Browsing by Subject "SETTINGS"

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  • Rintamäki, Reeta; Rautio, Nina; Peltonen, Markku; Jokelainen, Jari; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Oksa, Heikki; Saaristo, Timo; Puolijoki, Hannu; Saltevo, Juha; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti; Moilanen, Leena (2021)
    Aims: The Finnish National Diabetes Prevention Program (FIN-D2D) was the first large-scale diabetes prevention program in a primary health care setting in the world. The risk reduction of type 2 diabetes was 69% after one-year intervention in high-risk individuals who were able to lose 5% of their weight. We investigated long-term effects of one-year weight change on the incidence of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular events, and all-cause mortality. Methods: A total of 10,149 high-risk individuals for type 2 diabetes were identified in primary health care centers and they were offered lifestyle intervention to prevent diabetes. Of these individuals who participated in the baseline screening, 8353 had an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Complete followup data during one-year intervention were available for 2730 individuals and those were included in the follow-up analysis. The long-term outcome events were collected from national health registers after the median follow-up of 7.4 years. Results: Among individuals who lost weight 2.5 & minus;4.9% and 5% or more during the first year, the hazard ratio for the incidence of drug-treated diabetes was 0.63 (95% CI 0.49 & minus;0.81, p = 0.0001), and 0.71 (95% CI 0.56 & minus;0.90, p = 0.004), respectively, compared with those with stable weight. There were no significant differences in cardiovascular events or all-cause mortality among study participants according to oneyear weight changes. Conclusions: High-risk individuals for type 2 diabetes who achieved a moderate weight loss by one-year lifestyle counseling in primary health care had a long-term reduction in the incidence of drug-treated type 2 diabetes. The observed moderate weight loss was not associated with a reduction in cardiovascular events. (c) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of Primary Care Diabetes Europe. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (
  • Mesimäki, Marja; Hauru, Kaisa; Kotze, D. Johan; Lehvavirta, Susanna (2017)
    Within the context of enhancing sustainable and livable urban environments, one aim is to establish multifunctional green infrastructure (GI). We argue that in order to successfully plan and manage the development of GI, an inclusive and future-oriented stance concerning the needs and expectations of urbanites is required. By using green roofs as an example, the aim of this paper was to offer insights into how people envisage novel GI in urban environments and to reveal the scope of meanings and values people attach to these kinds of green infrastructure. We present results based on 149 stories collected with the method of empathy-based stories. Respondents were asked to use their imagination to produce mental images of not-yet-existing green roofs in different urban situations. Our results reflect a rich set of dimensions of green roofs that the respondents vividly imagined. Green roofs may contribute to the livability of urban areas in multiple ways, such as strengthening social cohesion, providing space for everyday renewal and restoration, offering interesting sceneries and multisensory experiences, softening the hard cityscape, showing ephemeral events and making experiences of "height" possible, as well as increasing the "contact with nature" experiences for residents, e.g. through biodiverse nature in the middle of built environments. Furthermore, the need for local, customized solutions that offer different benefits and experiences was expressed. Using both qualitative and quantitative analyses, we idealized four green roof meta-types for understanding the diverse expectations people may have for green roofs in urban area: Urban farm, Oasis, Urban hill and Meadow. Based on our results we suggest that comprehensive experiences and needs of people should be taken into account when designing urban green roofs or urban green in general not only, e.g. visual pleasure. Also, site- and user-specific solutions should be considered instead of generally applied ones. Our results offer tools for, e.g. urban planners to understand the value of diverse green roof solutions to the user. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.