Browsing by Subject "SERUM-CHOLESTEROL"

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  • Breast Canc Assoc Consortium; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Khankari, Nikhil K.; Delahanty, Ryan J.; Zheng, Wei; Blomqvist, Carl; Nevanlinna, Heli (2020)
    Background: Conventional epidemiologic studies have evaluated associations between circulating lipid levels and breast cancer risk, but results have been inconsistent. As Mendelian randomization analyses may provide evidence for causal inference, we sought to evaluate potentially unbiased associations between breast cancer risk and four genetically predicted lipid traits. Methods: Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 164 discrete variants associated with high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides and total cholesterol. We used 162 of these unique variants to construct weighted genetic scores (wGSs) for a total of 101 424 breast cancer cases and 80 253 controls of European ancestry from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations between per standard deviation increase in genetically predicted lipid traits and breast cancer risk. Additional Mendelian randomization analysis approaches and sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess pleiotropy and instrument validity. Results: Corresponding to approximately 15 mg/dL, one standard deviation increase in genetically predicted HDL-C was associated with a 12% increased breast cancer risk (OR: 1.12, 95% CI: 1.08-1.16). Findings were consistent after adjustment for breast cancer risk factors and were robust in several sensitivity analyses. Associations with genetically predicted triglycerides and total cholesterol were inconsistent, and no association for genetically predicted LDL-C was observed. Conclusions: This study provides strong evidence that circulating HDL-C may be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, whereas LDL-C may not be related to breast cancer risk.
  • Koponen, Hannu; Kautiainen, Hannu; Leppanen, Esa; Mantyselka, Pekka; Vanhala, Mauno (2015)
    Background: Disturbances in lipid metabolism have been linked to suicidal behaviour, but little is known about the association between suicide risk and abnormal glucose metabolism in depression. Hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia may increase the risk of depression and also the risk for suicide, we therefore studied associations between suicidal behaviour and disturbances in glucose metabolism in depressive patients who had been referred to depression nurse case managers. Methods: Patients aged 35 years and older (N = 448, mean age 51 years) who were experiencing a new depressive episode, who were referred to depression nurse case managers in 2008-2009 and who scored = 10 on the Beck Depression Inventory were enrolled in this study. The study was conducted in municipalities within the Central Finland Hospital District (catchment area of 274 000 inhabitants) as part of the Finnish Depression and Metabolic Syndrome in Adults study. The patients' psychiatric diagnoses and suicidal behaviour were confirmed by the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Blood samples, for glucose and lipid determinations, were drawn from participants after 12 h of fasting, which was followed by a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) when blood was drawn at 0 and 2 h. Insulin resistance was measured by the Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI) method.' Results: Suicidal ideation (49 %) and previous suicide attempts (16 %) were common in patients with major depressive disorder or dysthymia. Patients with depression and suicidal behaviour had higher blood glucose concentrations at baseline and at 2 hours in the OGTT. Glucose levels associated positively with the prevalence of suicidal behaviour, and the linearity was significant at baseline (p for linearity: 0.012, adjusted for age and sex) and for 2-hour OGTT glucose (p for linearity: 0.004, adjusted for age and sex). QUICKI levels associated with suicidal behavior (p for linearity across tertiles of QUICKI: 0.026). Total and LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels were also higher in those patients with suicidal behaviour. Multivariate analysis revealed that blood glucose levels, BDI scores and antidepressive medications associated with suicidal behaviour. Conclusion: Insulin resistance and disturbances in glucose and lipid metabolism may be more common in middle-aged depressive patients with suicidal behaviour.
  • Laitinen, Kirsi; Gylling, Helena; Kaipiainen, Leena; Nissinen, Markku J.; Simonen, Piia (2017)
    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol lowering efficacy of a new type of chewable plant stanol ester food supplement was evaluated in a randomized, double-blind, controlled four-week intervention. The participants (LDL cholesterol > 3 mmol/L) consumed four supplements daily with meals either with (n = 50) or without (n = 53) plant stanol esters. Plant stanol ester supplement (2 g/d plant stanols) lowered LDL cholesterol by 7.6%, serum cholesterol by 4.9%, and non-high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol by 6.6% compared with controls (P <0.003). HDL cholesterol or serum triacylglycerol concentrations were unchanged. The taste of the supplement was considered good/very good by 68% of the responders, and convenience to consume it was considered easy/very easy by 78% of the responders. No side effects were reported. In conclusion, this new type of small-volume chewable plant stanol ester supplement lowered LDL cholesterol concentration in hypercholesterolemic subjects providing a convenient dietary tool to regulate circulating cholesterol levels. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • van der Lee, Sven J.; Teunissen, Charlotte E.; Pool, Rene; Shipley, Martin J.; Teumer, Alexander; Chouraki, Vincent; van Lent, Debora Melo; Tynkkynen, Juho; Fischer, Krista; Hernesniemi, Jussi; Haller, Toomas; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Verhoeven, Aswin; Willemsen, Gonneke; de Leeuw, Francisca A.; Wagner, Holger; van Dongen, Jenny; Hertel, Johannes; Budde, Kathrin; van Dijk, Ko Willems; Weinhold, Leonie; Ikram, M. Arfan; Pietzner, Maik; Perola, Markus; Wagner, Michael; Friedrich, Nele; Slagboom, P. Eline; Scheltens, Philip; Yang, Qiong; Gertzen, Robert E.; Egert, Sarah; Li, Shuo; Hankemeier, Thomas; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E. M.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Maier, Wolfgang; Peeters, Carel F. W.; Grabe, Hans Joergen; Ramirez, Alfredo; Seshadri, Sudha; Metspalu, Andres; Kivimäki, Mika; Salomaa, Veikko; Demirkan, Ayse; Boomsma, Dorret I.; van der Flier, Wiesje M.; Amin, Najaf; van Duijn, Cornelia M. (2018)
    Introduction: Identifying circulating metabolites that are associated with cognition and dementia may improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of dementia and provide crucial readouts for preventive and therapeutic interventions. Methods: We studied 299 metabolites in relation to cognition (general cognitive ability) in two discovery cohorts (N total = 5658). Metabolites significantly associated with cognition after adjusting for multiple testing were replicated in four independent cohorts (N total = 6652), and the associations with dementia and Alzheimer's disease (N = 25,872) and lifestyle factors (N = 5168) were examined. Results: We discovered and replicated 15 metabolites associated with cognition including subfractions of high-density lipoprotein, docosahexaenoic acid, ornithine, glutamine, and glycoprotein acetyls. These associations were independent of classical risk factors including high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes. Six of the cognition-associated metabolites were related to the risk of dementia and lifestyle factors. Discussion: Circulating metabolites were consistently associated with cognition, dementia, and lifestyle factors, opening new avenues for prevention of cognitive decline and dementia. (C) 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the Alzheimer's Association.
  • Vuorio, Alpo; Kovanen, Petri T. (2018)
    This review covers the current knowledge about plant stanol esters as a dietary treatment option for heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (he-FH) children. The current estimation of the prevalence of he-FH is about one out of 200-250 persons. In this autosomal dominant disease, the concentration of plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is strongly elevated since birth. Quantitative coronary angiography among he-FH patients has revealed that stenosing atherosclerotic plaques start to develop in he-FH males in their twenties and in he-FH females in their thirties, and that the magnitude of the plaque burden predicts future coronary events. The cumulative exposure of coronary arteries to the lifelong LDL-C elevation can be estimated by calculating the LDL-C burden (LDL-C level x years), and it can also be used to demonstrate the usefulness of dietary stanol ester treatment. Thus, when compared with untreated he-FH patients, the LDL-C burden of using statin from the age of 10 is 15% less, and if he-FH patients starts to use dietary stanol from six years onwards and a combination of statin and dietary stanol from 10 years onwards, the LDL-C burden is 21% less compared to non-treated he-FH patients. We consider dietary stanol treatment of he-FH children as a part of the LDL-C-lowering treatment package as safe and cost-effective, and particularly applicable for the family-centered care of the entire he-FH families.
  • Hallikainen, Maarit; Halonen, Janne; Konttinen, Jussi; Lindholm, Harri; Simonen, Piia; Nissinen, Markku J.; Gylling, Helena (2013)
  • Gylling, Helena; Strandberg, Timo E.; Kovanen, Petri T.; Simonen, Piia (2020)
    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVDs) cause every fifth death worldwide. However, it is possible to prevent the progression of ASCVDs by reducing circulating concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Recent large meta-analyses demonstrated that by reducing the dietary intake of saturated fat and cholesterol, it is possible to reduce the risk of ASCVD events. Plant stanols, as fatty-acid esters, were developed as a dietary adjunct to reduce LDL-C levels as part of a heart-healthy diet. They reduce cholesterol absorption so that less cholesterol is transported to the liver, and the expression of LDL receptors is upregulated. Ultimately, LDL-C concentrations are reduced on average by 9-12% by consuming 2-3 g of plant stanol esters per day. In this review, we discuss recent information regarding the prevention of ASCVDs with a focus on dietary means. We also present new estimates on the effect of plant stanol ester consumption on LDL-C levels and the risk of ASCVD events. Plant stanol esters as part of a heart-healthy diet plausibly offer a means to reduce the risk of ASCVD events at a population level. This approach is not only appropriate for subjects with a high risk of ASCVD, but also for subjects at an apparently lower risk to prevent subclinical atherosclerosis.
  • Simonen, Piia; Arte, Elisa; Gylling, Helena (2021)
    Dietary modifications including plant stanol ester consumption are recommended measures to control serum and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol concentrations, but obesity can affect their responses. We investigated whether body mass index (BMI) affects serum cholesterol levels during plant stanol (mainly sitostanol) ester consumption. This ad hoc analysis was based on earlier results of a cross-over, randomized controlled trial of postmenopausal women consuming rapeseed oil-based margarine without or with plant stanol ester (3 g plant stanols/day) for seven weeks. We classified the subjects as normal-weight (BMI 25 kg/m(2), n = 11, mean 28.4 kg/m(2)), and recalculated the results, focusing on cholesterol absorption, cholesterol synthesis, and fecal steroid outputs. Serum cholesterol levels were similar in the groups during the control diet. Plant stanol ester reduced serum cholesterol by 0.63 +/- 0.19 mmol/L (11%) in normal-weight and by 0.75 +/- 0.13 mmol/L (12%) in overweight/obese subjects (p < 0.05 for both), and cholesterol absorption was reduced in both groups. However, relative and dietary cholesterol absorption were more effectively reduced in normal-weight subjects. In conclusion, overweight/obesity did not interfere with the serum cholesterol response to plant stanol ester consumption despite substantial differences in cholesterol metabolism between the groups.
  • Gylling, Helena; Simonen, Piia (2015)
    The efficacy of phytosterols and phytostanols added to foods and food supplements to obtain significant non-pharmacologic serum and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol reduction is well documented. Irrespective of age, gender, ethnic background, body weight, background diet, or the cause of hypercholesterolemia and, even added to statin treatment, phytosterols and phytostanols at 2 g/day significantly lower LDL cholesterol concentration by 8%-10%. They do not affect the concentrations of high density lipoprotein cholesterol, lipoprotein (a) or serum proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9. In some studies, phytosterols and phytostanols have modestly reduced serum triglyceride levels especially in subjects with slightly increased baseline concentrations. Phytosterols and phytostanols lower LDL cholesterol by displacing cholesterol from mixed micelles in the small intestine so that cholesterol absorption is partially inhibited. Cholesterol absorption and synthesis have been carefully evaluated during phytosterol and phytostanol supplementation. However, only a few lipoprotein kinetic studies have been performed, and they revealed that LDL apoprotein B-100 transport rate was reduced. LDL particle size was unchanged, but small dense LDL cholesterol concentration was reduced. In subjects with metabolic syndrome and moderate hypertriglyceridemia, phytostanols reduced not only non- high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration but also serum triglycerides by 27%, and reduced the large and medium size very low density lipoprotein particle concentrations. In the few postprandial studies, the postprandial lipoproteins were reduced, but detailed studies with apoprotein B-48 are lacking. In conclusion, more kinetic studies are required to obtain a more complete understanding of the fasting and postprandial lipoprotein metabolism caused by phytosterols and phytostanols. It seems obvious, however, that the most atherogenic lipoprotein particles will be diminished.
  • Gylling, Helena; Plat, Jogchum; Turley, Stephen; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Ellegard, Lars; Jessup, Wendy; Jones, Peter J.; Luetjohann, Dieter; Maerz, Winfried; Masana, Luis; Silbernagel, Guenther; Staels, Bart; Boren, Jan; Catapano, Alberico L.; De Backer, Guy; Deanfield, John; Descamps, Olivier S.; Kovanen, Petri T.; Riccardi, Gabriele; Tokgozoglu, Lale; Chapman, M. John; European Atherosclerosis Soc (2014)
  • Taddei, Cristina; Zhou, Bin; Bixby, Honor; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M.; Danaei, Goodarz; Jackson, Rod T.; Farzadfar, Farshad; Sophiea, Marisa K.; Di Cesare, Mariachiara; Iurilli, Maria Laura Caminia; Martinez, Andrea Rodriguez; Asghari, Golaleh; Dhana, Klodian; Gulayin, Pablo; Kakarmath, Sujay; Santero, Marilina; Voortman, Trudy; Riley, Leanne M.; Cowan, Melanie J.; Savin, Stefan; Bennett, James E.; Stevens, Gretchen A.; Paciorek, Christopher J.; Aekplakorn, Wichai; Cifkova, Renata; Giampaoli, Simona; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Khang, Young-Ho; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Laxmaiah, Avula; Margozzini, Paula; Mathur, Prashant; Nordestgaard, Borge G.; Zhao, Dong; Aadahl, Mette; Abarca-Gomez, Leandra; Rahim, Hanan Abdul; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M.; Acosta-Cazares, Benjamin; Adams, Robert J.; Agdeppa, Imelda A.; Aghazadeh-Attari, Javad; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Agyemang, Charles; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Ahmad, Noor Ani; Ahmadi, Ali; Ahmadi, Naser; Ahmed, Soheir H.; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Ajlouni, Kamel; Alarouj, Monira; AlBuhairan, Fadia; AlDhukair, Shahla; Ali, Mohamed M.; Alkandari, Abdullah; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Aly, Eman; Amarapurkar, Deepak N.; Amouyel, Philippe; Andersen, Lars Bo; Anderssen, Sigmund A.; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Ansari-Moghaddam, Alireza; Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer; Araujo, Joana; Ariansen, Inger; Aris, Tahir; Arku, Raphael E.; Arlappa, Nimmathota; Aryal, Krishna K.; Aspelund, Thor; Assuncao, Maria Cecilia F.; Auvinen, Juha; Avdicova, Maria; Azevedo, Ana; Azizi, Fereidoun; Azmin, Mehrdad; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Bamoshmoosh, Mohamed; Banach, Maciej; Bandosz, Piotr; Banegas, Jose R.; Barbagallo, Carlo M.; Barcelo, Alberto; Barkat, Amina; Bata, Iqbal; Batieha, Anwar M.; Batyrbek, Assembekov; Baur, Louise A.; Beaglehole, Robert; Belavendra, Antonisamy; Ben Romdhane, Habiba; Benet, Mikhail; Benn, Marianne; Berkinbayev, Salim; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Bernotiene, Gailute; Bettiol, Heloisa; Bhargava, Santosh K.; Bi, Yufang; Bienek, Asako; Bikbov, Mukharram; Bista, Bihungum; Bjerregaard, Peter; Bjertness, Espen; Bjertness, Marius B.; Bjorkelund, Cecilia; Bloch, Katia; Blokstra, Anneke; Bo, Simona; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Boggia, Jose G.; Boissonnet, Carlos P.; Bonaccio, Marialaura; Bongard, Vanina; Borchini, Rossana; Borghs, Herman; Bovet, Pascal; Brajkovich, Imperia; Breckenkamp, Juergen; Brenner, Hermann; Brewster, Lizzy M.; Bruno, Graziella; Bugge, Anna; Busch, Markus A.; de Leon, Antonio Cabrera; Cacciottolo, Joseph; Can, Gunay; Candido, Ana Paula C.; Capanzana, Mario; Capuano, Eduardo; Capuano, Vincenzo; Cardoso, Viviane C.; Carvalho, Joana; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Censi, Laura; Chadjigeorgiou, Charalambos A.; Chamukuttan, Snehalatha; Chaturvedi, Nish; Chen, Chien-Jen; Chen, Fangfang; Chen, Shuohua; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Cheraghian, Bahman; Chetrit, Angela; Chiou, Shu-Ti; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Cho, Belong; Cho, Yumi; Chudek, Jerzy; Claessens, Frank; Clarke, Janine; Clays, Els; Concin, Hans; Confortin, Susana C.; Cooper, Cyrus; Costanzo, Simona; Cottel, Dominique; Cowell, Chris; Crujeiras, Ana B.; Csilla, Semanova; Cui, Liufu; Cureau, Felipe; D'Arrigo, Graziella; d'Orsi, Eleonora; Dallongeville, Jean; Damasceno, Albertino; Dankner, Rachel; Dantoft, Thomas M.; Dauchet, Luc; Davletov, Kairat; De Backer, Guy; De Bacquer, Dirk; de Gaetano, Giovanni; De Henauw, Stefaan; de Oliveira, Paula Duarte; De Ridder, David; De Smedt, Delphine; Deepa, Mohan; Deev, Alexander D.; Dehghan, Abbas; Delisle, Helene; Dennison, Elaine; Deschamps, Valerie; Dhimal, Meghnath; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto F.; Dika, Zivka; Djalalinia, Shirin; Dobson, Annette J.; Donfrancesco, Chiara; Donoso, Silvana P.; Doring, Angela; Dorobantu, Maria; Dragano, Nico; Drygas, Wojciech; Du, Yong; Duante, Charmaine A.; Duda, Rosemary B.; Dzerve, Vilnis; Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Elzbieta; Eddie, Ricky; Eftekhar, Ebrahim; Eggertsen, Robert; Eghtesad, Sareh; Eiben, Gabriele; Ekelund, Ulf; El Ati, Jalila; Eldemire-Shearer, Denise; Eliasen, Marie; Elosua, Roberto; Erasmus, Rajiv T.; Erbel, Raimund; Erem, Cihangir; Eriksen, Louise; Eriksson, Johan G.; Escobedo-de la Pena, Jorge; Eslami, Saeid; Esmaeili, Ali; Evans, Alun; Faeh, David; Fall, Caroline H.; Faramarzi, Elnaz; Farjam, Mojtaba; Fattahi, Mohammad Reza; Felix-Redondo, Francisco J.; Ferguson, Trevor S.; Fernandez-Berges, Daniel; Ferrante, Daniel; Ferrari, Marika; Ferreccio, Catterina; Ferrieres, Jean; Foger, Bernhard; Foo, Leng Huat; Forslund, Ann-Sofie; Forsner, Maria; Fouad, Heba M.; Francis, Damian K.; Franco, Maria do Carmo; Franco, Oscar H.; Frontera, Guillermo; Fujita, Yuki; Fumihiko, Matsuda; Furusawa, Takuro; Gaciong, Zbigniew; Galvano, Fabio; Gao, Jingli; Garcia-de-la-Hera, Manoli; Garnett, Sarah P.; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Gasull, Magda; Gazzinelli, Andrea; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Ghanbari, Ali; Ghasemi, Erfan; Gheorghe-Fronea, Oana-Florentina; Ghimire, Anup; Gianfagna, Francesco; Gill, Tiffany K.; Giovannelli, Jonathan; Gironella, Glen; Giwercman, Aleksander; Goltzman, David; Goncalves, Helen; Gonzalez-Chica, David A.; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Gonzalez-Rivas, Juan P.; Gonzalez-Villalpando, Clicerio; Gonzalez-Villalpando, Maria-Elena; Gonzalez, Angel R.; Gottrand, Frederic; Graff-Iversen, Sidsel; Gregor, Ronald D.; Grodzicki, Tomasz; Grontved, Anders; Grosso, Giuseppe; Gruden, Gabriella; Gu, Dongfeng; Guallar-Castillon, Pilar; Guan, Ong Peng; Gudmundsson, Elias F.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Guerrero, Ramiro; Guessous, Idris; Gunnlaugsdottir, Johanna; Gupta, Rajeev; Gutierrez, Laura; Gutzwiller, Felix; Ha, Seongjun; Hadaegh, Farzad; Haghshenas, Rosa; Hakimi, Hamid; Hambleton, Ian R.; Hamzeh, Behrooz; Hantunen, Sari; Kumar, Rachakulla Hari; Hashemi-Shahri, Seyed Mohammad; Hata, Jun; Haugsgjerd, Teresa; Hayes, Alison J.; He, Jiang; He, Yuna; Hendriks, Marleen Elisabeth; Henriques, Ana; Herrala, Sauli; Heshmat, Ramin; Hill, Allan G.; Ho, Sai Yin; Ho, Suzanne C.; Hobbs, Michael; Hofman, Albert; Homayounfar, Reza; Hopman, Wilma M.; Horimoto, Andrea R. V. R.; Hormiga, Claudia M.; Horta, Bernardo L.; Houti, Leila; Howitt, Christina; Htay, Thein Thein; Htet, Aung Soe; Htike, Maung Maung Than; Huerta, Jose Maria; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo Tapani; Huisman, Martijn; Hunsberger, Monica L.; Husseini, Abdullatif S.; Huybrechts, Inge; Hwalla, Nahla; Iacoviello, Licia; Iannone, Anna G.; Ibrahim, Mohsen M.; Wong, Norazizah Ibrahim; Iglesia, Iris; Ikeda, Nayu; Ikram, M. Arfan; Iotova, Violeta; Irazola, Vilma E.; Ishida, Takafumi; Islam, Muhammad; Ismail, Aziz Al-Safi; Iwasaki, Masanori; Jacobs, Jeremy M.; Jaddou, Hashem Y.; Jafar, Tazeen; James, Kenneth; Jamrozik, Konrad; Janszky, Imre; Janus, Edward; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jasienska, Grazyna; Jelakovic, Ana; Jelakovic, Bojan; Jennings, Garry; Jensen, Gorm B.; Jeong, Seung-lyeal; Jha, Anjani Kumar; Jiang, Chao Qiang; Jimenez, Ramon O.; Jockel, Karl-Heinz; Joffres, Michel; Jokelainen, Jari J.; Jonas, Jost B.; Jorgensen, Torben; Joshi, Pradeep; Joukar, Farahnaz; Jozwiak, Jacek; Juolevi, Anne; Kafatos, Anthony; Kajantie, Eero O.; Kalter-Leibovici, Ofra; Kamaruddin, Nor Azmi; Kamstrup, Pia R.; Karki, Khem B.; Katz, Joanne; Kauhanen, Jussi; Kaur, Prabhdeep; Kavousi, Maryam; Kazakbaeva, Gyulli; Keil, Ulrich; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Kelishadi, Roya; Keramati, Maryam; Kerimkulova, Alina; Kersting, Mathilde; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khalili, Davood; Khateeb, Mohammad; Kheradmand, Motahareh; Khosravi, Alireza; Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, Ursula; Kiechl, Stefan; Killewo, Japhet; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Kim, Jeongseon; Kim, Yeon-Yong; Klumbiene, Jurate; Knoflach, Michael; Ko, Stephanie; Kohler, Hans-Peter; Kohler, Iliana; Kolle, Elin; Kolsteren, Patrick; Konig, Jurgen; Korpelainen, Raija; PaulKorrovits; Kos, Jelena; Koskinen, Seppo; Kouda, Katsuyasu; Kowlessur, Sudhir; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Kriemler, Susi; Kristensen, Peter Lund; Krokstad, Steiner; Kromhout, Daan; Kujala, Urho M.; Kurjata, Pawel; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Laamiri, Fatima Zahra; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lachat, Carl; Laid, Youcef; Lam, Tai Hing; Lambrinou, Christina-Paulina; Lanska, Vera; Lappas, Georg; Larijani, Bagher; Latt, Tint Swe; Laugsand, Lars E.; Lazo-Porras, Maria; Lee, Jeannette; Lee, Jeonghee; Lehmann, Nils; Lehtimaki, Terho; Levitt, Naomi S.; Li, Yanping; Lilly, Christa L.; Lim, Wei-Yen; Lima-Costa, M. Fernanda; Lin, Hsien-Ho; Lin, Xu; Lin, Yi-Ting; Lind, Lars; Linneberg, Allan; Lissner, Lauren; Liu, Jing; Loit, Helle-Mai; Lopez-Garcia, Esther; Lopez, Tania; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Lozano, Jose Eugenio; Luksiene, Dalia; Lundqvist, Annamari; Lundqvist, Robert; Lunet, Nuno; Ma, Guansheng; Machado-Coelho, George L. L.; Machado-Rodrigues, Aristides M.; Machi, Suka; Madar, Ahmed A.; Maggi, Stefania; Magliano, Dianna J.; Magriplis, Emmanuella; Mahasampath, Gowri; Maire, Bernard; Makdisse, Marcia; Malekzadeh, Fatemeh; Reza Malekzadeh; Rao, Kodavanti Mallikharjuna; Manios, Yannis; Mann, Jim; Mansour-Ghanaei, Fariborz; Manzato, Enzo; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Martorell, Reynaldo; Mascarenhas, Luis P.; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B.; Matsha, Tandi E.; Mavrogianni, Christina; McFarlane, Shelly R.; McGarvey, Stephen T.; McLachlan, Stela; McLean, Rachael M.; McLean, Scott B.; McNulty, Breige A.; Mediene-Benchekor, Sounnia; Mehdipour, Parinaz; Mehlig, Kirsten; Mehrparvar, AmirHoushang; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Meisinger, Christa; Menezes, Ana Maria B.; Menon, Geetha R.; Merat, Shahin; Mereke, Alibek; Meshram, Indrapal I.; Metcalf, Patricia; Meyer, Haakon E.; Mi, Jie; Michels, Nathalie; Miller, Jody C.; Minderico, Claudia S.; Mini, G. K.; Miquel, Juan Francisco; Miranda, J. Jaime; Mirjalili, Mohammad Reza; Mirrakhimov, Erkin; Modesti, Pietro A.; Moghaddam, Sahar Saeedi; Mohajer, Bahram; Mohamed, MostafaK; Mohammad, Kazem; Mohammadi, Zahra; Mohammadifard, Noushin; Mohammadpourhodki, Reza; Mohan, Viswanathan; Mohanna, Salim; MohdYusoff, Muhammad Fadhli; Mohebbi, Iraj; Mohebi, Farnam; Moitry, Marie; Mollehave, Line T.; Mller, Niels C.; Molnar, Denes; Momenan, Amirabbas; Mondo, Charles K.; Monterrubio-Flores, Eric; Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Morejon, Alain; Moreno, Luis A.; Morgan, Karen; Morin, Suzanne N.; Moschonis, George; Mossakowska, Malgorzata; Mostafa, Aya; Mota, Jorge; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeel; Motta, Jorge; Msyamboza, Kelias P.; Muiesan, Maria L.; Muller-Nurasyid, Martina; Mursu, Jaakko; Mustafa, Norlaila; Nabipour, Iraj; Naderimagham, Shohreh; Nagel, Gabriele; Naidu, Balkish M.; Najafi, Farid; Nakamura, Harunobu; Nang, Ei Ei K.; Nangia, Vinay B.; Nauck, Matthias; Neal, William A.; Nejatizadeh, Azim; Nenko, Ilona; Nervi, Flavio; Nguyen, Nguyen D.; Quang Ngoc Nguyen; Nieto-Martinez, Ramfis E.; Nihal, Thomas; Niiranen, Teemu J.; Ning, Guang; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Noale, Marianna; Noboa, Oscar A.; Noto, Davide; Al Nsour, Mohannad; Nuhoglu, Irfan; O'Neill, Terence W.; O'Reilly, Dermot; Ochoa-Aviles, Angelica M.; Oh, Kyungwon; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro; Olafsson, Orn; Olie, Valerie; Oliveira, Isabel O.; Omar, Mohd Azahadi; Onat, Altan; Ong, SokKing; Ordunez, Pedro; Ornelas, Rui; Ortiz, Pedro J.; Osmond, Clive; Ostojic, Sergej M.; Ostovar, Afshin; Otero, Johanna A.; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Paccaud, Fred Michel; Pahomova, Elena; Pajak, Andrzej; Palmieri, Luigi; Pan, Wen-Harn; Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra; Panza, Francesco; Parnell, Winsome R.; Patel, Nikhil D.; Peer, Nasheeta; Peixoto, Sergio Viana; Peltonen, Markku; Pereira, Alexandre C.; Peters, Annette; Petersmann, Astrid; Petkeviciene, Janina; Peykari, Niloofar; Son Thai Pham; Pichardo, Rafael N.; Pigeot, Iris; Pilav, Aida; Pilotto, Lorenza; Piwonska, Aleksandra; Pizarro, Andreia N.; Plans-Rubio, Pedro; Plata, Silvia; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Porta, Miquel; Portegies, Marileen L. 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Goya; Wedderkopp, Niels; Wei, Wenbin; Whincup, Peter H.; Widhalm, Kurt; Widyahening, Indah S.; Wiecek, Andrzej; Wijga, Alet H.; Wilks, Rainford J.; Willeit, Johann; Willeit, Peter; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojtyniak, Bogdan; Wong-McClure, Roy A.; Wong, Andrew; Wong, Tien Yin; Woo, Jean; Woodward, Mark; Wu, Frederick C.; Wu, Shouling; Xu, Haiquan; Xu, Liang; Yan, Weili; Yang, Xiaoguang; Yasuharu, Tabara; Ye, Xingwang; Yeow, Toh Peng; Yiallouros, Panayiotis K.; Yoosefi, Moein; Yoshihara, Akihiro; You, San-Lin; Younger-Coleman, Novie O.; Yusoff, Ahmad Faudzi; Zainuddin, Ahmad A.; Zakavi, Seyed Rasoul; Zali, Mohammad Reza; Zamani, Farhad; Zambon, Sabina; Zampelas, Antonis; KoZaw, Ko; Zdrojewski, Tomasz; Vrkic, Tajana Zeljkovic; Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Zhao, Wenhua; Zhen, Shiqi; Zheng, Yingfeng; Zholdin, Bekbolat; Zhussupov, Baurzhan; Zoghlami, Nada; Cisneros, Julio Zuniga; Gregg, Edward W.; Ezzati, Majid (2020)
    High blood cholesterol is typically considered a feature of wealthy western countries(1,2). However, dietary and behavioural determinants of blood cholesterol are changing rapidly throughout the world(3) and countries are using lipid-lowering medications at varying rates. These changes can have distinct effects on the levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol, which have different effects on human health(4,5). However, the trends of HDL and non-HDL cholesterol levels over time have not been previously reported in a global analysis. Here we pooled 1,127 population-based studies that measured blood lipids in 102.6 million individuals aged 18 years and older to estimate trends from 1980 to 2018 in mean total, non-HDL and HDL cholesterol levels for 200 countries. Globally, there was little change in total or non-HDL cholesterol from 1980 to 2018. This was a net effect of increases in low- and middle-income countries, especially in east and southeast Asia, and decreases in high-income western countries, especially those in northwestern Europe, and in central and eastern Europe. As a result, countries with the highest level of non-HDL cholesterol-which is a marker of cardiovascular riskchanged from those in western Europe such as Belgium, Finland, Greenland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and Malta in 1980 to those in Asia and the Pacific, such as Tokelau, Malaysia, The Philippines and Thailand. In 2017, high non-HDL cholesterol was responsible for an estimated 3.9 million (95% credible interval 3.7 million-4.2 million) worldwide deaths, half of which occurred in east, southeast and south Asia. The global repositioning of lipid-related risk, with non-optimal cholesterol shifting from a distinct feature of high-income countries in northwestern Europe, north America and Australasia to one that affects countries in east and southeast Asia and Oceania should motivate the use of population-based policies and personal interventions to improve nutrition and enhance access to treatment throughout the world.
  • Hemilä, Harri (1992)
    There has been a long-lasting controversy about whether vitamin C has any significant effect on plasma cholesterol levels in human beings. Some early Russian studies suggested that vitamin C may decrease elevated cholesterol levels, and so the vitamin was used to some extent in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia (for review see Reference 1). However, the studies were not well controlled, and duplications have yielded conflicting results. Nevertheless, animal studies have consistently found that vitamin C has substantial effects on cholesterol metabolism. The purpose of this review is to analyze the published intervention studies in order to identify the factors that may have resulted in the discordance in the results. Several of the studies have used subjects with initially low cholesterol levels. Such studies do not test the hypothesis that a low level of the vitamin may decrease the rate of cholesterol catabolism, and thereby enhance hypercholesterolemia in some people. Accordingly, studies with hypercholesterolemic subjects are more relevant for testing this hypothesis. Most of the studies in the latter group have reported a significant decrease in the cholesterol level with vitamin C supplementation. Furthermore, such results indicate that in certain people low vitamin C status may be one of the factors that lead to the elevation of cholesterol levels.