Browsing by Subject "SEROPREVALENCE"

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  • Loikkanen, Emil; Oristo, Satu; Hämäläinen, Natalia; Jokelainen, Pikka; Kantala, Tuija; Sukura, Antti; Maunula, Leena (2020)
    The main animal reservoirs of zoonotic hepatitis E virus (HEV) are domestic pigs and wild boars, but HEV also infects cervids. In this study, we estimated the prevalence of HEV in Finnish cervid species that are commonly hunted for human consumption. We investigated sera from 342 European moose (Alces alces), 70 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and 12 European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). The samples had been collected from legally hunted animals from different districts of Finland during 2008–2009. We analysed the samples for total anti-HEV antibodies using a double-sandwich ELISA assay. Seropositive sera were analysed with RT-qPCR for HEV RNA. HEV seroprevalence was 9.1% (31/342) in moose and 1.4% (1/70) in white-tailed deer. None of the European roe deer were HEV seropositive (0/12). No HEV RNA was detected from samples of seropositive animals. HEV seropositive moose were detected in all districts. Statistically, HEV seroprevalence in moose was significantly higher (p 
  • Torniainen-Holm, Minna; Suvisaari, Jaana; Lindgren, Maija; Härkänen, Tommi; Dickerson, Faith; Yolken, Robert H. (2018)
    Background: Earlier studies have documented an association between cytomegalovirus and cognitive impairment, but results have been inconsistent. Few studies have investigated the association of cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus with cognitive decline longitudinally. Our aim was to examine whether cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus are associated with cognitive decline, in adults. Method: The study sample is from the Finnish Health 2000 Survey (BRIF8901, n = 7112), which is representative of the Finnish adult population. The sample was followed up after 11 years in the Health 2011 Survey. In addition, persons with dementia were identified from healthcare registers. Results: In the Finnish population aged 30 and over, the seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus was estimated to be 84% and the seroprevalence of Epstein-Barr virus 98%. Seropositivity of the viruses and antibody levels were mostly not associated with cognitive performance. In the middle-aged adult group, cytomegalovirus serointensity was associated with impaired performance in verbal learning. However, the association disappeared when corrected for multiple testing. No interactions between infection and time or between the two infections were significant when corrected for multiple testing. Seropositivity did not predict dementia diagnosis. Conclusions: The results suggest that adult levels of antibodies to cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus may not be associated with a significant decline in cognitive function or with dementia at population level. (C) 2018 Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • Ekman, Ilse; Vuorinen, Tytti; Knip, Mikael; Veijola, Riitta; Toppari, Jorma; Hyöty, Heikki; Kinnunen, Tuure; Ilonen, Jorma; Lempainen, Johanna (2019)
    Aims/Hypothesis Evidence of the role of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D) has remained inconclusive. Our aim was to elucidate the possible role of CMV infection in the initiation of islet autoimmunity and in the progression to clinical T1D among children with human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-conferred T1D risk. Methods A total of 1402 children from the prospective Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention (DIPP) study were analyzed for CMV-specific IgG antibodies during early childhood. All the children carried HLA-DQ genotypes associated with increased risk for T1D. The effect of CMV infection on the appearance of T1D-associated autoantibodies (insulin autoantibodies [IAA], glutamic acid decarboxylase [GADA], and insulinoma antigen-2 [IA-2A], n = 356) and on the progression rate to clinical T1D (n = 233) were analyzed with Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Log-rank test. Results Early childhood CMV infection was inversely associated with the development of T1D during childhood. Cumulative progression to T1D was decreased in subjects with an early CMV infection (P = 0.035). In further analyses, the effect of early CMV infection on the initiation of islet autoimmunity and progression to clinical T1D were examined separately. Interestingly, early CMV infection did not affect the appearance of T1D-associated autoantibodies but a decelerating effect was observed on the progression rate from islet autoimmunity to clinical T1D (P = 0.015). Conclusion Our results suggest that an early childhood CMV infection may decelerate the progression from islet autoimmunity to clinical T1D among at-risk children and may thus protect these children from progressing to T1D during childhood.
  • Trevisan, Chiara; Sotiraki, Smaragda; Laranjo-Gonzalez, Minerva; Dermauw, Veronique; Wang, Ziqi; Kaerssin, Age; Cvetkovikj, Aleksandar; Winkler, Andrea S.; Abraham, Annette; Bobic, Branko; Lassen, Brian; Cretu, Carmen Michaela; Vasile, Cozma; Arvanitis, Dimitris; Deksne, Gunita; Boro, Ilievski; Kucsera, Istvan; Karamon, Jacek; Stefanovska, Jovana; Koudela, Bretislav; Pavlova, Maja Jurhar; Varady, Marian; Pavlak, Marina; Sarkunas, Mindaugas; Kaminski, Miriam; Djurkovic-Djakovic, Olgica; Jokelainen, Pikka; Jan, Dagny Stojcevic; Schmidt, Veronika; Dakic, Zorica; Gabriel, Sarah; Dorny, Pierre; Devleesschauwer, Brecht (2018)
    Background: Taenia solium and Taenia saginata are food-borne parasites of global importance. In eastern Europe only fragmented information is available on the epidemiology of these zoonotic parasites in humans and animal populations. In particular for T. solium, on-going transmission is suspected. The aim of this systematic review was to collect the available data and describe the current knowledge on the epidemiology of T. solium and T. saginata in eastern Europe. Methods: Literature published in international databases from 1990 to 2017 was systematically reviewed. Furthermore, local sources and unpublished data from national databases were retrieved from local eastern European experts. The study area included 22 countries. Results: Researchers from 18 out of the 22 countries provided data from local and unpublished sources, while no contacts could be established with researchers from Belarus, Kosovo, Malta and Ukraine. Taeniosis and human cysticercosis cases were reported in 14 and 15 out of the 22 countries, respectively. Estonia, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Lithuania, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Serbia, and Slovakia reported cases of porcine cysticercosis. Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, and Ukraine reported bovine cysticercosis. Conclusions: There is indication that taeniosis and cysticercosis are present across eastern Europe but information on the occurrence of T. solium and T. saginata across the region remains incomplete. Available data are scarce and species identification is in most cases absent. Given the public health impact of T. solium and the potential economic and trade implications due to T. saginata, notification of taeniosis and human cysticercosis should be implemented and surveillance and notification systems in animals should be improved.
  • Lindgren, Maija; Holm, Minna; Markkula, Niina; Härkänen, Tommi; Dickerson, Faith; Yolken, Robert H.; Suvisaari, Jaana (2020)
    Common infectious agents, such as Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) and several human herpes viruses, have been linked to increased risk of self-harm. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between self-harm and seropositivity to T. gondii, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Herpes Simplex virus Type 1 (HSV-1), and Cytomegalovirus (CMV). IgM and IgG antibodies to these infections were measured in the Health 2000 project nationally representative of the whole Finnish adult population, and 6250 participants, age 30 and over, were followed for 15 years via registers. In addition, lifetime suicidal ideation and suicide attempts based on medical records and interview were assessed within a subsample of 694 participants screened to a substudy for possible psychotic symptoms or as controls. Among the 6250 participants, 14 individuals died of suicide and an additional 4 individuals had a diagnosis of intentional self-harm during follow-up. Serological evidence of lifetime or acute infections was not found to be associated with these suicidal outcomes. However, in the subsample, those seropositive for CMV had fewer suicide attempts compared to those seronegative, adjusting for gender, age, educational level, childhood family size, regional residence, CRP, and screen status (OR for multiple attempts = 0.40, 95% confidence interval 0.20-0.83, p = 0.014). To conclude, common infections were not associated with risk of death by suicide or with self-harm diagnoses at a 15-year follow-up in the general population sample. Our finding of an increased number of suicide attempts among persons seronegative for CMV calls for further research.
  • Koivisto, Karoliina; Puhakka, Laura; Lappalainen, Maija; Blomqvist, Soile; Saxen, Harri; Nieminen, Tea (2017)
    Healthcare workers (HCWs) pose a risk to themselves and their patients if not protected against vaccine preventable diseases. Alarmingly, lacking immunity has been reported in several studies. We assessed the immunity against vaccine-preventable diseases in 157 pediatric HCWs in Helsinki Children's Hospital. The HCWs enrolled answered a questionnaire and gave a serum sample. Antibodies were measured with EIA against MMR-diseases, tetanus and diphtheria toxins, Hepatitis B (HBV), Hepatitis A (HAV), varicella zoster and pertussis toxin. Neutralizing antibodies against poliovirus 1, 2 and 3 were measured. All of the HCWs had antibodies against tetanus and 89.8% against diphtheria. All had measurable levels of polio antibodies to all three polioviruses. 41% had suboptimal levels of antibodies against at least one of the antigens tested: MMR-viruses, diphtheria, HBV or polio. Measles, mumps and rubella antibodies were detectable in 81.5%, 89.2% and 93%, respectively. Only one HCW had no varicella-antibodies. Hepatitis B surface antibodies (HBsAb) were detected in 89.8% of the nurses. 67.5% had HAV-antibodies. A poor correlation between detected antibody levels and reported vaccination history was noticed, indicating a need for a universal record system for registering the vaccines given to each individual. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Fevola, Cristina; Forbes, Kristian M.; Makela, Satu; Putkuri, Niina; Hauffe, Heidi C.; Kallio-Kokko, Hannimari; Mustonen, Jukka; Jaaskelainen, Anne J.; Vaheri, Antti (2016)
    Background: The emergence and re-emergence of zoonotic and vector-borne diseases are increasing in Europe. Prominent rodent-borne zoonotic viruses include Puumala hantavirus (PUUV; the causative agent of nephropathia epidemica, NE), lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), and orthopoxviruses (OPV). In addition, Ljungan virus (LV) is considered a potentially zoonotic virus. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare clinical picture between acute PUUV patients with and without additional rodent-borne viral infections, to investigate if concurrent infections influence disease severity. Study design: We evaluated seroprevalence of and seroconversions to LCMV, LV and OPV in 116 patients hospitalized for NE. Clinical and laboratory variables were closely monitored during hospital care. Results: A total of five LCMV, 15 LV, and one OPV seroconversions occurred. NE patients with LCMV seroconversions were younger, and had lower plasma creatinine concentrations and platelet counts than patients without LCMV seroconversions. No differences occurred in clinical or laboratory findings between patients with and without seroconversions to LV and OPV. We report, for the first time, LCMV seroprevalence in Finland, with 8.5% of NE patients seropositive for this virus. Seroprevalences for LV and OPV were 47.8% and 32.4%, respectively. Conclusion: Cases with LCMV seroconversions were statistically younger, had milder acute kidney injury and more severe thrombocytopenia than patients without LCMV. However, the low number of seroconversion cases precludes firm conclusions. Concurrent LV or OPV infections do not appear to influence clinical picture for NE patients. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Sabahi, Mohammadmahdi; Salehipour, Arash; Kazemi, Azin; Sadeghi, Mohammadreza; Decaro, Nicola; Mozhgani, Sayed-Hamidreza; Jalilian, Farid Azizi; Yaghoobi, Mojtaba Hedayat (2019)
    Aim: The prevalence of human parvovirus B19 (B19V) and its association with other diseases in Iran are yet to be systematically assessed. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and disease association of B19V across Iran from 2000 to 2019. Methods: The literature search, based on different keywords in different databases, was performed. A total of 29 eligible studies were included and the essential information was collected from each article. Results: The results of this study show a relatively high prevalence of the B19V-associated diseases in all age groups of the Iranian population. Conclusion: The transmission of B19V and its complications should be prevented by developing preventative strategies.
  • Koskinen, Juho; Keto-Timonen, Riikka; Virtanen, Sonja; Vilar, Maria J.; Korkeala, Hannu (2019)
    Pigs are considered the main reservoir of Yersinia enterocolitica, and hence, understanding the ecology of this foodborne pathogen at the farm level is crucial. We calculated Bayesian estimates for the ability of a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) diagnostic test kit to detect antibodies against pathogenic Yersinia in pigs. The sensitivity and specificity of the test were 75.4% and 98.1%, respectively. We also studied the dynamics of Y. enterocolitica infection in 3 farrow-to-finish pig farms by following the same 30 pens of pigs through their lifetime from farrowing unit to slaughterhouse. Each farm was sampled 4 times, and 864 fecal and 730 serum samples were collected altogether. Pathogenic Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 was isolated from 31.6% of the fecal samples by culturing, and Yersinia antibodies were detected in 38.2% of the serum samples with the commercial ELISA test. The pathogen was not isolated from farrowing units or all-in/all-out weaning units. However, in the weaning and fattening units using continuous management systems, the pathogen was isolated from every pen at some point of the study. After the pigs were transported into slaughterhouse, 150 tonsils were collected and 96.7% were positive by culturing. Among the strains isolated from feces and tonsils, 56 different genotypes of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 were found by multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA). Finally, we collected tonsils of 266 sows from 115 farrowing farms, and Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 was detected in 6.0% of the samples by the culture method, whereas 77.1% of the tonsils were serologically positive; the estimate for true seroprevalence was 95.8%. In conclusion, sows may not be the main source of Y. enterocolitica for piglets, although sows may still play a role in maintaining Y. enterocolitica in pig farms. Instead, pigs appear to get this foodborne pathogen mainly during the fattening period, especially if continuous management is applied.
  • Tiittala, Paula; Tuomisto, Karolina; Puumalainen, Taneli; Lyytikäinen, Outi; Ollgren, Jukka; Snellman, Olli; Helve, Otto (2018)
    Background: Infectious disease screening of migrants at increased risk is a feature of national infection prevention and control measures. Asylum seekers in Finland are offered screening of tuberculosis (TB), hepatitis B, human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) and syphilis based on individual risk assessment. We aimed to evaluate the public health response to a large influx of asylum seekers to Finland in 2015-2016 with respect to national guidelines on initial health services and infectious disease screening. Methods: We used immigration and healthcare procurement data for all 38,134 asylum seekers to Finland during 2015-2016 to assess the implementation, timing and yields of infectious disease screening. Results: The coverage of pulmonary TB screening was 71.6% [95% CI 71.1-72.0%] and that of hepatitis B, HIV or syphilis 60. 6% [60.1-61.1%] among those eligible for screening. The estimated average delay from arrival to pulmonary TB screening was 74 days for adults and 43 days for children. Delay to hepatitis B, HIV and syphilis screening was 91 days for adults and 47 days for children. The seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen positivity was 1.4% [95% CI 1.3-1.6%], HIV 0.3% [95% CI 0.1-0.4%] and Treponema pallidum specific antibodies 1.0% [95% CI 0.8-1.1%]. Data did not allow assessment of yields of pulmonary TB screening. Conclusions: Up to one third of asylum seekers were not reached by screening and screenings were delayed from target timeframes. Children, as a vulnerable population, were screened earlier than adults. To ensure higher screening coverage, infectious disease risks should be reassessed and screening completed at contacts to healthcare during the post-asylum phase of integration. The large influx of asylum seekers to Finland in 2015-2016 tested the country's public health preparedness. After action reviews of the public health response to the large migrant influx such as screening implementation can be used for evidence-based improvement of public health preparedness and guidelines for initial health services and infectious disease screening.
  • Lassen, Brian; Janson, Marilin; Viltrop, Arvo; Neare, Kadi; Hutt, Pirje; Golovljova, Irina; Tummeleht, Lea; Jokelainen, Pikka (2016)
    We investigated Estonian population and its selected subgroups for serological evidence of exposure to Ascaris lumbricoides, Echinococcus spp., Taenia solium, Toxocara canis, Toxoplasma gondii, and Trichinella spiralis. Serum samples from 999 adults representing general population, 248 children aged 14-18, 158 veterinarians, 375 animal caretakers, and 144 hunters were tested for specific immunoglobulin G antibodies against the selected parasites using commercial enzyme immunoassays (ELISA). Sera yielding positive or twice grey zone Echinococcus spp, T. solium, T. canis, and T. spiralis results were subjected to western blot (WB) analysis. In the general population, based on the ELISA results, the A. lumbricoides seroprevalence was 12.7%, Echinococcus spp. seroprevalence was 3.3%, T. solium seroprevalence was 0.7%, T. canis seroprevalence was 12.1%, T. gondii seroprevalence was 55.8%, and T. spiralis seroprevalence was 3.1%. Ascaris lumbricoides seroprevalences were higher in children and in animal caretakers than in the general population, and T. canis seroprevalence was higher in animal caretakers than in the general population. Compared with the general population, Echinococcus spp. seroprevalence was higher in children. By contrast, T. gondii seroprevalence was higher in animal caretakers, and lower in children, than in the general population. In the general population, the WB-confirmed Echinococcus spp. seroprevalence was 0.5%, T. solium cysticercosis seroprevalence was 0.0%, Toxocara spp. seroprevalence was 14.5%, and Trichinella spp. seroprevalence was 2.7%. WB-confirmed Toxocara spp. seroprevalence was higher in animal caretakers than in the general population. We found serological evidence of exposure to zoonotic parasites in all tested groups. This calls for higher awareness of zoonotic parasitic infections in Estonia.
  • Puhakka, Laura; Lappalainen, Maija; Lönnqvist, Tuula; Niemensivu, Riina; Lindahl, Päivi; Nieminen, Tea; Seuri, Raija; Nupponen, Irmeli; Pati, Sunil; Boppana, Suresh; Saxen, Harri (2019)
    Background. Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection is the most common congenital infection and causes significant morbidity. This study was undertaken to evaluate the benefits of screening newborns for cCMV and to understand the cCMV disease burden in Finland. Methods. Infants born in Helsinki area hospitals were screened for CMV by testing their saliva with a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. The CMV-positive infants and matched controls were monitored to determine their neurodevelopmental, audiological, and ophthalmological outcomes at 18 months of age. Griffiths Mental Development Scales, otoacoustic emission and sound field audiometry, and ophthalmologic examination were performed. Results. Of the 19 868 infants screened, 40 had confirmed cCMV infection (prevalence, 2 in 1000 [95% confidence interval, 1.4-2.6 in 1000]). Four (10%) infants had symptomatic cCMV. Griffiths general quotients did not differ significantly between the CMV-positive (mean, 101.0) and control (mean, 101.6) infants (P = .557), nor did quotients for any of the Griffiths subscales (locomotion, personal-social, hearing and language, eye and hand, performance) (P = .173-.721). Four of 54 CMV-positive ears and 6 of 80 CMV-negative ears failed otoacoustic emission testing (P = 1.000). The mean minimal response levels over the frequencies 500 Hz to 4 kHz in the sound field audiometry did not differ between CMV-positive (mean, 34.31-dB hearing level) and control (mean, 32.73-dB hearing level) infants (P = .338). No CMV-related ophthalmologic findings were observed. Conclusions. The prevalence of cCMV was low, and outcomes at 18 months of age did not differ between the infected infants and healthy control infants. With such a low burden in Finland, universal newborn screening for cCMV seems unwarranted.
  • Stanaway, Jeffrey D.; Flaxman, Abraham D.; Naghavi, Mohsen; Fitzmaurice, Christina; Vos, Theo; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.; Assadi, Reza; Bhala, Neeraj; Cowie, Benjamin; Forouzanfour, Mohammad H.; Groeger, Justina; Hanafiah, Khayriyyah Mohd; Jacobsen, Kathryn H.; James, Spencer L.; MacLachlan, Jennifer; Malekzadeh, Reza; Martin, Natasha K.; Mokdad, Ali A.; Mokdad, Ali H.; Murray, Christopher J. L.; Plass, Dietrich; Rana, Saleem; Rein, David B.; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Sanabria, Juan; Saylan, Mete; Shahraz, Saeid; So, Samuel; Vlassov, Vasiliy V.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Wiersma, Steven T.; Younis, Mustafa; Yu, Chuanhua; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Cooke, Graham S. (2016)
    Background With recent improvements in vaccines and treatments against viral hepatitis, an improved understanding of the burden of viral hepatitis is needed to inform global intervention strategies. We used data from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study to estimate morbidity and mortality for acute viral hepatitis, and for cirrhosis and liver cancer caused by viral hepatitis, by age, sex, and country from 1990 to 2013. Methods We estimated mortality using natural history models for acute hepatitis infections and GBD's cause-of-death ensemble model for cirrhosis and liver cancer. We used meta-regression to estimate total cirrhosis and total liver cancer prevalence, as well as the proportion of cirrhosis and liver cancer attributable to each cause. We then estimated cause-specific prevalence as the product of the total prevalence and the proportion attributable to a specific cause. Disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) were calculated as the sum of years of life lost (YLLs) and years lived with disability (YLDs). Findings Between 1990 and 2013, global viral hepatitis deaths increased from 0.89 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 0.86-0.94) to 1.45 million (1.38-1.54); YLLs from 31.0 million (29.6-32.6) to 41.6 million (39.1-44.7); YLDs from 0.65 million (0.45-0.89) to 0.87 million (0.61-1.18); and DALYs from 31.7 million (30.2-33.3) to 42.5 million (39.9-45.6). In 2013, viral hepatitis was the seventh (95% UI seventh to eighth) leading cause of death worldwide, compared with tenth (tenth to 12th) in 1990. Interpretation Viral hepatitis is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Unlike most communicable diseases, the absolute burden and relative rank of viral hepatitis increased between 1990 and 2013. The enormous health loss attributable to viral hepatitis, and the availability of effective vaccines and treatments, suggests an important opportunity to improve public health.