Browsing by Subject "SEROLOGY"

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  • Veijola, Lea Irene; Oksanen, Aino Mirjam; Sipponen, Pentti Ilmari; Rautelin, Hilpi Iris Kaarina (2010)
  • Ronnberg, Bengt; Gustafsson, Ake; Vapalahti, Olli; Emmerich, Petra; Lundkvist, Ake; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Blomberg, Jonas (2017)
    The recent spread of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas and Asia necessitates an increased preparedness for improved maternal and perinatal health and blood safety. However, serological cross-reactions, especially to Dengue virus (DENV), complicate ZIKV antibody serodiagnosis. A novel "pan-Flavi" suspension multiplex immunoassay (PFSMIA) using 25 antigens, whole virus (WV), non-structural protein 1 (NS1), and envelope (E) proteins, from 7 zoonotic flaviviruses for specific detection of ZIKV and DENV IgM and IgG was developed. Patterns of antibody cross-reactivity, avidity, and kinetics were established in 104 sera from returning travelers with known ZIKV and DENV infections. PFSMIA gave IgM- and IgG-sensitivities for both viruses of 96-100%, compared to an immunofluorescence assay. Main IgM cross-reactions were to NS1, for IgG to the E and WV antigens. Infecting virus yielded reactivity to several antigens of the homologous virus, while cross-reactions tended to occur only to a single antigen from heterologous virus(es). A specificity-enhancing computer procedure took into account antibody isotype, number of antibody-reactive antigens per virus, avidity, average degree of cross-reactivity to heterologous flavivirus antigens, and reactivity changes in serial sera. It classified all 50 cases correctly. Applied to sera from 200 pregnant women and 173 blood donors from Sweden, one blood donor was found ZIKV NS1 IgM positive, and another as ZIKV NS1 IgG positive. These samples did not react with other ZIKV antigens and were thereby judged as false-positives. PFSMIA provided sensitive and specific ZIKV and DENV serology, warranting high-throughput serological surveillance and a minimized need for laborious and expensive virus neutralization assays.
  • Paaso, Anna; Koskimaa, Hanna-Mari; Welters, Marij J. P.; Kero, Katja; Rautava, Jaana; Syrjänen, Kari; van Der Burg, Sjoerd H.; Syrjänen, Stina (2021)
    Objectives: Natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the head and neck region is poorly understood, and their impact on collective HPV-specific immunity is not known. Materials and methods: In this study, we have performed a systematic analysis of HPV16-specific cell-mediated immunity (CMI) in 21 women with known oral and genital HPV DNA status and HPV serology (Ab) based on 6-year follow-up data. These women being a subgroup from the Finnish Family HPV Study were recalled for blood sampling to be tested for their CMI-responses to HPV16 E2, E6, and E7 peptides. Results: The results showed that HPV16 E2-specific lymphocyte proliferation was more prevalent in women who tested HPV16 DNA negative in oral mucosa and were either HPV16 seropositive or negative than in HPV16 DNA+/Ab+ women (p = 0.046 and p = 0.035). In addition, the HPV16 DNA-/Ab- women most often displayed E6-specific proliferation (p = 0.020). Proportional cytokine profiles indicated that oral HPV16-negative women were characterized by prominent IFN-gamma and IL-5 secretion not found in women with persisting oral HPV16 (p = 0.014 and p = 0.040, respectively). Conclusions: Our results indicate that the naturally arising immune response induced by oral HPV infections displays a mixed Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokine profile while women with persisting oral HPV16 might have an impaired HPV16-specific CMI, shifted partly toward a Th2 profile, similarly as seen earlier among patients with high-grade genital HPV lesions. Thus, the lack of HPV 16 E2 and E6 specific T memory cells and Th2 cytokines might also predispose women for persistent oral HPV16 infection which might be related to the risk of cancer.
  • Paavola, Saana; Lindfors, Katri; Kivelä, Laura; Cerqueira, Juliana; Huhtala, Heini; Saavalainen, Päivi; Tauschi, Riku; Kaukinen, Katri; Kurppa, Kalle (2021)
    Background Family screening has been advocated as a means to reduce the major underdiagnosis of coeliac disease. However, the precise risk of the disease in relatives and the impact of patient- and relative-related individual factors remain obscure. Aims To investigate the individual risk of coeliac disease among patients' relatives. Methods Altogether 2943 relatives of 624 index patients were assessed for the presence of previous coeliac disease diagnosis, or were screened for the disease. Coeliac disease-associated human leucocyte antigen (HLA) genotype was determined from all participants. The association between individual factors and new screening positivity was assessed by logistic regression. Results There were 229 previously diagnosed non-index relatives with coeliac disease and 2714 non-affected (2067 first-degree, 647 more distant) relatives. Of these 2714 relatives, 129 (4.8%) were screening-positive (first-degree 5.1%, second-degree 3.6%, more distant 3.5%). The combined prevalence of the previously diagnosed and now detected cases in relatives was 12.2% (6.3% clinically detected, 5.9% screen-detected). In univariate analysis, age