Browsing by Subject "SEMINAL PLASMA"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-3 of 3
  • Kareskoski, Maria; Venhoranta, Heli; Virtala, Anna-Maija; Katila, Terttu (2019)
    Artificial insemination (AI) with cooled stallion semen has increased markedly during the last decades in all countries, but fertility is often lower than when fresh semen or natural mating is used. The objective of this study was to examine field data (1634,cycles 523 Standardbred (SB) mares, 575 Finnhorse (FH) mares, and 90 stallions) using multivariable logistic regression for factors influencing the pregnancy rate (PR) after Al with cooled transported semen from SB and FH stallions. The PR per cycle for the material was 47%: Finnhorses 42% and Standardbreds 53%. When assessed with multivariable logistic regression analyses with a generalized linear mixed model, variables that affected the PR were breed, the number of inseminated estrus cycles, the percentage of progressively motile sperm (PMOT) in the ejaculate/AI dose at the time of shipment, and the number of progressively motile sperm in the Al dose at the time of insemination. In Standardbreds, variables that increased the per cycle PR were the number of Al per estrus cycle (multiple inseminations increasing the probability of pregnancy compared to only one insemination), the number of inseminated cycles, and PMOT in the AI dose at the time of insemination. In Finnhorses, the number of Al per estrus cycle (two and three inseminations increasing the probability of pregnancy compared to only one), the number of spermatozoa in the ejaculate and in the Al dose, and PMOT in the ejaculate/AI dose at the time of shipment increased the per cycle PR. Non-significant factors for the whole material included the type of artificial vagina (open-ended or closed), transport time, place of Al (stud farm or home stable), insemination done by veterinarian or technician, weekday, month, age of the mare (all age classes combined), age of the stallion, ejaculate parameters (sperm concentration, total number of sperm), and insemination dose parameters (volume proportion of seminal plasma, sperm concentration, PMOT, total number of sperm). In conclusion, breed, breeding opportunity in more than one cycle, more than one insemination/estrus, PMOT of the ejaculate/AI dose and the number of progressively motile sperm in the Al dose at the time of insemination are important for the outcome of inseminations with cooled semen. (C) 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Montserrat Rivera del Alamo, Maria; Reilas, Tiina; Galvao, Antonio; Yeste, Marc; Katila, Terttu (2018)
    Treatment with intrauterine devices (IUD) prolongs luteal phases in mares, but the mechanism for this has not been fully elucidated. The aims of the present study were to examine how IUDs affect the uterus to induce longer luteal phases, particularly the role of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the maintenance of the corpus luteum (CL). Twenty-seven reproductively normal mares were included: 12 were inseminated (AI), and 15 were fitted with IUDs. Blood samples for progesterone were obtained on Days 0, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 14, and 15 (relative to day of ovulation). The groups were further divided into non-pregnant (AI-N, n = 4), pregnant (AI-P, n = 8), normal (IUD-N, n = 8) and prolonged luteal phase (IUD-P, n = 7) based on ultrasonic examinations and serum progesterone concentrations on Days 14 and 15. Blood sampling to quantify the PGF(2 alpha) metabolite (PGFM) was performed through a catheter hourly from 15:00 to 20:00 h on Day 14, and from 6:00 until 13:00 h on Day 15. On Day 15, a low-volume uterine lavage followed by an endometrial biopsy was performed. Estradiol concentration in the Day 15 serum and lavage fluid was determined, while the abundance of COX-2 was evaluated in the biopsy specimens using western blotting (WB) and irnmunohistochemistry (IHC). All pregnant mares were negative for COX-2 in IHC samples and 5 of 8 were negative in WB samples while all mares of the IUD-N group were positive for COX-2. Of the seven mares in the IUD-P group, five and four were negative for COX-2 with the IHC and WB samples, respectively. The results from this study indicate that IUDs, when effective, suppress COX-2, leading to the inhibition of PGF2 alpha release and maintenance of CL.
  • Mueller, Janis A.; Harms, Mirja; Krueger, Franziska; Gross, Ruediger; Joas, Simone; Hayn, Manuel; Dietz, Andrea N.; Lippold, Sina; von Einem, Jens; Schubert, Axel; Michel, Manuela; Mayer, Benjamin; Cortese, Mirko; Jang, Karen S.; Sandi-Monroy, Nathallie; Deniz, Miriam; Ebner, Florian; Vapalahti, Olli; Otto, Markus; Bartenschlager, Ralf; Herbeuval, Jean-Philippe; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Roan, Nadia R.; Muench, Jan (2018)
    Zika virus (ZIKV) causes severe birth defects and can be transmitted via sexual intercourse. Semen from ZIKV-infected individuals contains high viral loads and may therefore serve as an important vector for virus transmission. Here we analyze the effect of semen on ZIKV infection of cells and tissues derived from the anogenital region. ZIKV replicates in all analyzed cell lines, primary cells, and endometrial or vaginal tissues. However, in the presence of semen, infection by ZIKV and other flaviviruses is potently inhibited. We show that semen prevents ZIKV attachment to target cells, and that an extracellular vesicle preparation from semen is responsible for this anti-ZIKV activity. Our findings suggest that ZIKV transmission is limited by semen. As such, semen appears to serve as a protector against sexual ZIKV transmission, despite the availability of highly susceptible cells in the anogenital tract and high viral loads in this bodily fluid.