Browsing by Subject "SELF-REGULATION"

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  • Kaukonen, Riikka; Lehto, Elviira; Ray, Carola; Vepsäläinen, Henna; Nissinen, Kaija; Korkalo, Liisa; Koivusilta, Leena; Sajaniemi, Nina; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Roos, Eva (2019)
    Although evidence exists of the association between children's temperament and weight, only few studies have examined how temperament is associated with actual food consumption among preschoolers. We examined concurrent associations between children's temperament and the consumption of different foods, and investigated whether the association between children's temperament and vegetable consumption is mediated by vegetable-related parenting practices. We utilized the data from the cross-sectional DAGIS study of 864 preschool children aged between three to six and their families, conducted between 2015 and 2016 in Finland. The parents reported their children's temperament, food consumption, and their vegetable-related parenting practices. Adjusted logistic regression analyses found positive associations between surgency and vegetable consumption as well as between effortful control and vegetable consumption. Both associations were mediated by one examined vegetable-related parenting practice: enhanced availability and autonomy support. No associations were found between children's negative affectivity and food consumption or vegetable-related parenting practices. In conclusion, children's temperament may be an important factor behind food-related parenting practices and children's diet. However, further longitudinal research and research covering different food-related parenting practices and home environment factors is necessary to better understand the complex associations between temperament and food consumption among young children.
  • Vepsäläinen, Henna; Skaffari, Essi; Wojtkowska, Katarzyna; Barlińska, Julia; Kinnunen, Satu Marjaana; Makkonen, Riikka Kyllikki; Heikkilä, Maria; Lehtovirta, Mikko; Ray, Carola Marie-Lousie; Suhonen, Eira; Nevalainen, Jaakko; Sajaniemi, Nina; Erkkola, Maijaliisa (2022)
    Background: Early childhood education and care (ECEC) centers are ideal venues for food education. As smartphones and tablets are becoming increasingly popular in ECEC centers, technology can be used to deliver such pedagogical content. Evidence suggests that video games can affect fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption among 9-to 12-year-old children, but studies among preschoolers are scarce. Objective: This paper describes the development of the Mole's Veggie Adventures app and its effectiveness in increasing FV acceptance among Finnish and Polish preschoolers aged 3 to 6 years. Methods: A multiprofessional team created an app to be used in ECEC centers in groups of 3 to 10 children. The app aimed to increase vegetable acceptance, and it was built using elements that support the development of self-regulation and social skills. Altogether, 7 Finnish and 4 Polish ECEC centers participated in the study. Before randomization, parents reported background factors and their children's willingness to taste different FVs. The ECEC professionals in the intervention arm were instructed to use the app at least once a week during the 3-to 4-week intervention period. The main outcomes in this unblinded, cluster-randomized study were FV acceptance and relative FV acceptance. The first was calculated as a sum variable describing the children's willingness to taste 25 different FVs, the second as FV acceptance divided by the number of FVs served. We used analysis of covariance to compare the FV acceptance and relative FV acceptance scores between the intervention and control groups at follow-up. Results: A total of 221 children were included in the analysis. At follow-up, the intervention group (115/221, 52%) had higher FV acceptance scores (baseline adjusted difference of mean 7.22; 95% CI 1.41-13.03) than the control group (106/221, 48%). The intervention effect was parallel for relative FV acceptance scores (baseline adjusted difference of mean 0.28; 95% CI 0.05-0.52). Conclusions: The Mole's Veggie Adventures app has the potential to increase FV acceptance among preschoolers and can be a valuable tool in supporting food education in ECEC centers. Furthermore, the app can be feasibly incorporated into preschool routines in countries with different educational environments. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT05173311; https://tinyurl.com/4vfbh283 (JMIR Mhealth Uhealth 2022;10(1):e30352) doi: 10.2196/30352
  • Tang, Xin; Wang, Ming-Te; Guo, Jiesi; Salmela-Aro, Katariina (2019)
    Despite academics' enthusiasm about the concept of grit (defined as consistency of interest and perseverance of effort), its benefit for academic achievement has recently been challenged. Drawing from a longitudinal sample (N=2018; 55.3% female; sixth-nineth grades) from Finland, this study first aimed to investigate and replicate the association between grit and achievement outcomes (i.e., academic achievement and engagement). Further, the present study examined whether growth mindset and goal commitment impacted grit and whether grit acted as a mediator between growth mindset, goal commitment, and achievement outcomes. The results showed that the perseverance facet of grit in the eighth grade was associated with school achievement and engagement in the nineth grade, after controlling for students' conscientiousness, academic persistence, prior achievement and engagement, gender and SES, although the effect on engagement was stronger than on achievement. In addition, grit was predicted by goal commitment in the sixth grade, but not by the growth mindset in the sixth grade. Finally, the perseverance of effort (not the consistency of interest) mediated the effect of goal commitment on engagement. These findings suggest that grit is associated with increased engagement and academic achievement; and practitioners who wish to improve grit of adolescents may encourage goal commitment more than growth mindset.
  • Kesäläinen, Jonna; Suhonen, Eira; Saha, Mari; Sajaniemi, Nina (2022)
    The aim of this study was to examine how children’s stress activation is related to special educational needs (SEN) and temperament in early childhood special education (ECSE). The study had 76 participants from 17 integrated ECSE groups. At the beginning, the children were divided into four status groups as follows: children without SEN, children with language disorders, children with self-regulation difficulties, and children with severe disabilities. The children’s temperament was assessed by their parents. Stress activation was examined by collecting and studying saliva samples from the children on two consecutive days. The results showed no differences between stress activation in the children’s status groups, nor any connections between stress activation and temperament. The high quality of the ECSE groups might explain these results. Further research based on these findings is needed.
  • Asikainen, Henna; Katajavuori, Nina (2021)
    Background: The decline in the well-being among university students well as increasing dropouts has become a serious issue in universities around the world. Thus, effective ways to support students' well-being and their ability to study are highly needed. Objective: The purpose of this study was to build an intervention course for university students, which promotes both students' well-being as well as their learning and study skills, and to describe the experimental study design that explores the effects of this intervention course. Methods: Research has shown that psychological flexibility has a great effect on the well-being as well as the study skills of students pursuing higher education. The basis of our intervention course was to promote psychological flexibility and students' study skills with the help of peer support and reflection. Results: This course was offered as a voluntary course to all the students at the University of Helsinki twice during the academic year 2020-2021. The first course was from October to December and the second course was from January to March. This course was advertised in fall 2020 through social media and by different student organizations and program leaders at different faculties of the University of Helsinki. As of October 2020, we enrolled 566 students comprising 310 students for the course in fall 2020 and 256 students for the course in spring 2021. Of the 256 students who enrolled in the second course, 170 students voluntarily participated in this study and they answered the questionnaires, including all the measures, simultaneously with the participants in the first group and thus served as the control group. The effect of this course will be measured with multiple data, including questionnaire data, reflective journals, and physiological data of well-being with a longitudinal experimental design. This research very strictly follows the ethical guidelines drawn up by the Finnish National Board on Research Integrity. We expect to publish the results of this study in fall 2021 at the latest. Conclusions: We argue that a web-based, 8-week intervention course, which promotes both student well-being and their study skills, is a good way to support students pursuing higher education, and both aspects should be considered when supporting university students.
  • Törmänen, Minna; Roebers, Claudia M. (2018)
    This longitudinal study investigates the differences in cognitive and socio-emotional development and academic achievement between children educated in special education classes (N = 37) and regular classes (N = 37). The study is retrospective. The first measurement point was while children were attending play-oriented kindergarten and no decision about their education had yet been made. The second measurement point followed after 2 years of schooling. Comparing carefully matched groups, no differences in executive functions (EFs) were found before beginning school. Children assigned to special education had poorer language, fine motor skills and a lower pre-academic self-concept, self-regulatory skills and social integration. Notably, every fourth child in special education was an immigrant, 9% of whom later attended regular classes. After 2 years of schooling in either setting, the groups differed significantly in academic achievement, EFs, fine motor skills and cognitive self-regulatory skills. However, it was not - as school officials had intended - that children in special education classes had caught up, except in regard to their academic self-concept and social integration.
  • Kikas, Eve; Silinskas, Gintautas; Mädamürk, Kaja; Soodla, Piret (2021)
    Good knowledge and skills in using different learning strategies is important for learning with understanding and even more critical during distance learning. Findings indicate that students tend to use and value ineffective learning strategies, thus there is need to educate students. This study aimed to analyze the possibility of using refutation text on learning strategies that students can study independently. The study examined how reported use of learning strategies and preexisting beliefs about the effectiveness of rehearsal and comprehension-oriented strategies relate to the comprehension of text about learning strategies, and how text comprehension is related to later use of strategies and the completion of learning tasks. Participants included 2,706 students from primary school (Grades 3 and 4) and 3,782 students from the end of middle school (Grade 9) across Estonia. Students’ learning strategies and learning outcomes were assessed via a web-based word list memorization task with follow-up questions. Students were asked to read a written text that was specifically developed to explain the advantages of abstract grouping. Text comprehension was assessed using multiple-choice questions. SEM models were used to answer the research questions. At both school levels, valuing comprehension-oriented learning strategies enhanced text comprehension, suggesting that prior beliefs are important to fully understand written text. In addition, student beliefs and text comprehension also increased use of more advanced strategies. However, students who used comprehension-oriented strategies showed ambiguous improvements in word memorization performance. These findings emphasize that reading about complex topics may be a starting point for learning, but should be followed up with additional discussions, examples, demonstrations, and practice.
  • Kikas, Eve; Mädamürk, Kaja; Hennok, Liis; Sigus, Hardi; Talpsep, Teri; Luptova, Olga; Kivi, Valentina (2022)
    This study examined the effects of a teacher-led learning-strategy intervention program on fourth-grade students' reported use and perceived effectiveness of rehearsal and comprehension-oriented learning strategies. During 18 program units, teachers taught about learning and various learning strategies, including visualisation, elaboration and categorisation. Strategies were practised in math, language and science classes. Participants were comprised of 82 fourth-grade students in the intervention group and 387 fourth-grade students in the control group. Students' reported use and perceived effectiveness of learning strategies were assessed before and at least 4 months after intervention using a web-based word-memorisation task and associated reflection questions. The intervention group tended to use more comprehension-oriented learning strategies in post-tests, and the intervention group also showed an increase in perceived effectiveness of comprehension-oriented learning strategies. Still, rehearsal was evaluated as the most effective strategy in both the control group and the intervention group. Explanations for these findings and possible future directions are discussed.
  • Asikainen, Henna (2018)
    Prolonged study times and dropouts from university studies have created a need to examine more ways to support students’ studying. This study aims to examine the relationship between the self-regulated learning, psychological flexibility and student integration comprising teacher and student interaction, students’ commitment to studying as well as the relationship of these aspects to study progression. The participants of this study were 117 theology students. Items measuring student integration were first analysed with factor analysis. The relationship between student integration, psychological flexibility, self-regulated learning and study progression was analysed with correlation analyses and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). The results show that psychological flexibility is related to study progression, self-regulated learning and student integration. The effect of self-regulated learning and student integration to study progression was not significant. This study suggests that students’ way of coping with negative thoughts and emotions should be taken into account when considering learning and teaching.
  • Knittle, Keegan Phillip; Gellert, Paul; Moore, Clair; Bourke, Natalie; Hull, Victoria (2019)
    This study investigates the extent to which achieving goals during behavioral activation (BA) treatment predicts depressive symptom improvement, and whether goal-related cognitions predict goal achievement or treatment response. Patients (n = 110, mean age 37.6, 54% female) received low-intensity cognitive behavioral therapy for depression, which included setting up to three behavioral goals in each of three BA-focused sessions (i.e., 9 goals per patient). Patients completed items from the Self-Regulation Skills Battery to assess goal-related cognitions and goal achievement for these goals, and depressive symptoms were assessed weekly with the PHQ-9. Multilevel models investigated the relationships between goal-related cognitions, goal achievement and depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms improved curve-linearly during treatment (B = 0.12, p <.001), but were not predicted by contemporaneous or time-lagged goal achievement. While cumulative goal achievement predicted end-of-treatment depressive symptoms (r= -.23; p <.01), this relationship became nonsignificant after controlling for depressive symptoms at baseline. Readiness, planning and action control predicted greater goal achievement, whereas greater goal ownership predicted less goal achievement (all p <.05). Motivation and outcome expectancy were related to subsequent, but not contemporaneous, improvements in depressive symptoms (all p<.05). This study indicates the importance of goal-related cognitions in BA treatments, and future research should investigate potential moderators of the relationships between goal-related cognitions, goal achievement, and improvements in depressive symptoms.
  • Teivaanmäki, Sini; Huhdanpää, Hanna; Kiuru, Noona; Aronen, Eeva T.; Närhi, Vesa; Klenberg, Liisa (2020)
    The aim of the present study was to investigate associations between internalizing and externalizing symptoms and deficits in executive functions (EF) as well as to examine the overall heterogeneity of EFs in a sample of preschool children attending a psychiatric clinic (n = 171). First, based on cut-off points signifying clinical levels of impairment on the parent-completed Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), children were assigned into groups of internalizing, externalizing, combined or mild symptoms and compared to a reference group (n = 667) with regard to day care teacher ratings of EFs on the Attention and Executive Function Rating Inventory-Preschool (ATTEX-P). Second, latent profile analysis (LPA) was employed to identify distinct subgroups of children representing different EF profiles with unique strengths and weaknesses in EFs. The first set of analyses indicated that all symptom groups had more difficulties in EFs than the reference group did, and the internalizing group had less inhibition-related problems than the other symptom groups did. Using LPA, five EF profiles were identified: average, weak average, attentional problems, inhibitory problems, and overall problems. The EF profiles were significantly associated with gender, maternal education level, and psychiatric symptom type. Overall, the findings suggest that the comparison of means of internalizing and externalizing groups mainly captures the fairly obvious differences in inhibition-related domains among young psychiatric outpatient children, whereas the person-oriented approach, based on individual differences, identifies heterogeneity related to attentional functions, planning, and initiating one's action. The variability in EF difficulties suggests that a comprehensive evaluation of a child's EF profile is important regardless of the type of psychiatric symptoms the child presents with.
  • Carlson, Emily; Saarikallio, Suvi; Toiviainen, Petri; Bogert, Brigitte; Kliuchko, Marina; Brattico, Elvira (2015)
    Music therapists use guided affect regulation in the treatment of mood disorders. However, self-directed uses of music in affect regulation are not fully understood. Some uses of music may have negative effects on mental health, as can non music regulation strategies, such as rumination. Psychological testing and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were used explore music listening strategies in relation to mental health. Participants (n = 123) were assessed for depression, anxiety and Neuroticism, and uses of Music in Mood Regulation (MMR). Neural responses to music were measured in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in a subset of participants (n = 56). Discharge, using music to express negative emotions, related to increased anxiety and Neuroticism in all participants and particularly in males. Males high in Discharge showed decreased activity of mPFC during music listening compared with those using less Discharge. Females high in Diversion, using music to distract from negative emotions, showed more mPFC activity than females using less Diversion. These results suggest that the use of Discharge strategy can be associated with maladaptive patterns of emotional regulation, and may even have long-term negative effects on mental health. This finding has real-world applications in psychotherapy and particularly in clinical music therapy.
  • Kallio, Heli; Virta, Kalle; Kallio, Manne (2018)
    Metacognitive awareness consists of two components, i.e. regulation of cognition and knowledge of cognition. In earlier studies self-evaluation is aligned as a sub-component of regulation of cognition. However, in this study we point out that self-evaluation does not actually regulate the ongoing or forthcoming process but it is a tool used to reflect both knowledge and regulation. This alignment is modelled to assess to what extend self-evaluation can be predicted by the other components of the metacognitive awareness. The model is tested empirically among vocational education students (N= 578) using the Metacognitive Awareness Inventory (MAI). The results of SEM concludes that the conditions and goals appointed by the learner predict the selection of contents and strategies towards self-evaluation of one’s own learning. In other words, by measuring planning or conditional knowledge we could predict other components of knowledge or regulation and, especially, self-evaluation. The findings of this study extensively confirm that planning and knowledge of conditions predict success through the learning process. The results encourage teachers to support students in improving their metacognitive awareness, i.e. expect them to set goals for their own learning.
  • Mäenpää, Kati; Järvenoja, Hanna; Peltonen, Jouni; Pyhältö, Kirsi (2020)
    Although there is a strong body of evidence showing that motivational factors are critical components of self‐regulated professional learning and commitment to work, little is known about nursing students' motivation regulation during their studies. The aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of nursing students' motivation regulation (MR) strategies and factors contributing to their reported use along their 3‐year study path in a blended learning environment. A purposeful sampling was used to select 12 undergraduate nursing students, who exhibited different MR profiles and had completed almost 3 years of study in a BL degree program. A qualitative, deductive, content analysis was used to depict students' experiences from their retrospective recollection in the interview situation. Seven motivation strategies were identified: environmental structuring, self‐consequating, goal‐oriented self‐talk, efficacy management, emotion regulation, regulation of value, and interest enhancement. Individual and situational factors were found to enhance and to sustain the use of appropriate MR strategies. The students exhibited versatility in their use of MR strategies, which were related to the study phase. These findings regarding nursing students' MR strategies should be considered in the development of nursing education programs and the implementation of improvements that contribute to professional and self‐regulated learning in BL programs.
  • Inkinen, Janna; Klager, Christopher; Schneider, Barbara; Juuti, Kalle; Krajcik, Joseph; Lavonen, Jari; Salmela-Aro, Katariina (2019)
    This study examines the association between student situational engagement and classroom activities in secondary school science classrooms in Finland and the U.S. Situational engagement is conceptualised as times when students feel that a task is interesting and challenging to them and that they have the skills to complete it (see Schneider et al., 2016. Investigating optimal learning moments in U.S. and Finnish science classes. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 53(3), 400-421. doi:10.1002/tea.21306). Data on situational engagement and classroom activities were obtained using the experience sampling method (ESM) from 247 Finnish students in 13 secondary science classrooms and 281 U.S. students in 18 secondary science classrooms. In both samples, the students tended to be situationally engaged only a small proportion of the time during their science classes. However, the Finnish students were more likely than the U.S. students to report being situationally engaged. To investigate when the students were most likely to report being situationally engaged, hierarchical logistic regression models were employed, which suggested that some classroom activities were associated with higher levels of student situational engagement than others. The Finnish students were more likely to report being situationally engaged when calculating and presenting scientific information. In the U.S., the students were more likely to report being situationally engaged while discussing scientific information and less likely when listening to the teacher. The results suggest that situational engagement is momentary and associated with specific science classroom activities.
  • Huhdanpää, Hanna; Morales-Munoz, Isabel; Aronen, Eeva T.; Pölkki, Pirjo; Saarenpää-Heikkilä, Outi; Paunio, Tiina; Kylliäinen, Anneli; Paavonen, E. Juulia (2019)
    Objective: Sleep difficulties are associated with cognitive and behavioral problems in childhood. However, it is still unclear whether early sleep difficulties are related to later development. We studied whether parent-reported sleep duration, night awakenings, and parent-reported sleep problems in early childhood are associated with symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity at the age of 5 years. Method: Our study is based on the Child-Sleep birth cohort initially comprising 1673 families, of which 713 were retained at the age of 5 years. We used the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire and the Infant Sleep Questionnaire, which were filled out by the parents when their child was 3, 8, and 24 months and 5 years old. Symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity at the age of 5 years were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Five-to-Fifteen questionnaire. Results: Sleep duration at the age of 3, 8, and 24 months was associated with inattentiveness at 5 years of age. Moreover, parent-reported sleep problems at the age of 24 months were related to both inattentive and hyperactive symptoms at the age of 5 years. Finally, at the age of 5 years, parent-reported sleep problems and night awakenings were associated with concurrent symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that certain sleep characteristics related to sleep quality and quantity in early childhood are associated with inattentiveness and hyperactivity at the age of 5 years. Interestingly, sleep duration in early childhood is consistently related to inattention at the age of 5 years.
  • Lahdenperä, Juulia; Rämö, Johanna; Postareff, Liisa (2022)
    The importance of students' regulation of learning in university mathematics is widely acknowledged, but research approaching regulation of learning from the perspective of learning environments is scarce. The aim of the present study is to deepen our understanding of how mathematics learning environments can promote regulated learning by investigating the same students in two parallel but pedagogically different student-centred learning environments. The quantitative measurement of students' course-level self-regulation of learning (N = 91) is accompanied with a qualitative analysis of student interviews (N = 16). The results indicate that the learning environments are distinguished by the factor measuring lack of regulation, and that unregulated learning is created by out-of-reach teaching and-tasks causing challenges in goal setting and motivation. In contrast, co-regulation of learning in the form of scaffolding and a positive social environment has a central role in supporting regulated learning. Practical implications for how to support students' regulated learning are discussed.
  • Saarinen, Aino; Lipsanen, Jari; Hintsanen, Mirka; Huotilainen, Minna; Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa (2020)
    Introduction. Evidence has remained scarce whether teaching practices might be linked to students' educational equality. This study investigated (i) whether student-oriented teaching practices are associated with students' learning outcomes in mathematics, and (ii) whether student-oriented teaching might increase equality in learning outcomes between students with different backgrounds. Method. We used the Finnish PISA 2012 data (N=5052-5660) that provides a nationally representative sample of the Finnish 15-year-old students. The data were analyzed using structural equation models. Results. Frequent student-oriented teaching practices were associated with students' weaker learning outcomes in mathematics. The effect of frequent student-oriented teaching practices was especially negative among students with risky backgrounds (i.e. risky family structure, low family wealth, low maternal education, immigrant status, student's previous truancy behavior at school). Our additional analyses showed that also frequent inquiry-based teaching practices were related to weaker learning outcomes in science. Discussion and Conclusion. In conclusion, student-oriented teaching practices appear to be linked with students' weaker learning outcomes in comprehensive school. Student-oriented teaching may expand the gaps in learning outcomes between students coming from different backgrounds.
  • Heikonen, Lauri; Toom, Auli; Pyhalto, Kirsi; Pietarinen, Janne; Soini, Tiina (2017)
    Strategies student-teachers employ in classroom interaction with pupils during teaching practice periods are surprisingly understudied, considering that the teaching practicum provides a central arena for student-teachers learning to become teachers. This study investigates the primary strategies student-teachers utilised in classroom interaction and the multiple qualities of these strategies. The data were collected from 31 student-teachers during their teaching practicum through stimulated recall (STR) interviews focusing on challenging and empowering critical incidents that student-teachers chose from their video-recorded lessons. The results showed that in challenging classroom incidents, student-teachers applied predominantly reactive behavioural strategies, whereas in the empowering situations, student-teachers primarily employed proactive cognitive and behavioural strategies. Use of proactive cognitive strategies was typically associated with positive meaningful experiences; hence, they setting the stage for utilising a more diverse set of proactive strategies in the classroom. Implications for teacher education programmes providing student-teachers authentic learning opportunities that promote proactive strategies are discussed.
  • Lonka, Kirsti; Ketonen, Elina; Vermunt, Jan D. (2021)
    University students' epistemic beliefs may have practical consequences for studying and success in higher education. Such beliefs constitute epistemic theories that may empirically manifest themselves as epistemic profiles. This study examined university students' epistemic profiles and their relations to conceptions of learning, age, gender, discipline, and academic achievement. The participants were 1515 students from five faculties who completed questionnaires about epistemic beliefs, including a subsample who also completed a questionnaire that included conceptions of learning. We measured epistemic beliefs: reflective learning, collaborative knowledge-building, valuing metacognition, certain knowledge, and practical value. First, we analyzed structural validity by using confirmatory factor analysis. Second, we conducted latent profile analysis that revealed three epistemic profiles:Pragmatic(49%),reflective-collaborative(26%) andfact-oriented(25%). Then, we compared the conceptions of learning across the profiles as well as demographic information, credits, and grades. The profiles' conceptions of learning varied: Thereflective-collaborativegroup scored high on conception of learning named "construction of knowledge." Its members were more likely to be females, teachers, and mature students, and they had the highest academic achievement. Thefact-orientedgroup (mostly engineering/science students) scored highest on "intake of knowledge." Thepragmaticgroup scored highest on "use of knowledge:" During the second year, their academic achievement improved. In sum, the epistemic profiles were closely related to conceptions of learning and also associated with academic achievement.