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  • Bazelier, Marloes T.; Eriksson, Irene; de Vries, Frank; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Raitanen, Jani; Haukka, Jari; Starup-Linde, Jakob; De Bruin, Marie L.; Andersen, Morten (2015)
    PurposeTo identify pharmacoepidemiological multi-database studies and to describe data management and data analysis techniques used for combining data. MethodsSystematic literature searches were conducted in PubMed and Embase complemented by a manual literature search. We included pharmacoepidemiological multi-database studies published from 2007 onwards that combined data for a pre-planned common analysis or quantitative synthesis. Information was retrieved about study characteristics, methods used for individual-level analyses and meta-analyses, data management and motivations for performing the study. ResultsWe found 3083 articles by the systematic searches and an additional 176 by the manual search. After full-text screening of 75 articles, 22 were selected for final inclusion. The number of databases used per study ranged from 2 to 17 (median=4.0). Most studies used a cohort design (82%) instead of a case-control design (18%). Logistic regression was most often used for individual-level analyses (41%), followed by Cox regression (23%) and Poisson regression (14%). As meta-analysis method, a majority of the studies combined individual patient data (73%). Six studies performed an aggregate meta-analysis (27%), while a semi-aggregate approach was applied in three studies (14%). Information on central programming or heterogeneity assessment was missing in approximately half of the publications. Most studies were motivated by improving power (86%). ConclusionsPharmacoepidemiological multi-database studies are a well-powered strategy to address safety issues and have increased in popularity. To be able to correctly interpret the results of these studies, it is important to systematically report on database management and analysis techniques, including central programming and heterogeneity testing. (c) 2015 The Authors. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • Kooij, J. J. S.; Bijlenga, D.; Salerno, L.; Jaeschke, R.; Bitter, I; Balazs, J.; Thome, J.; Dom, G.; Kasper, S.; Nunes Filipe, C.; Stes, S.; Mohr, P.; Leppamaki, S.; Casas, M.; Bobes, J.; Mccarthy, J. M.; Richarte, Vanesa; Philipsen, A. Kjems; Pehlivanidis, A.; Niemela, A.; Styr, B.; Semerci, B.; Bolea-Alamanac, B.; Edvinsson, D.; Baeyens, D.; Wynchank, D.; Sobanski, E.; Philipsen, A.; McNicholas, F.; Caci, H.; Mihailescu, Vintila; Manor, David; Dobrescu, B. A.; Saito, T.; Krause, J.; Fayyad, J.; Ramos-Quiroga, J. A.; Foeken, K.; Rad, F.; Adamou, M.; Ohlmeier, M.; Fitzgerald, M.; Gill, M.; Lensing, M.; Mukaddes, N. Motavalli; Brudkiewicz, P.; Gustafsson, P.; Tani, P.; Oswald, P.; Carpentier, P. J.; De Rossi, P.; Delorme, R.; Simoska, S. Markovska; Pallanti, S.; Young, S.; Bejerot, S.; Lehtonen, T.; Kustow, J.; Mueller-Sedgwick, U.; Hirvikoski, T.; Pironti, A.; Ginsberg, Y.; Felegyhazy, Z.; Garcia-Portilla, M. P.; Asherson, P. (2019)
    Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is among the most common psychiatric disorders of childhood that often persists into adulthood and old age. Yet ADHD is currently underdiagnosed and undertreated in many European countries, leading to chronicity of symptoms and impairment, due to lack of, or ineffective treatment, and higher costs of illness. Methods The European Network Adult ADHD and the Section for Neurodevelopmental Disorders Across the Lifespan (NDAL) of the European Psychiatric Association (EPA), aim to increase awareness and knowledge of adult ADHD in and outside Europe. This Updated European Consensus Statement aims to support clinicians with research evidence and clinical experience from 63 experts of European and other countries in which ADHD in adults is recognized and treated. Results Besides reviewing the latest research on prevalence, persistence, genetics and neurobiology of ADHD, three major questions are addressed: (1) What is the clinical picture of ADHD in adults? (2) How should ADHD be properly diagnosed in adults? (3) How should adult ADHDbe effectively treated? Conclusions ADHD often presents as a lifelong impairing condition. The stigma surrounding ADHD, mainly due to lack of knowledge, increases the suffering of patients. Education on the lifespan perspective, diagnostic assessment, and treatment of ADHD must increase for students of general and mental health, and for psychiatry professionals. Instruments for screening and diagnosis of ADHD in adults are available, as are effective evidence-based treatments for ADHD and its negative outcomes. More research is needed on gender differences, and in older adults with ADHD. (c) 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.