship between young age at fatherhood and midlife health is strongly confounded by cognitive ability, and that in recent cohorts a new pattern of advantage among older fathers has emerged.
  • Mattila, Vesa Mikko; Rapeli, Lauri (2018)
    This article explores two theoretical possibilities for why personal health may affect political trust: the psychological-democratic contract theory, and the role of personal experience in opinion formation. It argues that citizens with health impairments are more likely to experience the direct effects of political decisions as they are more dependent on public health services. Negative subjective evaluations of public services can lower trust levels, especially if people's expectations are high. Using European Social Survey data, the association between health and trust in 19 Western European states is analysed. The results indicate that people in poor health exhibit lower levels of trust towards the political system than people in good health. The differences in trust between those in good and poor health are accentuated among citizens with left-leaning ideological values. The results suggest that welfare issues may constitute a rare context in which personal, rather than collective, experiences affect opinion formation.
  • Yokoyama, Yoshie; Hakulinen, Tuovi; Sugimoto, Masako; Silventoinen, Karri; Kalland, Mirjam (2018)
    Background: Maternal well-being is an important issue not only for mothers but also for their offspring and whole families. This study aims to clarify differences in subjective well-being for mothers with infants and associated factors by comparing Japanese and Finnish mothers. Methods: In Finland, 101 mothers with infants who received health check-ups at child's age 4 months participated in the study. In Japan, 505 mothers with infants who should receive health check-ups at child's age 4 months and, whose age, age of the infant and number of children matched with the Finnish mothers were selected. The factors associated with maternal subjective well-being were explored by the linear regression analysis. All Finnish mothers had individual infant health check-ups by nurses in Child Health Clinics nearly monthly. The same nurse was responsible for following up the family throughout the years. All Japanese participants received group health check-up once at child's age 3 to 4 months, and a nurse did not cover same child and their mother. Results: Finnish mothers showed significantly better subjective well-being compared with Japanese mothers. Whereas 85% of Finnish mothers responded that they had obtained childcare information from public health nurses, significantly fewer Japanese mothers indicated the same response (8%). Linear regression analyses disclosed that mothers' subjective well-being was associated with country, mothers' stress and age. Conclusion: Finnish mothers had better subjective well-being than Japanese mothers. Our results may indicate that the Finnish health care system supports mothers better than the Japanese health care system does.
  • Urtamo, Annele; Huohvanainen, Emmi; Pitkälä, Kaisu H.; Strandberg, Timo E. (2019)
    BackgroundActive and healthy aging (AHA) is an important phenomenon in aging societies.AimsOur aim was to investigate midlife predictors of AHA in a socioeconomically homogenous male cohort.MethodsIn 2010, AHA was defined in the Helsinki Businessmen Study (men born in 1919-1934) with six criteria: (1) being alive, (2) responding to the mailed survey, (3) no reported cognitive problems, (4) feeling of happiness, (5) no difficulties in activities of daily living (ADL), and (6) no significant chronic diseases. Midlife factors were assessed in 1974 (n=1759, mean age 47years). Of the survivors in 2010 (n=839), 10.0% (n=84) fulfilled all AHA criteria, whilst 13.7% (n=115) had chronic diseases but fulfilled other five criteria. Midlife predictors of AHA were analyzed with logistic models.ResultsOf the midlife factors, smoking [Odds ratio (OR) 0.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.25-0.77], higher body mass index (BMI) (OR 0.75, 0.59-0.96), andhigher total cholesterol (OR 0.76, 0.60-0.97)prevented significantly full AHA criteria, whereas higher self-rated health (SRH) (OR 1.73, 1.07-2.80) predicted significantly offulfilling all AHA criteria. Midlife smoking (OR 0.87, 0.84-0.91), higher BMI (OR 0.73, 0.61-0.86), andhigher alcohol consumption (OR 0.73, 0.60-0.90)prevented significantly of fulfilling the five AHA criteria with chronic diseases, and higher SRH (OR 1.90, 1.37-2.63) predictedsignificantly thefive AHA criteria (chronic diseases present).DiscussionOur study suggests that midlife factors, especially good SRH and low levels of cardiovascular risk factors, are associated with AHA.ConclusionsThe study emphasizes the importance of life-course predictors of healthy aging.
  • Kontro, Titta Katariina; Sarna, Seppo; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kujala, Urho M. (2018)
    Background There is conflicting evidence on the associations between participation in vigorous sports, health habits, familial factors and subsequent mortality. We investigated all-cause mortality and health-related behaviour among former elite athletes and their brothers. Methods The mortality of Finnish male former elite athletes, who had represented Finland between 1920 and 1965 (n=900) and their age-matched brothers (n=900), was followed from the time when athlete started an elite athlete career until 31 December 2015. The age-adjusted HRs were calculated by a paired Cox proportional hazards model. In 2001, surviving participants (n=199 athletes and n=199 age-matched brothers) reported their self-rated health (SRH), physical activity, alcohol consumption and smoking habits in the questionnaire. Results During the total follow-up period, 1296 deaths (72% of the cohort) occurred. The age-adjusted HRs for all-cause mortality in former athletes was 0.75 (95% CI 0.65 to 0.87, P Conclusions Former elite athletes are more physically active, smoke less, have better self-rated health and live longer than their brothers. Genetic differences between athletes and brothers, aerobic training for endurance elite sports and a healthier lifestyle may all contribute to reduced mortality.
  • Pekurinen, Virve; Willman, Laura; Virtanen, Marianna; Kivimaki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi; Valimaki, Maritta (2017)
    Wellbeing of nurses is associated with patient aggression. Little is known about the differences in these associations between nurses working in different specialties. We aimed to estimate and compare the prevalence of patient aggression and the associations between patient aggression and the wellbeing of nurses in psychiatric and non-psychiatric specialties (medical and surgical, and emergency medicine). A sample of 5288 nurses (923 psychiatric nurses, 4070 medical and surgical nurses, 295 emergency nurses) participated in the study. Subjective measures were used to assess both the occurrence of patient aggression and the wellbeing of nurses (self-rated health, sleep disturbances, psychological distress and perceived work ability). Binary logistic regression with interaction terms was used to compare the associations between patient aggression and the wellbeing of nurses. Psychiatric nurses reported all types of patient aggression more frequently than medical and surgical nurses, whereas nurses working in emergency settings reported physical violence and verbal aggression more frequently than psychiatric nurses. Psychiatric nurses reported poor self-rated health and reduced work ability more frequently than both of the non-psychiatric nursing groups, whereas medical and surgical nurses reported psychological distress and sleep disturbances more often. Psychiatric nurses who had experienced at least one type of patient aggression or mental abuse in the previous year, were less likely to suffer from psychological distress and sleep disturbances compared to medical and surgical nurses. Psychiatric nurses who had experienced physical assaults and armed threats were less likely to suffer from sleep disturbances compared to nurses working in emergency settings. Compared to medical and surgical nurses, psychiatric nurses face patient aggression more often, but certain types of aggression are more common in emergency settings. Psychiatric nurses have worse subjective health and work ability than both of the non-psychiatric nursing groups, while their psychiatric wellbeing is better and they have less sleep problems compared to medical and surgical nurses. Psychiatric nurses maintain better psychiatric wellbeing and experience fewer sleep problems than non-psychiatric nurses after events of exposure to patient aggression. This suggest that more attention should be given to non-psychiatric settings for maintaining the wellbeing of nurses after exposure to patient aggression.
  • Sahrakorpi, Niina; Koivusalo, Saila B.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Kautiainen, Hannu; Stach-Lempinen, Beata; Roine, Risto P. (2017)
    Objectives To assess the associations of perceived financial satisfaction and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and depressive symptoms in an unselected pregnant population in early pregnancy. Methods 750 consecutive pregnant women attending the first communal ultrasound examination before gestational week 14 were invited to participate. Questionnaires assessing HRQoL (15D), depressive symptoms (Edinburgh Depression Scale, EPDS), medical, obstetric, and socioeconomic status were handed out. The participants were divided into three groups according to their satisfaction with their financial status, (unsatisfied, somewhat satisfied, and satisfied). Main outcome measures were 15D and EPDS-scores and dimensions of HRQoL. Results 325 (43,3%) questionnaires were returned. The mean 15D-score for HRQoL was 0,926 (SD 0,056). The financially unsatisfied women had lower HRQoL than women in more satisfied groups (0.906, 0.923 and 0.931, p = 0.012). The result remained significant, even after adjusting for age and education(p = 0.032). The unsatisfied women had a higher mean body mass index (BMI) (25.4, 24.4 and 23.2 kg/m(2), p for linearity = 0.002), were more often smokers, (13 vs. 4 and 3%, p = 0.029), and had experienced at least one abortion (18, 14 and 7%, p = 0.017). Dimensions of depression, distress and sleep explained the differences between the groups. 27% of unsatisfied women scored EPDS ae10 points suggesting increased risk of depression. Conclusions Financial satisfaction in early pregnancy associates with HRQoL and risk of perinatal depressive symptoms. Unsatisfied women more often have risk factors for unfavourable pregnancy outcomes which may influence the later health and wellbeing of the mother and child.
  • Lavonius, Sirkku; Salminen, Marika; Vahlberg, Tero; Isoaho, Raimo; Kivelä, Sirkka-Liisa; Wuorela, Maarit; Lopponen, Minna; Viitanen, Matti; Viikari, Laura (2020)
    Purpose Psychosocial resources have been considered to be associated with survival among frail older adults but the evidence is scarce. The aim was to investigate whether psychosocial resources are related to survival among non-robust community-dwelling older people. Methods This is a prospective study with 10- and 18-year follow-ups. Participants were 909 non-robust (according to Rockwood's Frailty Index) older community-dwellers in Finland. Psychosocial resources were measured with living circumstances, education, satisfaction with friendship and life, visiting other people, being visited by other people, having someone to talk to, having someone who helps, self-rated health (SRH) and hopefulness about the future. To assess the association of psychosocial resources for survival, Cox regression analyses was used. Results Visiting other people more often than once a week compared to that of less than once a week (hazard ratio 0.61 [95% confidence interval 0.44-0.85], p = 0.003 in 10-year follow-up; 0.77 [0.62-0.95], p = 0.014 in 18-year follow-up) and good SRH compared to poor SRH (0.65 [0.44-0.97], p = 0.032; 0.68 [0.52-0.90], p = 0.007, respectively) were associated with better survival in both follow-ups. Visiting other people once a week (compared to that of less than once a week) (0.77 [0.62-0.95], p = 0.014) was only associated with better 18-year survival. Conclusions Psychosocial resources, such as regularly visiting other people and good self-rated health, seem to be associated with better survival among non-robust community-dwelling Finnish older people. This underlines the importance of focusing also on psychosocial well-being of frail older subjects to remain or promote their resilience. Key summary pointsAim To investigate whether psychosocial resources are associated with survival among non-robust community-dwelling older Finnish people during an 18-year follow-up. Findings Psychosocial resources, such as good self-rated health and regularly visiting other people, were significantly associated with better survival of non-robust older people. Message It is important to focus also on psychological well-being, together with physical activity and nutrition, of frail older people to remain or promoting their capacity.
  • Josefsson, Kim; Elovainio, Marko; Stenholm, Sari; Kawachi, Ichiro; Kauppi, Maarit; Aalto, Ville; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi (2018)
    Rationale: Extensive scientific evidence shows an association between involvement in social relationships and healthy lifestyle. Prospective studies with many participants and long follow-ups are needed to study the dynamics and change in social factors within individuals over time. Objective: Our aim was to determine whether a change in relationship status (single, married, divorced, widow, cohabiting) is followed by a change in health behavior (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and body mass index). Methods: We used data from 81,925 healthy adults participating in the prospective longitudinal Finnish Public Sector Study in the period 2000-2013. We analyzed 327,700 person-observations from four data collection phases. Missing data were multiply imputed. A within-individual methodology was used to minimize the possibility of selection effects affecting the interpretation. Results: All four health behaviors showed associations with relationship status. The effects were very similar and in the same direction in women and men, although there were gender differences in the magnitudes of the effects. The end of a relationship was followed by a decrease in body mass index, increased odds of being a smoker, increase in physical activity, and increase in alcohol consumption (widowed men). The effects were reverse when forming a new relationship. Conclusion: A change in relationship status is associated with a change in health behavior. The association is not explained by socioeconomic status, subjective health status, or anxiety level. People leaving or losing a relationship are at increased risk of unhealthy behavior (smoking and alcohol consumption), but at the same time they have a lower BMI and show higher physical activity compared to the time they were in a relationship. It is not clear if the cumulative health effect of these health behavior changes is positive or negative.
  • Viljanen, Anna; Salminen, Marika; Irjala, Kerttu; Heikkilä, Elisa; Isoaho, Raimo; Kivelä, Sirkka-Liisa; Korhonen, Päivi; Vahlberg, Tero; Viitanen, Matti; Wuorela, Maarit; Löppönen, Minna; Viikari, Laura (2021)
    Background Objective health measures, such as registered illnesses or frailty, predict mortality and institutionalization in older adults. Also, self-reported assessment of health by simple self-rated health (SRH) has been shown to predict mortality and institutionalization. The aim of this study was to assess the association of objective and subjective health with mortality and institutionalization in Finnish community-dwelling older adults. Methods In this prospective study with 10- and 18-year follow-ups, objective health was measured by registered illnesses and subjective health was evaluated by simple SRH, self-reported walking ability (400 m) and self-reported satisfaction in life. The participants were categorized into four groups according to their objective and subjective health: 1. subjectively and objectively healthy, 2. subjectively healthy and objectively unhealthy, 3. subjectively unhealthy and objectively healthy and 4. subjectively and objectively unhealthy. Cox regression model was used in the analyses. Death was used as a competing factor in the institutionalization analyses. Results The mean age of the participants (n = 1259) was 73.5 years (range 64.0-100.0). During the 10- and 18-year follow-ups, 466 (37%) and 877 (70%) died, respectively. In the institutionalization analyses (n = 1106), 162 (15%) and 328 (30%) participants were institutionalized during the 10- and 18-year follow-ups, respectively. In both follow-ups, being subjectively and objectively unhealthy, compared to being subjectively and objectively healthy, was significantly associated with a higher risk of institutionalization in unadjusted models and with death both in unadjusted and adjusted models. Conclusions The categorization of objective and subjective health into four health groups was good at predicting the risk of death during 10- and 18-year follow-ups, and seemed to also predict the risk of institutionalization in the unadjusted models during both follow-ups. Poor subjective health had an additive effect on poor objective health in predicting mortality and could therefore be used as part of an older individual's health evaluation when screening for future adverse outcomes.
  • Martikainen, Pekka; Elo, Irma; Tarkiainen, Lasse; Mikkonen, Janne; Myrskylä, Mikko; Moustgaard, Heta (2020)
    Background: Life course epidemiology suggests that early life circumstances affect adult mortality, but most of the evidence is based on cohorts born in the beginning of the 20th century. It remains unclear whether and how the influences of early life circumstances on mortality have changed in later birth cohorts. Methods: Analyses rely on 10% register-based samples of households drawn from the 1950 and the 1975 Finnish censuses, with consistent follow-up of socioeconomic and housing-related characteristics and early mid-life mortality (at ages 30-55 years). We estimate survival models for the associations between childhood circumstances and all-cause, internal and external mortality for cohorts born in 1936-50 and 1961-75 adjusting for attained social characteristics. We estimate sibling intraclass correlations as summary measures of all early life and familial influences. Results: Adverse childhood social circumstances were typically associated with about 10-30% excess cause-specific mortality. These associations were almost fully attenuated by adjustment for achieved later life social characteristics. Early life influences have grown over time for mortality from external causes, particularly as related to home ownership and family type. Differentials have remained stable for internal causes. The intraclass correlations further confirmed the increasing association of early life circumstances on external-cause mortality. Conclusions: Our analyses show that the associations between childhood characteristics and mid-life mortality are substantial and almost fully mediated by achieved adult social characteristics. The increase in the contribution of childhood circumstances to mid-life mortality is driven by ever stronger associations with external causes of death.
  • Roos, Eira; Lallukka, Tea; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi (2017)
    Background: Both smoking and obesity are separately associated with sickness absence. Unhealthy lifestyle habits and health conditions may occur concurrently yet studies focusing on their joint association are few. This study examined the joint associations of smoking and obesity with sickness absence (SA). Methods: A mail survey among employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland, during 2000-2002 included data on obesity, smoking and covariates (N = 8960, response rate 67%, 80% women). These data were prospectively linked with register data on self-(1-3 days) and medically certified (4 days or longer) SA among those consenting to the linkage (n = 6986). Pregnant, underweight and those with missing data on key variables were excluded (n = 138). The total number of participants included in the analyses was 6847. The follow-up time was 5 years. Poisson regression was used to calculate rate ratios (RR). Results: Among women and men smoking and obesity were associated with self-certified SA. Among women there was a joint association with self-certified SA (obese smokers RR 1.81, 95% CI 1.59-2.07). Among women and men smoking and obesity were jointly associated with medically certified SA (for obese smoking women RR 2.23, 95% CI 1.93-2.57, for obese smoking men RR 2.69, 95% CI 2.03-3.55). Associations remained after adjustments for socioeconomic position, working conditions, health behaviours and self-rated health. Conclusion: Both smoking and obesity are jointly associated with all lengths of sickness absence. Support measures for smoking cessation and prevention of obesity could likely to reduce SA.