Browsing by Subject "SEMICONDUCTORS"

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  • Zhang, Shuo; Pakarinen, Olli Heikki; Backholm, Matilda; Djurabekova, Flyura; Nordlund, Kai; Keinonen, Juhani; Wang, T.S. (2018)
    In this work, we first simulated the amorphization of crystalline quartz under 50 keV Na-23 ion irradiation with classical molecular dynamics (MD). We then used binary collision approximation algorithms to simulate the Rutherford backscattering spectrometry in channeling conditions (RBS-C) from these irradiated MD cells, and compared the RBS-C spectra with experiments. The simulated RBS-C results show an agreement with experiments in the evolution of amorphization as a function of dose, showing what appears to be (by this measure) full amorphization at about 2.2 eV.atom(-1). We also applied other analysis methods, such as angular structure factor, Wigner-Seitz, coordination analysis and topological analysis, to analyze the structural evolution of the irradiated MD cells. The results show that the atomic-level structure of the sample keeps evolving after the RBS signal has saturated, until the dose of about 5 eV.atom(-1). The continued evolution of the SiO2 structure makes the definition of what is, on the atomic level, an amorphized quartz ambiguous.
  • Polvi, J.; Heinola, K.; Nordlund, K. (2016)
    N-2 gas is routinely used as a seeding species in fusion plasma to control the amount of power emitted from the plasma by radiation to the tungsten walls of an ITER-like divertor. Nitrogen atoms interact with the plasma-facing materials beryllium and tungsten, and form chemical bonds with the wall surfaces, as well as with plasma hydrogen isotopes, thus raising a special interest in W-N and N-H interactions in the fusion community. In this work we describe the development of an analytical interatomic potential for W-N interactions and benchmark the potential against DFT calculation results for N defects in tungsten.
  • Byggmästar, Jesper Johan André; Nagel, Morten Jesper; Albe, Karsten; Henriksson, Krister Olof Edvin; Nordlund, Kai Henrik (2019)
    We present an analytical bond-order potential for the Fe-O system, capable of reproducing the basic properties of wustite as well as the energetics of oxygen impurities in alpha-iron. The potential predicts binding energies of various small oxygen-vacancy clusters in alpha-iron in good agreement with density functional theory results, and is therefore suitable for simulations of oxygen-based defects in iron. We apply the potential in simulations of the stability and structure of Fe/FeO interfaces and FeO precipitates in iron, and observe that the shape of FeO precipitates can change due to formation of well-defined Fe/FeO interfaces. The interface with crystalline Fe also ensures that the precipitates never become fully amorphous, no matter how small they are.
  • Popov, Georgi; Bačić, Goran; Mattinen, Miika; Manner, Toni; Lindström, Hannu; Seppänen, Heli; Suihkonen, Sami; Vehkamäki, Marko; Kemell, Marianna; Jalkanen, Pasi; Mizohata, Kenichiro; Räisänen, Jyrki; Leskelä, Markku; Koivula, Hanna Maarit; Barry, Seán T.; Ritala, Mikko (2020)
    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a viable method for depositing functional, passivating, and encapsulating layers on top of halide perovskites. Studies in that area have only focused on metal oxides, despite a great number of materials that can be made with ALD. This work demonstrates that, in addition to oxides, other ALD processes can be compatible with the perovskites. We describe two new ALD processes for lead sulfide. These processes operate at low deposition temperatures (45-155 degrees C) that have been inaccessible to previous ALD PbS processes. Our processes rely on volatile and reactive lead precursors Pb(dbda) (dbda = rac-N-2,N-3-di-tertbutylbutane-2,3-diamide) and Pb(btsa)(2) (btsa = bis(trimethylsilyl)amide) as well as H2S. These precursors produce high quality PbS thin films that are uniform, crystalline, and pure. The films exhibit p- type conductivity and good mobilities of 10-70 cm(2) V-1 s(-1). Low deposition temperatures enable direct ALD of PbS onto a halide perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPI) without its decomposition. The stability of MAPI in ambient air is greatly improved by capping with ALD PbS. More generally, these new processes offer valuable alternatives for PbS-based devices, and we hope that this study will inspire more studies on ALD of non-oxides on halide perovskites.
  • Lu, Eryang; Makkonen, Ilja; Mizohata, Kenichiro; Li, Zhiming; Räisänen, Jyrki; Tuomisto, Filip (2020)
    Owing to their excellent radiation tolerance, some of the high-entropy alloys (HEAs) are considered as potential candidates for structural materials in extreme conditions. In order to shed light on the early-stage irradiation damage in HEAs, we performed positron annihilation spectroscopy on hydrogen implanted equiatomic FeMnNiCoCr and interstitial carbon-containing FeMnNiCoCr HEAs. We reveal primary damage as monovacancies in low dose irradiated HEAs. The enhancement of Frenkel pair recombination by C addition is observed in C-containing HEAs. In addition, the C interstitials suppress the vacancy cluster formation in high dose irradiated HEAs.
  • Hinks, J. A.; Hibberd, F.; Hattar, K.; Ilinov, A.; Bufford, D. C.; Djurabekova, F.; Greaves, G.; Kuronen, A.; Donnelly, S. E.; Nordlund, K. (2018)
    Nanostructures may be exposed to irradiation during their manufacture, their engineering and whilst in-service. The consequences of such bombardment can be vastly different from those seen in the bulk. In this paper, we combine transmission electron microscopy with in situ ion irradiation with complementary computer modelling techniques to explore the physics governing the effects of 1.7 MeV Au ions on gold nanorods. Phenomena surrounding the sputtering and associated morphological changes caused by the ion irradiation have been explored. In both the experiments and the simulations, large variations in the sputter yields from individual nanorods were observed. These sputter yields have been shown to correlate with the strength of channelling directions close to the direction in which the ion beam was incident. Craters decorated by ejecta blankets were found to form due to cluster emission thus explaining the high sputter yields.
  • Lu, Eryang; Zhao, Junlei; Makkonen, Ilja; Mizohata, Kenichiro; Li, Zhiming; Hua, Mengyuan; Djurabekova, Flyura; Tuomisto, Filip (2021)
    We present evidence of homogenization of atomic diffusion properties caused by C and N interstitials in an equiatomic single-phase high entropy alloy (FeMnNiCoCr). This phenomenon is manifested by an unexpected interstitial-induced reduction and narrowing of the directly experimentally determined migration barrier distribution of mono-vacancy defects introduced by particle irradiation. Our observation by positron annihilation spectroscopy is explained by state-of-the-art theoretical calculations that predict preferential localization of C/N interstitials in regions rich in Mn and Cr, leading to a narrowing and reduction of the mono-vacancy size distribution in the random alloy. This phenomenon is likely to have a significant impact on the mechanical behavior under irradiation, as the local variations in elemental motion have a profound effect on the solute strengthening in high entropy alloys. (C) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of Acta Materialia Inc.
  • Koskelo, Jaakko; Fugallo, Giorgia; Hakala, Mikko; Gatti, Matteo; Sottile, Francesco; Cudazzo, Pierluigi (2017)
    We present a general picture of the exciton properties of layered materials in terms of the excitations of their single-layer building blocks. To this end, we derive a model excitonic Hamiltonian by drawing an analogy with molecular crystals, which are other prototypical van der Waals materials. We employ this simplified model to analyze in detail the excitation spectrum of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) that we have obtained from the ab initio solution of the many-body Bethe-Salpeter equation as a function of momentum. In this way, we identify the character of the lowest-energy excitons in hBN, discuss the effects of the interlayer hopping and the electron-hole exchange interaction on the exciton dispersion, and illustrate the relation between exciton and plasmon excitations in layered materials.
  • Nordlund, Kai; Zinkle, Steven J.; Sand, Andrea E.; Granberg, Fredric; Averback, Robert S.; Stoller, Roger; Suzudo, Tomoaki; Malerba, Lorenzo; Banhart, Florian; Weber, William J.; Willaime, Francois; Dudarev, Sergei L.; Simeone, David (2018)
    Atomic collision processes are fundamental to numerous advanced materials technologies such as electron microscopy, semiconductor processing and nuclear power generation. Extensive experimental and computer simulation studies over the past several decades provide the physical basis for understanding the atomic-scale processes occurring during primary displacement events. The current international standard for quantifying this energetic particle damage, the Norgett-Robinson-Torrens displacements per atom (NRT-dpa) model, has nowadays several well-known limitations. In particular, the number of radiation defects produced in energetic cascades in metals is only similar to 1/3 the NRT-dpa prediction, while the number of atoms involved in atomic mixing is about a factor of 30 larger than the dpa value. Here we propose two new complementary displacement production estimators (athermal recombination corrected dpa, arc-dpa) and atomic mixing (replacements per atom, rpa) functions that extend the NRT-dpa by providing more physically realistic descriptions of primary defect creation in materials and may become additional standard measures for radiation damage quantification.
  • Segercrantz, N.; Slotte, J.; Tuomisto, F.; Mizohata, K.; Räisänen, J. (2017)
    We demonstrate that the instability of the Sb vacancy in GaSb leads to a further increase in the acceptor-type defect concentration in proton irradiated undoped, p-type GaSb. Using positron annihilation spectroscopy in situ with 10 MeV proton irradiation at 35 K, we find that the irradiation produces both native vacancy defects in GaSb. However, the Sb vacancy is unstable above temperatures of 150 K and undergoes a transition resulting in a Ga vacancy and a Ga antisite. The activation energy of this transition is determined to be 0.6 eV +/- 0.1 eV. Our results are in line with the established amphoteric defect model and prove that the instability of the Sb vacancy in GaSb has a profound role on the native defect concentration in GaSb.
  • Herbig, Charlotte; Åhlgren, E. Harriet; Jolie, Wouter; Busse, Carsten; Kotakoski, Jani; Krasheninnikov, Arkady V.; Michely, Thomas (2014)
  • Prozheeva, Vera; Makkonen, Ilja; Li, Haoran; Keller, Stacia; Mishra, Umesh K.; Tuomisto, Filip (2020)
    We show that N-polar GaN/(Al, Ga)N/GaN heterostructures exhibit significant N deficiency at the bottom (Al, Ga)N/GaN interface, and that these N vacancies are responsible for the trapping of holes observed in unoptimized N-polar GaN/(Al, Ga)N/GaN high electron mobility transistors. We arrive at this conclusion by performing positron annihilation experiments on GaN/(Al, Ga)N/GaN heterostructures of both N and Ga polarity, as well as state-of-the-art theoretical calculations of the positron states and positron-electron annihilation signals. We suggest that the occurrence of high interfacial N vacancy concentrations is a universal property of nitride semiconductor heterostructures at net negative polarization interfaces.
  • Byggmästar, Jesper; Hamedani, Ali; Nordlund, Kai; Djurabekova, Flyura (2019)
    We introduce a machine-learning interatomic potential for tungsten using the Gaussian approximation potential framework. We specifically focus on properties relevant for simulations of radiation-induced collision cascades and the damage they produce, including a realistic repulsive potential for the short-range many-body cascade dynamics and a good description of the liquid phase. Furthermore, the potential accurately reproduces surface properties and the energetics of vacancy and self-interstitial clusters, which have been longstanding deficiencies of existing potentials. The potential enables molecular dynamics simulations of radiation damage in tungsten with unprecedented accuracy.
  • Hooda, Sonu; Avchachov, Konstantin; Khan, S. A.; Djurabekova, Flyura; Satpati, B.; Nordlund, Kai; Bernstorff, Sigrid; Ahlawat, Sarita; Kanjilal, D.; Kabiraj, D. (2017)
    The formation of nanoscale voids in amorphous-germanium (a-Ge), and their size and shape evolution under ultra-fast thermal spikes within an ion track of swift heavy ion, is meticulously expatiated using experimental and theoretical approaches. Two step energetic ion irradiation processes were used to fabricate novel and distinct embedded nanovoids within bulk Ge. The 'bow-tie' shape of voids formed in a single ion track tends to attain a spherical shape as the ion tracks overlap at a fluence of about 1 x 10(12) ions cm(-2). The void assumes a prolate spheroid shape with major axis along the ion trajectory at sufficiently high ion fluences. Small angle x-ray scattering can provide complementary information about the primary stage of void formation hence this technique is applied for monitoring simultaneously their formation and growth dynamics. The results are supported by the investigation of cross-sectional transmission and scanning electron micrographs. The multi-time-scale theoretical approach corroborates the experimental findings and relates the bow-tie shape void formation to density variations as a result of melting and resolidification of Ge within the region of thermal spike generated along an ion track, plus non-isotropic stresses generated towards the end of the thermal spike.
  • Hamedani, Ali; Byggmästar, Jesper; Djurabekova, Flyura; Alahyarizadeh, G.; Ghaderi, R.; Minuchehr, A.; Nordlund, Kai (2021)
    Characterization of the primary damage is the starting point in describing and predicting the irradiation-induced damage in materials. So far, primary damage has been described by traditional interatomic potentials in molecular dynamics simulations. Here, we employ a Gaussian approximation machine-learning potential (GAP) to study the primary damage in silicon with close to ab initio precision level. We report detailed analysis of cascade simulations derived from our modified Si GAP, which has already shown its reliability for simulating radiation damage in silicon. Major differences in the picture of primary damage predicted by machine-learning potential compared to classical potentials are atomic mixing, defect state at the heat spike phase, defect clustering, and recrystallization rate. Atomic mixing is higher in the GAP description by a factor of two. GAP shows considerably higher number of coordination defects at the heat spike phase and the number of displaced atoms is noticeably greater in GAP. Surviving defects are dominantly isolated defects and small clusters, rather than large clusters, in GAP's prediction. The pattern by which the cascades are evolving is also different in GAP, having more expanded form compared to the locally compact form with classical potentials. Moreover, recovery of the generated defects at the heat spike phase take places with higher efficiency in GAP. We also provide the attributes of the new defect cluster that we had introduced in our previous study. A cluster of four defects, in which a central vacancy is surrounded by three split interstitials, where the surrounding atoms are all 4-folded bonded. The cluster shows higher occurrence in simulations with the GAP potential. The formation energy of the defect is 5.57 eV and it remains stable up to 700 K, at least for 30 ps. The Arrhenius equation predicts the lifetime of the cluster to be 0.0725 mu s at room temperature.
  • Tuomisto, F.; Makkonen, I.; Heikinheimo, J.; Granberg, F.; Djurabekova, F.; Nordlund, K.; Velisa, G.; Bei, H.; Xue, H.; Weber, W. J.; Zhang, Y. (2020)
    Defect evolution under irradiation is investigated in a set of single-phase concentrated solid solution alloys (SP-CSAs) containing Ni with Co, Fe and/or Cr. We show that atomic segregation of Ni takes place already at very early stages of radiation damage in the 2-4 element SP-CSAs containing Fe or Cr, well below 1 dpa. We arrive at this conclusion by following the evolution of positron annihilation signals as a function of irradiation dose in single crystal samples, complemented by molecular dynamics simulations in the same model systems for high entropy alloys (HEAs). This manifestation of short-range order calls attention to composition fluctuations at the atomic level in irradiated HEAs. Ion irradiation may induce short-range order in certain alloys due to chemically biased elemental diffusion. The work highlights the necessity of updating the assumption of a totally random arrangement in the irradiated alloys, even though the alloys before irradiation have random arrangements of different chemical elements. (C) 2020 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Karaseov, P. A.; Karabeshkin, K. V.; Titov, A. I.; Ullah, Mohammad W.; Kuronen, A.; Djurabekova, F.; Nordlund, K.; Ermolaeva, G. M.; Shilov, V. B. (2017)
    An investigation of mechanisms of enhancement of irradiation-induced damage formation in GaN under molecular in comparison to monatomic ion bombardment is presented. Ion-implantation-induced effects in wurtzite GaN bombarded with 0.6 keV amu(-1) F, P, PF2, PF4, and Ag ions at room temperature are studied experimentally and by cumulative MD simulation in the correct irradiation conditions. In the low dose regime, damage formation is correlated with a reduction in photoluminescence decay time, whereas in the high dose regime, it is associated with the thickness of the amorphous/disordered layer formed at the sample surface. In all the cases studied, a shift to molecular ion irradiation from bombardment by its monatomic constituents enhances the damage accumulation rate. Implantation of a heavy Ag ion, having approximately the same mass as the PF4 molecule, is less effective in surface damage formation, but leads to noticeably higher damage accumulation in the bulk. The cumulative MD simulations do not reveal any significant difference in the total amount of both point defects and small defect clusters produced by light monatomic and molecular ions. On the other hand, increased production of large defect clusters by molecular PF4 ions is clearly seen in the vicinity of the surface. Ag ions produce almost the same number of small, but more large defect clusters compared to the others. These findings show that the higher probability of formation of large defect clusters is important mechanism of the enhancement of stable damage formation in GaN under molecular, as well as under heavy monatomic ion irradiation.
  • Karjalainen, Antti; Prozheeva, Vera; Makkonen, Ilja; Guguschev, Christo; Markurt, Toni; Bickermann, Matthias; Tuomisto, Filip (2020)
    We present a systematic study of the positron lifetime as a function of measurement temperature in strontium titanate ( SrTiO 3) single crystals grown in different conditions and by different synthesis methods. We combine our experimental results with state-of-the-art theoretical calculations of positron annihilation parameters. We find that the essentially omnipresent 180-190ps lifetime component is most likely the Ti Sr antisite defect, possibly coupled with one or more oxygen vacancies, supporting the importance of the Ti Sr antisite related defects in SrTiO 3.
  • Amekura, Hiro; Kluth, Patrick; Mota-Santiago, Pablo; Sahlberg, Isac; Jantunen, Ville; Leino, Aleksi A.; Vázquez, Henrique; Nordlund, Kai; Djurabekova, Flyura; Okubo, N.; Ishikawa, Norito (2018)
    When a swift heavy ion (SHI) penetrates amorphous SiO2, a core/shell (C/S) ion track is formed, which consists of a lower-density core and a higher-density shell. According to the conventional inelastic thermal spike (iTS) model represented by a pair of coupled heat equations, the C/S tracks are believed to form via "vaporization" and melting of the SiO2 induced by SHI (V-M model). However, the model does not describe what the vaporization in confined ion-track geometry with a condensed matter density is. Here we reexamine this hypothesis. While the total and core radii of the C/S tracks determined by small angle x-ray scattering are in good agreement with the vaporization and melting radii calculated from the conventional iTS model under high electronic stopping power (S-e) irradiations (>10 keV/nm), the deviations between them are evident at low-S, irradiation (3-5 keV/nm). Even though the iTS calculations exclude the vaporization of SiO2 at the low S-e, both the formation of the C/S tracks and the ion shaping of nanoparticles (NPs) are experimentally confirmed, indicating the inconsistency with the V-M model. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations based on the two-temperature model, which is an atomic-level modeling extension of the conventional iTS, clarified that the "vaporlike" phase exists at S-e similar to 5 keV/nm or higher as a nonequilibrium phase where atoms have higher kinetic energies than the vaporization energy, but are confined at a nearly condensed matter density. Simultaneously, the simulations indicate that the vaporization is not induced under 50-MeV Si irradiation (S-e similar to 3 keV/nm), but the C/S tracks and the ion shaping of nanoparticles are nevertheless induced. Even though the final density variations in the C/S tracks are very small at the low stopping power values (both in the simulations and experiments), the MD simulations show that the ion shaping can be explained by flow of liquid metal from the NP into the transient low-density phase of the track core during the first similar to 10 ps after the ion impact. The ion shaping correlates with the recovery process of the silica matrix after emitting a pressure wave. Thus, the vaporization is not a prerequisite for the C/S tracks and the ion shaping.