Browsing by Subject "SEVERITY"

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  • Hungarian Pancreatic Study Grp; Farkas, Nelli; Hanak, Lilla; Miko, Alexandra; Sallinen, Ville; Hegyi, Peter (2019)
    Background: C-reactive protein level (CRP) and white blood cell count (WBC) have been variably used in clinical trials on acute pancreatitis (AP). We assessed their potential role. Methods: First, we investigated studies which have used CRP or WBC, to describe their current role in trials on AP. Second, we extracted the data of 1435 episodes of AP from our registry. CRP and WBC on admission, within 24 h from the onset of pain and their highest values were analyzed. Descriptive statistical tools as Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U, Levene's F tests, Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and AUC (Area Under the Curve) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were performed. Results: Our literature review showed extreme variability of CRP used as an inclusion criterion or as a primary outcome or both in past and current trials on AP. In our cohort, CRP levels on admission poorly predicted mortality and severe cases of AP; AUC: 0.669 (CI:0.569-0.770); AUC:0.681 (CI: 0.601-0.761), respectively. CRP levels measured within 24 h from the onset of pain failed to predict mortality or severity; AUC: 0.741 (CI:0.627-0.854); AUC:0.690 (CI:0.586-0.793), respectively. The highest CRP during hospitalization had equally poor predictive accuracy for mortality and severity AUC:0.656 (CI:0.544-0.768); AUC:0.705 (CI:0.640-0.769) respectively. CRP within 24 h from the onset of pain used as an inclusion criterion markedly increased the combined event rate of mortality and severe AP (13% for CRP > 25 mg/l and 28% for CRP > 200 mg/l). Conclusion: CRP within 24 h from the onset of pain as an inclusion criterion elevates event rates and reduces the number of patients required in trials on AP.
  • Gagnon, Joseph Calvin; Swank, Jacqueline M. (2021)
    A national study of clinical directors examined professional development (PD) focused on mental health provided to professionals in juvenile justice facilities for adjudicated youth. A total of 85 clinical directors responded to a mail survey (45% return rate). The survey questions related to (a) topics of staff training and the basis for choosing topics, (b) which professionals participated in each PD topic, (c) training format and frequency of PD, (d) recommended attributes of PD, (e) methods of evaluating PD, and (f) adequacy of PD and how can it be improved. For each topic, PD was typically provided once per year and face to face, rather than online. PD participation rates were commonly in the 30% and 40% ranges for professionals other than clinical directors and counselors, with teachers, correctional officers, administrators, and teaching assistants receiving PD the least. Rarely did PD include recommended attributes of PD, and it was commonly viewed as ineffective. Implications for research and practice related to PD and its relationship to youth reentry from juvenile justice facilities are discussed.
  • Efraim Investigators Nine; Mokart, Djamel; Darmon, Michael; Schellongowski, Peter; Valkonen, Miia; Azoulay, Elie (2020)
    Background The impact of neutropenia in critically ill immunocompromised patients admitted in a context of acute respiratory failure (ARF) remains uncertain. The primary objective was to assess the prognostic impact of neutropenia on outcomes of these patients. Secondary objective was to assess etiology of ARF according to neutropenia. Methods We performed a post hoc analysis of a prospective multicenter multinational study from 23 ICUs belonging to the Nine-I network. Between November 2015 and July 2016, all adult immunocompromised patients with ARF admitted to the ICU were included in the study. Adjusted analyses included: (1) a hierarchical model with center as random effect; (2) propensity score (PS) matched cohort; and (3) adjusted analysis in the matched cohort. Results Overall, 1481 patients were included in this study of which 165 had neutropenia at ICU admission (11%). ARF etiologies distribution was significantly different between neutropenic and non-neutropenic patients, main etiologies being bacterial pneumonia (48% vs 27% in neutropenic and non-neutropenic patients, respectively). Initial oxygenation strategy was standard supplemental oxygen in 755 patients (51%), high-flow nasal oxygen in 165 (11%), non-invasive ventilation in 202 (14%) and invasive mechanical ventilation in 359 (24%). Before adjustment, hospital mortality was significantly higher in neutropenic patients (54% vs 42%;p = 0.006). After adjustment for confounder and center effect, neutropenia was no longer associated with outcome (OR 1.40, 95% CI 0.93-2.11). Similar results were observed after matching (52% vs 46%, respectively;p = 0.35) and after adjustment in the matched cohort (OR 1.04; 95% CI 0.63-1.72). Conclusion Neutropenia at ICU admission is not associated with hospital mortality in this cohort of critically ill immunocompromised patients admitted for ARF. In neutropenic patients, main ARF etiologies are bacterial and fungal infections.
  • Berntson, Lillemor; Nordal, Ellen; Fasth, Anders; Aalto, Kristiina; Herlin, Troels; Nielsen, Susan; Rygg, Marite; Zak, Marek; Ronnelid, Johan; Nordic Study Grp Pediat Rheumatolo (2014)
  • Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Costa, Elisio; Menditto, Enrica; Lourenco, Olga; Novellino, Ettore; Bialek, Slawomir; Briedis, Vitalis; Buonaiuto, Roland; Chrystyn, Henry; Cvetkovski, Biljana; Di Capua, Stefania; Kritikos, Vicky; Mair, Alpana; Orlando, Valentina; Paulino, Ema; Salimäki, Johanna; Söderlund, Rojin; Tan, Rachel; Williams, Dennis M.; Wroczynski, Piotr; Agache, Ioana; Ansotegui, Ignacio J.; Anto, Josep M.; Bedbrook, Anna; Bachert, Claus; Bewick, Mike; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten; Brozek, Jan L.; Canonica, Giorgio Walter; Cardona, Victoria; Carr, Warner; Casale, Thomas B.; Chavannes, Niels H.; de Sousa, Jaime Correia; Cruz, Alvaro A.; Czarlewski, Wienczyslawa; De Carlo, Giuseppe; Demoly, Pascal; Devillier, Philippe; Dykewicz, Mark S.; Gaga, Mina; El-Gamal, Yehia; Fonseca, Joao; Fokkens, Wytske J.; Antonieta Guzman, Maria; Haahtela, Tari; Hellings, Peter W.; Illario, Maddalena; Carlos Ivancevich, Juan; Just, Jocelyne; Kaidashev, Igor; Khaitov, Musa; Khaltaev, Nikolai; Keil, Thomas; Klimek, Ludger; Kowalski, Marek L.; Kuna, Piotr; Kvedariene, Violeta; Larenas-Linnemann, Desiree E.; Laune, Daniel; Le, Lan T. T.; Carlsen, Karin C. Lodrup; Mahboub, Bassam; Maier, Dieter; Malva, Joao; Manning, Patrick J.; Morais-Almeida, Mario; Moesges, Ralph; Mullol, Joaquim; Munter, Lars; Murray, Ruth; Naclerio, Robert; Nannazova-Baranove, Leyla; Nekann, Kristof; Nyembue, Tshipukane Dieudonne; Okubo, Kimi; O'Hehir, Robyn E.; Ohta, Ken; Okamoto, Yoshitaka; Onorato, Gabrielle L.; Palkonen, Susanna; Panzner, Petr; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G.; Park, Hae-Sim; Pawankar, Ruby; Pfaar, Oliver; Phillips, Jim; Plavec, Davor; Popov, Todor A.; Potter, Paul C.; Prokopakis, Emmanuel P.; Roller-Wirnsberger, Regina E.; Rottenn, Menachem; Ryan, Dermot; Sannolinski, Bolesfaw; Sanchez-Borges, Mario; Schunemann, Holger J.; Sheikh, Aziz; Sisul, Juan Carlos; Somekh, David; Stellato, Cristiana; To, Teresa; Todo-Bonn, Ana Maria; Tonnazic, Peter Valentin; Toppila-Salmi, Sanna; Valero, Antonio; Valiulis, Arunas; Valovirta, Errka; Ventura, Maria Teresa; Wagennnann, Martin; Wallace, Dana; Wasernnan, Susan; Wickman, Magnus; Yiallouros, Panayiotis K.; Yorgancioglu, Arzu; Yusuf, Osman M.; Zar, Heather J.; Zernotti, Mario E.; Zhang, Luo; Zidarn, Mihaela; Zuberbier, Torsten; Bousquet, Jean (2019)
    Pharmacists are trusted health care professionals. Many patients use over-the-counter (OTC) medications and are seen by pharmacists who are the initial point of contact for allergic rhinitis management in most countries. The role of pharmacists in integrated care pathways (ICPs) for allergic diseases is important. This paper builds on existing studies and provides tools intended to help pharmacists provide optimal advice/interventions/strategies to patients with rhinitis. The Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA)-pharmacy ICP includes a diagnostic questionnaire specifically focusing attention on key symptoms and markers of the disease, a systematic Diagnosis Guide (including differential diagnoses), and a simple flowchart with proposed treatment for rhinitis and asthma multimorbidity. Key prompts for referral within the ICP are included. The use of technology is critical to enhance the management of allergic rhinitis. However, the ARIA-pharmacy ICP should be adapted to local healthcare environments/situations as regional (national) differences exist in pharmacy care.
  • Honkamäki, Jasmin; Piirilä, Päivi; Hisinger-Mölkänen, Hanna; Tuomisto, Leena E.; Andersen, Heidi; Huhtala, Heini; Sovijärvi, Anssi; Lindqvist, Ari; Backman, Helena; Lundbäck, Bo; Rönmark, Eva; Lehtimäki, Lauri; Pallasaho, Paula; Ilmarinen, Pinja; Kankaanranta, Hannu (2021)
    BACKGROUND: Child-onset asthma is known to remit with high probability, but remission in adult-onset asthma is seem-ingly less frequent. Reports of the association between remission and asthma age of onset up to late adulthood are scarce. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between asthma remission, age at diagnosis and gender, and assess risk factors of nonremission. METHODS: In 2016, a random sample of 16,000 subjects aged 20 to 69 years from Helsinki and Western Finland were sent a FinEsS questionnaire. Physician-diagnosed asthma was catego-rized by age at diagnosis to early-(0-11 years), intermediate-(12-39 years), and late-diagnosed (40-69 years) asthma. Asthma remission was defined by not having had asthma symptoms and not having used asthma medication in the past 12 months. RESULTS: Totally, 8199 (51.5%) responded, and 879 reported physician-diagnosed asthma. Remission was most common in early-diagnosed (30.2%), followed by intermediate-diagnosed (17.9%), and least common in late-diagnosed asthma (5.0%) (P < .001), and the median times from diagnosis were 27, 18.5, and 10 years, respectively. In males, the corresponding remission rates were 36.7%, 20.0%, and 3.4%, and in females, 20.4%, 16.6%, and 5.9% (gender difference P < .001). In multivariable binary logistic regression analysis, signifi-cant risk factors of asthma nonremission were intermediate (odds ratio [OR] = 2.15, 95% confidence interval: 1.373.36) and late diagnosis (OR = 11.06, 4.82-25.37) compared with early diagnosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (OR = 5.56, 1.26-24.49), allergic rhinitis (OR = 2.28, 1.50-3.46), and family history of asthma (OR = 1.86, 1.22-2.85). Results were similar after excluding COPD. CONCLUSION: Remission was rare in adults diagnosed with asthma after age 40 years in both genders. Late-diagnosed asthma was the most significant independent risk factor for nonremission. (C) 2020 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
  • Söderholm, John J.; Socada, J. Lumikukka; Rosenström, Tom; Ekelund, Jesper; Isometsä, Erkki T. (2020)
    ObjectiveWe investigated risk factors for suicidal ideation and behavior among currently depressed patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), major depressive episode (MDE) in bipolar disorder (BD), or MDE with comorbid borderline personality disorder (MDE/BPD). We compared current and lifetime prevalence of suicidal ideation and behavior, and investigated dimensional measures of BPD or mixed affective features of the MDE as indicators of risk.MethodsBased on screening of 1,655 referrals, we recruited 124 psychiatric secondary care outpatients with MDE and stratified them into three subcohorts (MDD, BD, and MDE/BPD) using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV I and II. We examined suicidal ideation and behavior with the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (CSSRS). In addition, we quantified the severity of BPD symptoms and BD mixed features both categorically/diagnostically and dimensionally (using instruments such as the Borderline Personality Disorder Severity Index) in two time frames.ResultsThere were highly significant differences between the lifetime prevalences of suicide attempts between the subcohorts, with attempts reported by 16% of the MDD, 30% of the BD, and 60% of the BPD subcohort. Remarkably, the lifetime prevalence of suicide attempts in patients with comorbid BD and BPD exceeded 90%. The severity of BPD features was independently associated with risk of suicide attempts both lifetime and during the current MDE. It also associated in a dose-dependent manner with recent severity of ideation in both BPD and non-BPD patients. In multinominal logistic regression models, hopelessness was the most consistent independent risk factor for severe suicidal ideation in both time frames, whereas younger age and more severe BPD features were most consistently associated with suicide attempts.ConclusionsAmong patients with major depressive episodes, diagnosis of bipolar disorder, or presence of comorbid borderline personality features both imply remarkably high risk of suicide attempts. Risk factors for suicidal ideation and suicidal acts overlap, but may not be identical. The estimated severity of borderline personality features seems to associate with history of suicidal behavior and current severity of suicidal ideation in dose-dependent fashion among all mood disorder patients. Therefore, reliable assessment of borderline features may advance the evaluation of suicide risk.
  • Molloy, K.; Jonak, C.; Woei-A-Jin, F. J. S. H.; Guenova, E.; Busschots, A. M.; Bervoets, A.; Hauben, E.; Knobler, R.; Porkert, S.; Fassnacht, C.; Cowan, R.; Papadavid, E.; Beylot-Barry, M.; Berti, E.; Violetti, S. Alberti; Estrach, T.; Matin, R.; Akilov, O.; Väkevä, L.; Prince, M.; Bates, A.; Bayne, M.; Wachsmuch, R.; Wehkamp, U.; Marschalko, M.; Servitje, O.; Turner, D.; Weatherhead, S.; Wobser, M.; Sanches, J. A.; McKay, P.; Klemke, D.; Peng, C.; Howles, A.; Yoo, J.; Evison, F.; Scarisbrick, J. (2020)
    Background Mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sezary Syndrome (SS) are the most common cutaneous T-cell lymphomas. MF/SS is accompanied by considerable morbidity from pain, itching and disfigurement. Aim To identify factors associated with poorer health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients newly diagnosed with MF/SS. Methods Patients enrolled into Prospective Cutaneous Lymphoma International Prognostic Index (PROCLIPI; an international observational study in MF/SS) had their HRQoL assessed using the Skindex-29 questionnaire. Skindex-29 scores were analysed in relation to patient- and disease-specific characteristics. Results The study population consisted of 237 patients [60 center dot 3% male; median age 60 years, (interquartile range 49-70)], of whom 179 had early MF and 58 had advanced MF/SS. In univariate analysis, HRQoL, as measured by Skindex-29, was worse in women, SS, late-stage MF, those with elevated lactate dehydrogenase, alopecia, high modified Severity Weighted Assessment Tool and confluent erythema. Linear regression models only identified female gender (beta = 8 center dot 61; P = 0 center dot 003) and alopecia (beta = 9 center dot 71, P = 0 center dot 02) as independent predictors of worse global HRQoL. Item-level analysis showed that the severe impairment in symptoms [odds ratio (OR) 2 center dot 14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1 center dot 19-3 center dot 89] and emotions (OR 1 center dot 88, 95% CI 1 center dot 09-3 center dot 27) subscale scores seen in women was caused by more burning/stinging, pruritus, irritation and greater feelings of depression, shame, embarrassment and annoyance with their diagnosis of MF/SS. Conclusions HRQoL is significantly more impaired in newly diagnosed women with MF/SS and in those with alopecia. As Skindex-29 does not include existential questions on cancer, which may cause additional worry and distress, a comprehensive validated cutaneous T-cell lymphoma-specific questionnaire is urgently needed to more accurately assess disease-specific HRQoL in these patients.
  • Jokela, Markus; García-Velázquez, Regina; Airaksinen, Jaakko; Gluschkoff, Kia; Kivimäki, Mika; Rosenström, Tom (2019)
    Background: Depression is a heterogeneous mental disorder with multiple symptoms, but only few studies have examined whether associations of risk factors with depression are symptom-specific. We examined whether chronic diseases and social risk factors (poverty, divorce, and perceived lack of emotional support) are differently associated with somatic and cognitive/affective symptoms of depression. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses were based on individual-level data from the 31,191 participants of six cross-sectional U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) carried out between 2005 and 2016. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire. Information on chronic diseases and social risk factors was self-reported by participants. Results: After adjustment for sex, age, race/ethnicity, and all the of other symptoms besides the outcome symptom, higher number of chronic diseases was independently related to fatigue, psychomotor retardation/agitation, and sleep problems in a dose-response pattern (range of odds ratios: 1.21 to 2.59). Except for concentration problems, social risk factors were associated with almost all of the cognitive/affective symptoms (range of odds ratios: 1.02 to 2.09) but only sporadically with somatic symptoms. Limitations: All measures were self-reported by the participants, which may have introduced bias to the associations. Cross-sectional data did not allow us to study temporal dynamics. Conclusions: Specific symptoms of depression may be useful in characterizing the heterogeneous etiology of depression with respect to somatic versus social risk factors.
  • Vuokko, Aki; Karvala, Kirsi; Suojalehto, Hille; Lindholm, Harri; Selinheimo, Sanna; Heinonen-Guzejev, Marja; Leppamaki, Sami; Cederstrom, Sebastian; Hublin, Christer; Tuisku, Katinka; Sainio, Markku (2019)
    Background: Chronic nonspecific symptoms attributed to indoor nonindustrial work environments are common and may cause disability, but the medical nature of this disability is unclear. The aim was to medically characterize the disability manifested by chronic, recurrent symptoms and restrictions to work participation attributed to low-level indoor pollutants at workplace and whether the condition shares features with idiopathic environmental intolerance. Methods: We investigated 12 patients with indoor air-related work disability. The examinations included somatic, psychological, and psychiatric evaluations as well as investigations of the autonomic nervous system, cortisol measurements, lung function, and allergy tests. We evaluated well-being, health, disability, insomnia, pain, anxiety, depression, and burnout via questionnaires. Results: The mean symptom history was 10.5 years; for disabling symptoms, 2.7 years. Eleven patients reported reactions triggered mainly by indoor molds, one by fragrances only. Ten reported sensitivity to odorous chemicals, and three, electric devices. Nearly all had co-occurrent somatic and psychiatric diagnoses and signs of pain, insomnia, burnout, and/or elevated sympathetic responses. Avoiding certain environments had led to restrictions in several life areas. On self-assessment scales, disability showed higher severity and anxiety showed lower severity than in physician assessments. Conclusion: No medical cause was found to explain the disability. Findings support that the condition is a form of idiopathic environmental intolerance and belongs to functional somatic syndromes. Instead of endless avoidance, rehabilitation approaches of functional somatic syndromes are applicable. (C) 2019 Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute, Published by Elsevier Korea LLC.
  • Sen, Sayan; Ahmad, Yousif; Dehbi, Hakim-Moulay; Howard, James P.; Iglesias, Juan F.; Al-Lamee, Rasha; Petraco, Ricardo; Nijjer, Sukhjinder; Bhindi, Ravinay; Lehman, Sam; Walters, Darren; Sapontis, James; Janssens, Luc; Vrints, Christiaan J.; Khashaba, Ahmed; Laine, Mika; Van Belle, Eric; Krackhardt, Florian; Bojara, Waldemar; Going, Olaf; Haerle, Tobias; Indolfi, Ciro; Niccoli, Giampaolo; Ribichini, Flavio; Tanaka, Nobuhiro; Yokoi, Hiroyoshi; Takashima, Hiroaki; Kikuta, Yuetsu; Erglis, Andrejs; Vinhas, Hugo; Silva, Pedro Canas; Baptista, Sergio B.; Alghamdi, Ali; Hellig, Farrel; Koo, Bon-Kwon; Nam, Chang-Wook; Shin, Eun-Seok; Doh, Joon-Hyung; Brugaletta, Salvatore; Alegria-Barrero, Eduardo; Meuwissen, Martijin; Piek, Jan J.; van Royen, Niels; Sezer, Murat; Di Mario, Carlo; Gerber, Robert T.; Malik, Iqbal S.; Sharp, Andrew S. P.; Talwar, Suneel; Tang, Kare; Samady, Habib; Altman, John; Seto, Arnold H.; Singh, Jasvindar; Jeremias, Allen; Matsuo, Hitoshi; Kharbanda, Rajesh K.; Patel, Manesh R.; Serruys, Patrick; Escaned, Javier; Davies, Justin E. (2019)
    BACKGROUND Physicians are not always comfortable deferring treatment of a stenosis in the left anterior descending (LAD) artery because of the perception that there is a high risk of major adverse cardiac events (MACE). The authors describe, using the DEFINE-FLAIR (Functional Lesion Assessment of Intermediate Stenosis to Guide Revascularisation) trial, MACE rates when LAD lesions are deferred, guided by physiological assessment using fractional flow reserve (FFR) or the instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR). OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to establish the safety of deferring treatment in the LAD using FFR or iFR within the DEFINE-FLAIR trial. METHODS MACE rates at 1 year were compared between groups (iFR and FFR) in patients whose physiological assessment led to LAD lesions being deferred. MACE was defined as a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction (MI), and unplanned revascularization at 1 year. Patients, and staff performing follow-up, were blinded to whether the decision was made with FFR or iFR. Outcomes were adjusted for age and sex. RESULTS A total of 872 patients had lesions deferred in the LAD (421 guided by FFR, 451 guided by iFR). The event rate with iFR was significantly lower than with FFR (2.44% vs. 5.26%; adjusted HR: 0.46; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.22 to 0.95; p = 0.04). This was driven by significantly lower unplanned revascularization with iFR and numerically lower MI (unplanned revascularization: 2.22% iFR vs. 4.99% FFR; adjusted HR: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.21 to 0.93; p = 0.03; MI: 0.44% iFR vs. 2.14% FFR; adjusted HR: 0.23; 95% CI: 0.05 to 1.07; p = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS iFR-guided deferral appears to be safe for patients with LAD lesions. Patients in whom iFR-guided deferral was performed had statistically significantly lower event rates than those with FFR-guided deferral. (c) 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier on behalf of the American College of Cardiology Foundation. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (
  • SICS Study Grp; Hiemstra, Bart; Eck, Ruben J.; Wiersema, Renske; Pettilä, Ville; van der Horst, Iwan C. C. (2019)
    Objectives: Caregivers use clinical examination to timely recognize deterioration of a patient, yet data on the prognostic value of clinical examination are inconsistent. In the Simple Intensive Care Studies-I, we evaluated the association of clinical examination findings with 90-day mortality in critically ill patients. Design: Prospective single-center cohort study. Setting: ICU of a single tertiary care level hospital between March 27, 2015, and July 22, 2017. Patients: All consecutive adults acutely admitted to the ICU and expected to stay for at least 24 hours. Interventions: A protocolized clinical examination of 19 clinical signs conducted within 24 hours of admission. Measurements Main Results: Independent predictors of 90-day mortality were identified using multivariable logistic regression analyses. Model performance was compared with established prognostic risk scores using area under the receiver operating characteristic curves. Robustness of our findings was tested by internal bootstrap validation and adjustment of the threshold for statistical significance. A total of 1,075 patients were included, of whom 298 patients (28%) had died at 90-day follow-up. Multivariable analyses adjusted for age and norepinephrine infusion rate demonstrated that the combination of higher respiratory rate, higher systolic blood pressure, lower central temperature, altered consciousness, and decreased urine output was independently associated with 90-day mortality (area under the receiver operating characteristic curves = 0.74; 95% CI, 0.71-0.78). Clinical examination had a similar discriminative value as compared with the Simplified Acute Physiology Score-II (area under the receiver operating characteristic curves = 0.76; 95% CI, 0.73-0.79; p = 0.29) and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation-IV (using area under the receiver operating characteristic curves = 0.77; 95% CI, 0.74-0.80; p = 0.16) and was significantly better than the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (using area under the receiver operating characteristic curves = 0.67; 95% CI, 0.64-0.71; p <0.001). Conclusions: Clinical examination has reasonable discriminative value for assessing 90-day mortality in acutely admitted ICU patients. In our study population, a single, protocolized clinical examination had similar prognostic abilities compared with the Simplified Acute Physiology Score-II and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation-IV and outperformed the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score.
  • Karukivi, Max; Vahlberg, Tero; Horjamo, Kalle; Nevalainen, Minna; Korkeila, Jyrki (2017)
    Background: Current categorical classification of personality disorders has been criticized for overlooking the dimensional nature of personality and that it may miss some sub-threshold personality disturbances of clinical significance. We aimed to evaluate the clinical importance of these conditions. For this, we used a simple four-level dimensional categorization based on the severity of personality disturbance. Methods: The sample consisted of 352 patients admitted to mental health services. All underwent diagnostic assessments (SCID-I and SCID-II) and filled in questionnaires concerning their social situation and childhood adversities, and other validated tools, including the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), health-related quality of life (15D), and the five-item Mental Health Index (MHI-5). The patients were categorized into four groups according to the level of personality disturbance: 0 = No personality disturbance, 1 = Personality difficulty (one criterion less than threshold for one or more personality disorders), 2 = Simple personality disorder (one personality disorder), and 3 = Complex/Severe personality disorder (two or more personality disorders or any borderline and antisocial personality disorder). Results: The proportions of the groups were as follows: no personality disturbance 38.4% (n = 135), personality difficulty 14.5% (n = 51), simple personality disorder 19.9% (n = 70), and complex/severe personality disorder 24.4% (n = 86). Patients with no personality disturbance were significantly differentiated (p <0.05) from the other groups regarding the BDI, 15D, and MHI-5 scores as well as the number of Axis I diagnoses. Patients with complex/severe personality disorders stood out as being worst off. Social dysfunction was related to the severity of the personality disturbance. Patients with a personality difficulty or a simple personality disorder had prominent symptoms and difficulties, but the differences between these groups were mostly non-significant. Conclusions: An elevated severity level of personality disturbance is associated with an increase in psychiatric morbidity and social dysfunction. Diagnostically sub-threshold personality difficulties are of clinical significance and the degree of impairment corresponds to actual personality disorders. Since these two groups did not significantly differ from each other, our findings also highlight the complexity related to the use of diagnostic thresholds for separate personality disorders.
  • Jalanka, Jonna; Lam, Ching; Bennett, Andrew; Hartikainen, Anna; Crispie, Fiona; Finnegan, Laura A.; Cotter, Paul D.; Spiller, Robin (2021)
    Background/Aims Diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) has been previously associated with evidence of immune activation and altered microbiota. Our aim is to assess the effect of the anti-inflammatory agent, mesalazine, on inflammatory gene expression and microbiota composition in IBS-D. Methods We studied a subset of patients (n = 43) from a previously published 12-week radomized placebo-controlled trial of mesalazine. Mucosal biopsies were assessed by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for a range of markers of inflammation, altered permeability, and sensory receptors including Toll-like receptors (TLRs) at randomization after treatment. All biopsy data were compared to 21 healthy controls. Patient's stool microbiota composition was analysed through 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing. Results We found no evidence of increased immune activation compared to healthy controls. However, we did find increased expression of receptors in both sensory pathways and innate immune response including TLR4. Higher TLR4 expression was associated with greater urgency. TLR4 expression correlated strongly with the expression of the receptors bradykinin receptor B2, chemerin chemokine-like receptor 1, and transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily A, member 1 as well as TLR4's downstream adaptor myeloid differentiation factor 88. Mesalazine had minimal effect on either gene expression or microbiota composition. Conclusions Biopsies from a well-characterized IBS-D cohort showed no substantial inflammation. Mesalazine has little effect on gene expression and its previous reported effect on fecal microbiota associated with much greater inflammation found in inflammatory bowel diseases is likely secondary to reduced inflammation. Increased expression of TLR4 and correlated receptors in IBS may mediate a general increase in sensitivity to external stimuli, particularly those that signal via the TLR system.
  • Fallenius, Marika; Skrifvars, Markus B.; Reinikainen, Matti; Bendel, Stepani; Raj, Rahul (2017)
    Background: Intensive care scoring systems are widely used in intensive care units (ICU) around the world for case-mix adjustment in research and benchmarking. The aim of our study was to investigate the usefulness of common intensive care scoring systems in predicting mid-term mortality in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) treated in intensive care units (ICU). Methods: We performed a retrospective observational study including adult patients with spontaneous ICH treated in Finnish ICUs during 2003-2012. We used six-month mortality as the primary outcome of interest. We used logistic regression to customize Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II, Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) for six-month mortality prediction. To assess the usefulness of the scoring systems, we compared their discrimination and calibration with two simpler models consisting of age, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, and premorbid functional status. Results: Totally 3218 patients were included. Overall six-month mortality was 48%. APACHE II and SAPS II outperformed SOFA (area under the receiver operator curve [AUC] 0.83 and 0.84, respectively, vs. 0.73) but did not show any benefit over the simpler models in terms of discrimination (AUC 0.84, p > 0.05 for all models). SAPS II showed satisfactory calibration (p = 0.058 in the Hosmer-Lemeshow test), whereas all other models showed poor calibration (p <0.05). Discussion: In this retrospective multi-center study, we found that SAPS II and APACHE II were of no additional prognostic value to a simple model based on only age and GCS score for patients with ICH treated in the ICU. In fact, the major predictive ability of APACHE II and SAPS II comes from their age and GCS score components. SOFA performed significantly poorer than the other models and is not applicable as a prognostic model for ICH patients. All models displayed poor calibration, highlighting the need for improved prognostic models for ICH patients. Conclusion: The common intensive care scoring systems did not outperform a simpler model based on only age and GCS score. Thus, the use of previous intensive care scoring systems is not warranted in ICH patients.
  • Virtanen, Marko P. O.; Eskola, Markku; Jalava, Maina P.; Husso, Annastiina; Laakso, Teemu; Niemelä, Matti; Ahvenvaara, Tuomas; Tauriainen, Tuomas; Maaranen, Pasi; Kinnunen, Eeva-Maija; Dahlbacka, Sebastian; Jaakkola, Jussi; Vasankari, Tuija; Airaksinen, Juhani; Anttila, Vesa; Rosato, Stefano; D'Errigo, Paola; Savontaus, Mikko; Juvonen, Tatu; Laine, Mika; Mäkikallio, Timo; Valtola, Antti; Raivio, Peter; Biancari, Fausto (2019)
    IMPORTANCE Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has been shown to be a valid alternative to surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) in patients at high operative risk with severe aortic stenosis (AS). However, the evidence of the benefits and harms of TAVR in patients at low operative risk is still scarce. OBJECTIVE To compare the short-term and midterm outcomes after TAVR and SAVR in low-risk patients with AS. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This retrospective comparative effectiveness cohort study used data from the Nationwide Finnish Registry of Transcatheter and Surgical Aortic Valve Replacement for Aortic Valve Stenosis of patients at low operative risk who underwent TAVR or SAVR with a bioprosthesis for severe AS from January 1, 2008, to November 30, 2017. Low operative risk was defined as a Society of Thoracic Surgeons Predicted Risk of Mortality score less than 3% without other comorbidities of clinical relevance. One-to-one propensity score matching was performed to adjust for baseline covariates between the TAVR and SAVR cohorts. EXPOSURES Primary TAVR or SAVR with a bioprosthesis for AS with or without associated coronary revascularization. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcomes were 30-day and 3-year survival. RESULTS Overall, 2841 patients (mean [SD] age, 74.0 [6.2] years; 1560 [54.9%] men) fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis; TAVR was performed in 325 patients and SAVR in 2516 patients. Propensity score matching produced 304 pairs with similar baseline characteristics. Third-generation devices were used in 263 patients (86.5%) who underwent TAVR. Among these matched pairs, 30-day mortality was 1.3% after TAVR and 3.6% after SAVR (P=.12). Three-year survival was similar in the study cohorts (TAVR, 85.7%; SAVR, 87.7%; P=.45). Interaction tests found no differences in terms of 3-year survival between the study cohorts in patients younger than vs older than 80 years or in patients who received recent aortic valve prostheses vs those who did not. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Transcatheter aortic valve replacement using mostly third-generation devices achieved similar short- and mid-term survival compared with SAVR in low-risk patients. Further studies are needed to assess the long-term durability of TAVR prostheses before extending their use to low-risk patients.
  • Uusitalo, Valtteri; Kamperidis, Vasileios; de Graaf, Michiel A.; Maaniitty, Teemu; Stenstrom, Iida; Broersen, Alexander; Dijkstra, Jouke; Scholte, Arthur J.; Saraste, Antti; Bax, Jeroen J.; Knuuti, Juhani (2017)
    Background: We evaluated the prognostic value of an integrated atherosclerosis risk score combining the markers of coronary plaque burden, location and composition as assessed by computed tomography angiography (CTA). Methods: 922 consecutive patients underwent CTA for suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). Patients without atherosclerosis (n = 261) and in whom quantitative CTA analysis was not feasible due to image quality, step-artefacts or technical factors related to image acquisition or data storage (n = 153) were excluded. Thus, final study group consisted of 508 patients aged 63 9 years. Coronary plaque location, severity and composition for each coronary segment were identified using automated CTA quantification software and integrated in a single CTA score (0-42). Adverse events (AE) including death, myocardial infarction (MI) and unstable angina (UA) were obtained from the national healthcare statistics. Results: There were a total of 20 (4%) AE during a median follow-up of 3.6 years (9 deaths, 5 MI and 6 UA). The CTA risk score was divided into tertiles: 0-6.7, 6.8-14.8 and > 14.8, respectively. All MI (n = 5) and most of the other AE occurred in the highest risk score tertile (3 vs. 3 vs. 14, p = 0.002). After correction for age and gender, the CTA risk score remained independently associated with AE. Conclusions: Comprehensive CIA risk score integrating the location, burden and composition of coronary atherosclerosis predicts future cardiac events in patients with suspected CAD. (C) 2017 Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Ilmarinen, Pinja; Juboori, Hind; Tuomisto, Leena E.; Niemelä, Onni; Sintonen, Harri; Kankaanranta, Hannu (2019)
    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is a well-established aspect of health that can be measured by both disease-specific and general instruments. The effect of uncontrolled asthma on generic HRQoL has not been shown in patients with clinically confirmed adult-onset asthma and with asthma control defined according to the Global Initiative for Asthma, so the aim of this study was to determine this. In the 12-year follow-up cohort of the Seinajoki Adult Asthma Study (n = 203), patients with uncontrolled and partially controlled asthma had lower generic HRQoL as determined by 15D compared to the controlled group. On 10 out of 15 dimensions of 15D, the mean scores were significantly lower in patients with uncontrolled asthma compared with those with controlled asthma. The affected dimensions were mobility, breathing, sleeping, usual activities, mental function, discomfort and symptoms, depression, distress, vitality and sexual activity. In the Tobit regression analysis, a poorer 15D score was associated with uncontrolled asthma, lower postbronchodilator FEV1, female sex, depression, treated dyspepsia and poorer 15D score at diagnosis. Our results show that uncontrolled asthma affects everyday life in several aspects, including previously unknown components such as sexual activity and vitality.
  • Karppinen, Toni; Ylianttila, Lasse; Kautiainen, Hannu; Reunala, Timo; Snellman, Erna (2015)
    Empowering heliotherapy aims at clinical healing and improved coping with psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, but evidence of long-term effects is scarce. We studied the effect of 2-week empowering heliotherapy in the Canary Islands on clinical outcome and quality of life in 22 psoriasis and 13 atopic dermatitis patients. Empowerment consisted of meeting peers, sharing experiences and performing physical and mental practices. Using the self-administered PASI (SAPASI) psoriasis was alleviated statistically significantly during heliotherapy (p <0.001), and the treatment effect was still detectable 3 months later (p <0.001). Atopic dermatitis was improved (p <0.001) when assessed with the patient-oriented SCORAD (PO-SCORAD), and the effect was still obvious 3 months later (p = 0.002). During heliotherapy the dermatology life quality index (DLQI) improved in both groups (p <0.001), persisting in atopic patients for up to 3 months (p = 0.002), but not in psoriasis patients. In conclusion, a 2-week empowered heliotherapy showed a long-lasting improvement in psoriasis and atopic dermatitis disease activity, and also in the quality of life of atopic patients.
  • Unbiased Biomarkers Prediction Re; Jevnikar, Zala; Östling, Jörgen; Vaarala, Outi (2019)
    Background: Although several studies link high levels of IL-6 and soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) to asthma severity and decreased lung function, the role of IL-6 trans-signaling (IL-6TS) in asthmatic patients is unclear. Objective: We sought to explore the association between epithelial IL-6TS pathway activation and molecular and clinical phenotypes in asthmatic patients. Methods: An IL-6TS gene signature obtained from air-liquid interface cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells stimulated with IL-6 and sIL-6R was used to stratify lung epithelial transcriptomic data (Unbiased Biomarkers in Prediction of Respiratory Disease Outcomes [U-BIOPRED] cohorts) by means of hierarchical clustering. IL-6TS-specific protein markers were used to stratify sputum biomarker data (Wessex cohort). Molecular phenotyping was based on transcriptional profiling of epithelial brushings, pathway analysis, and immunohistochemical analysis of bronchial biopsy specimens. Results: Activation of IL-6TS in air-liquid interface cultures reduced epithelial integrity and induced a specific gene signature enriched in genes associated with airway remodeling. The IL-6TS signature identified a subset of patients with IL-6TS-high asthma with increased epithelial expression of IL-6TS-inducible genes in the absence of systemic inflammation. The IL-6TS-high subset had an overrepresentation of frequent exacerbators, blood eosinophilia, and submucosal infiltration of T cells and macrophages. In bronchial brushings Toll-like receptor pathway genes were upregulated, whereas expression of cell junction genes was reduced. Sputum sIL-6R and IL-6 levels correlated with sputum markers of remodeling and innate immune activation, in particular YKL-40, matrix metalloproteinase 3, macrophage inflammatory protein 1 beta, IL-8, and IL-1 beta. Conclusions: Local lung epithelial IL-6TS activation in the absence of type 2 airway inflammation defines a novel subset of asthmatic patients and might drive airway inflammation and epithelial dysfunction in these patients.