Browsing by Subject "SES"

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  • Rinta-Kanto, Jenni (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Background: Development of cognitive abilities involves both environmental and genetic factors. Childhood socioeconomic status (SES) associates with cognitive abilities later in life; however there is only little research on the interaction of SES and genes on cognitive ability. Specific genomic loci associating with cognitive abilities are scarce and potential candidates might be genetic variants linked with Alzheimer's disease such as APOE ε4 isomorph and rs405509 located in the APOE promoter region. I studied how childhood SES and APOE ε4 and rs405509 and their interactions associate with cognitive abilities in late adulthood in the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study (HBCS) sample. Methods: The participants of this study consisted of 607 men belonging to the HBCS who were born in Helsinki, Finland between 1934 and 1944. They participated in the test for general cognitive abilities at the average age of 68, and who were successfully genotyped. Associations and interactions of childhood SES, APOE and rs405509 on cognitive ability were studied. Results and conclusions: Lower childhood SES associated with lower verbal subscale score and total score. APOE ε4 was not independently associated with cognitive abilities. The number of G-alleles in rs405509 associated with lower verbal subscale score and total score when adjusted for age, but no longer after adjusting for adulthood SES. Interactions of rs405509 and childhood SES were not associated with cognitive ability. Socioeconomically less advantaged childhood environment has long-term consequences on cognitive abilities, and the effects last until late adulthood. The study suggests that rs405509 G-allele might have an independent effect on cognitive ability before the outset of Alzheimer's disease, but the results require further replication with larger sample size.
  • Harju, Maijakaisa; Keski-Nisula, Leea; Georgiadis, Leena; Raatikainen, Kaisa; Raisanen, Sari; Heinonen, Seppo (2015)
  • Helminen, Annukka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Goals. The first goal of this study was to identify personality groups using the person-centred approach. The second aim of this study was to examine whether personality and childhood socio-economic status (SES) are related to educational attainment, income level, and life satisfaction in young adulthood. The Big Five theory (with traits neuroticism, extraversion, openness, conscientiousness and agreeableness) was used as the theoretical framework of the study. On basis of previous research, it was assumed that lower levels of neuroticism and higher levels of extraversion, openness, conscientiousness, and agreeableness are positively associated with educational attainment, income level, and life satisfaction. It was also assumed that high childhood SES is positively associated with educational attainment and income level. Methods. This study is a part of longitudinal FinEdu (Finnish Educational Transitions) study, using questionnaire material collected in 2016-2017. The participants were 27-28 years old young adults (N=548) living in a middle-sized city in Finland. Personality profile groups were identified through cluster analysis. The data was analysed using linear and logistic regression analysis, analysis of variance (oneway ANOVA) and Kruskal-Wallis test. Results and conclusions. Two personality profile groups were identified. Resilients reported low levels of neuroticism and high levels of extroversion, while overcontrolled reported high levels of neuroticism and low levels of extroversion. Resilients had higher income level and were more satisfied with their lives than the overcontrolled. The results showed that extroversion and conscientiousness were positively associated with educational attainment and life satisfaction, while neuroticism was negatively associated with income level and life satisfaction. High childhood SES was positively associated only with educational attainment. The results of this study thus support previous findings that neuroticism is an unfavourable personality trait for the individual, while high levels of extroversion and conscientiousness bring mostly benefits. In addition, the results give an indication that the mechanism of social renewal is at least to some extent also apparent in the Finnish society.
  • Moilanen, Ville-Johannes (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Aims. The aim of the research was to find out are there any connections between parents socioconomical status and secondary school students highest degree goals, their personal study goals, and how they experience them. In addition, one aim was to find out are there any connections between parents socioeconomical status and how students motivate themselves for their goals. Furthermore, I consider do these connections differ between genders. Methodology. The research was conducted as a part of a larger Mind the Gap research project funded by the Academy of Finland in the spring of 2013. 1342 first year secondary school students from 17 different secondary schools in Helsinki took part in the research. Students named their highest degree goal and also named one personal study goal. The answers were analysed with the help of a contingency table. On questions of personal project analysis inventory, Little's (1983) PPA-indicator was used, and on motivation Deci and Ryan's (1985) SDT-indicator. The results were analysed by using a one-way analysis of variance. Results and conclusions. The study shows, in accordance to earlier studies made in a Finnish context, that there is a connection between parents socialeconomical status and students highest degree goals, but the connection is not strong. Furthermore, the study shows that 50,8% of first year secondary school students don't know what is their highest degree goal. No significant connection of personal study goals on secondary school students was found. But there is a significant connection between how students experienced reaching their goals and how they motivated themselves to reach them. Students whose mothers are managerial employees experienced stronger progress and persistence. When both parents have a higher sociaeconomical status, there is a connection between the students intrinsic motivation to reach their personal study goals. The results show that a higher sosioeconimical status leads students to find a natural intrinsic motivation for secondary school studies.