Browsing by Subject "SEVERE HYPOGLYCEMIA"

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  • Harris, Stewart B.; Parente, Erika B.; Karalliedde, Janaka (2022)
    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a progressive disease, with many individuals eventually requiring basal insulin therapy to maintain glycaemic control. However, there exists considerable therapeutic inertia to the prompt initiation and optimal titration of basal insulin therapy due to barriers that include fear of injections, hypoglycaemia, weight gain, and burdensome regimens. Hypoglycaemia is thought to be a major barrier to optimal glycaemic control and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Newer second-generation basal insulin analogues provide comparable glycaemic control with lower risk of hypoglycaemia compared with first-generation basal insulin analogues. The present review article discusses clinical evidence for one such second-generation basal insulin analogue, insulin glargine 300 U/mL (Gla-300), in the context of hypothetical case studies that are representative of individuals who may attend routine clinical practice. These case studies discuss individualised treatment needs for people with T2D who are insulin-naive or pre-treated. Clinical characteristics such as older age, frequent nocturnal hypoglycaemia, and renal impairment, which are known risk factors for hypoglycaemia, are also considered.
  • Thomas, Merlin C.; Paldanius, Paivi M.; Ayyagari, Rajeev; Ong, Siew Hwa; Groop, Per-Henrik (2016)
    Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are widely used in the management of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and renal impairment (RI). A systematic literature review was performed to compare the efficacy and safety of DPP-4 inhibitors in patients with T2DM and RI. We searched EMBASE, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (cut-off, June 2015) to identify aeyen12-week, randomized, placebo-controlled trials on DPP-4 inhibitors in aeyen50 patients with T2DM and RI. Outcomes of interest included change in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), overall safety, and incidence of hypoglycemic events (HEs). Seven trials of aecurrency sign52-54 weeks duration were retrieved, which included one study each on vildagliptin, saxagliptin, and sitagliptin, two on linagliptin, and the remaining two were extension studies of vildagliptin and saxagliptin. Majority of patients were on insulin at baseline (53-86%), except in the sitagliptin study, where approximately 11% received insulin during the placebo-controlled phase. After 52 weeks, vildagliptin and saxagliptin reduced HbA1c levels by 0.6-0.7% (baseline 7.8-8.4%) versus placebo in the overall population. HbA1c reductions were similar at weeks 12 and 52. In the 12-week, placebo-controlled phase, sitagliptin and linagliptin reduced mean HbA1c by approximately 0.4% (baseline 7.7-8.1%) versus placebo. Rates of HEs with DPP-4 inhibitors were not significantly different versus placebo in any study. Rates of adverse events (AEs) and changes involving renal function were similar in the active- and placebo-treated groups. These results suggest that DPP-4 inhibitors have the potential to improve glycemic control in patients with RI without increasing the risk of HEs or overall AEs. Novartis Pharma AG.