Browsing by Subject "SEWAGE-SLUDGE"

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  • Hagner, Marleena; Uusitalo, Marja; Ruhanen, Hanna; Heiskanen, Juha; Peltola, Rainer; Tiilikkala, Kari; Hyvonen, Juha; Sarala, Pertti; Makitalo, Kari (2021)
    In the northern boreal zone, revegetation and landscaping of closed mine tailings are challenging due to the high concentrations of potentially toxic elements; the use of nutrient-poor, glacigenic cover material (till); cool temperatures; and short growing period. Recycled waste materials such as biochar (BC) and composted sewage sludge (CSS) have been suggested to improve soil forming process and revegetation success as well as decrease metal bioavailability in closed mine tailing areas. We conducted two field experiments in old iron mine tailings at Rautuvaara, northern Finland, where the native mine soil or transported cover till soil had not supported plant growth since the mining ended in 1989. The impacts of CSS and spruce (Picea abies)-derived BC application to till soil on the survival and growth of selected plant species (Pinus sylvestris, Salix myrsinifolia, and grass mixture containing Festuca rubra, Lolium perenne, and Trifolium repens) were investigated during two growing seasons. In addition, the potential of BC to reduce bioaccumulation of metals in plants was studied. We found that (1) organic amendment like CSS markedly enhanced the plant growth and is therefore needed for vegetation establishment in tailing sites that contained only transported till cover, and (2) BC application to till soil-CSS mixture further facilitated the success of grass mixtures resulting in 71-250% higher plant biomass. On the other hand, (3) no effects on P. sylvestris or S. myrsinifolia were recorded during the first growing seasons, and (4) accumulation of metals in cover plants was negligible and BC application to till further decreased the accumulation of Al, Cr, and Fe in the plant tissues.
  • Skledar, Darja Gramec; Carino, Adriana; Trontelj, Jurij; Troberg, Johanna; Distrutti, Eleonora; Marchiano, Silvia; Tornasic, Tihomir; Zega, Anamarija; Finel, Moshe; Fiorucci, Stefano; Maisic, Lucija Peterlin (2019)
    Bisphenol AF (BPAF) is a fluorinated analog of bisphenol A (BPA), and it is a more potent estrogen receptor (ER) agonist. BPAF is mainly metabolized to BPAF-glucuronide (BPAF-G), which has been reported to lack ER agonist activity and is believed to be biologically inactive. The main goal of the current study was to examine the influence of the metabolism of BPAF via glucuronidation on its ER activity and adipogenesis. Also, as metabolites can have different biological activities, the effects of BPAF-G on other nuclear receptors were evaluated. First, in-vitro BPAF glucuronidation was investigated using recombinant human enzymes. Specific reporter-gene assays were used to determine BPAF and BPAF-G effects on estrogen, androgen, glucocorticoid, and thyroid receptor pathways, and on PXR, FXR, and PPAR gamma pathways. Their effects on lipid accumulation and differentiation were determined in murine 3T3L1 preadipocytes using Nile Red, with mRNA expression analysis of the adipogenic markers adiponectin, Fabp4, Cebp alpha, and PPAR gamma. BPAF showed strong agonistic activity for hER alpha and moderate antagonistic activities for androgen and thyroid receptors, and for PXR. BPAF-G was antagonistic for PXR and PPAR gamma. BPAF (0.1 mu M) and BPAF-G (1.0 mu M) induced lipid accumulation and increased expression of key adipogenic markers in murine preadipocytes. BPAF-G is therefore not an inactive metabolite of BPAF. Further toxicological and epidemiological investigations of BPAF effects on human health are warranted, to provide better understanding of the metabolic end-elimination of BPAF. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Scopetani, Costanza; Chelazzi, David; Cincinelli, Alessandra; Martellini, Tania; Leiniö, Ville; Pellinen, Jukka (2022)
    Macro-, meso-and microplastic (MAP, MEP, MP) occurrence in compost is an environmental issue whose extent and effects are not yet understood. Here, we studied the occurrence of MAPs, MEPs and MPs in compost samples, and the transfer of hazardous contaminants from plastics to compost and soil. MAPs/MEPs and MPs concentrations in compost were 6.5 g/kg and 6.6 +/- 1.5 pieces/kg; from common recommendations for compost application, we estimated similar to 4-23 x 10(7) pieces MPs and 4-29 x 10(4) g MAPs/MEPs ha(-1) per year ending into agricultural soils fertilized with such compost. Regarding contaminants, bis(ethylhexyl) phthalate, acetyl tributyl citrate, dodecane and nonanal were extracted in higher concentrations from plastics and plastic-contaminated compost than from compost where MAPs/MEPs had been removed prior to extraction and analysis. However, some contaminants were present even after MAPs/MEPs removal, ascribable to short-and long-term release by MAPs/MEPs, and to the presence of MPs. DEHP concentration was higher in soils where compost was applied than in fields where it was not used. These results, along with estimations of plastic load to soil from the use of compost, show that compost application is a source of plastic pollution into agricultural fields, and that plastic might transfer hazardous contaminants to soil.
  • Patama, Marjo; Belz, Regina G.; Sinkkonen, Aki (2019)
    HHCB [1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta(g)-2-benzopyran] and 4-tert-octylphenol [4-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenol] are widely used emerging contaminants that have the potential to cause adverse effects in the environment. The purpose of this study was to observe if and how environmentally realistic concentrations of these contaminants alter growth in plant populations. It was hypothesized that within an exposed Gypsophila elegans Bieb (annual baby's breath) population especially fast-growing seedlings are impaired even when the population mean is unaffected, and small doses can cause hormesis and, thus, an increase in shoot or root length. In a dose-response experiment, an experimental population of G. elegans was established (total 15.600 seeds, 50 seeds per replicate, 24 replicates per concentration, 5.2 seedlings/cm(2)) and exposed to 12 doses of HHCB or 4-tert-octylphenol. After five days, shoot and root length values were measured and population averages, as well as slow- and fast-growing subpopulations, were compared with unexposed controls. Growth responses were predominantly monophasic. HHCB seemed to selectively inhibit both root and shoot elongation among slow- and fast-growing individuals, while 4-tert-octylphenol selectively inhibited both root and shoot elongation of mainly fast-growing seedlings. The ED50 values (dose causing 50% inhibition) revealed that the slow-growing seedlings were more sensitive and fast-growing seedlings less sensitive than the average of all individuals. Although there was toxicant specific variation between the effects, selective toxicity was consistently found among both slow- and fast-growing plants starting already at concentrations of 0.0067 mu M, that are usually considered to be harmless. This study indicates that these contaminants can change size distribution of a plant population at low concentrations in the nM/mu M range.
  • Rumky, Jannatul; Deb, Anjan; Ramasamy, Deepika Lakshmi; Sillanpaa, Mika; Hakkinen, Antti; Repo, Eveliina (2022)
    The main purposes of this research work were to realize the potential of sludge valorization by converting the sludge into adsorbents and to investigate the performance of sludge-based adsorbents for rare earth elements (REEs) recovery from dilute aqueous solutions. Hydrochloric acid and Fenton reagents were employed as pretreatment procedures to enhance the surface area and adsorption yield. Following this, sludge-based alginate beads were prepared by using HCl treated (HT) and Fenton treated (FT) sludge materials. The chemical composition and surface chemistry of sludge-based adsorbent beads were thoroughly analyzed by state-of-the-art analytical techniques, such as Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis. The prepared beads were then investigated for the recovery of REEs. The batch adsorption studies revealed that the FT sludge beads performed better in comparison to the HT sludge beads. Among REEs, the HT- and FT-sludge beads demonstrated higher affinity towards Sm3+ ions, displaying the maximum adsorption capacities of 2.83 mg/g and 4.16 mg/g, respectively, in a multi-component system (C o = 25 ppm of each REE; pH = 5, t = 24 h and dosage = 5 g/L). In conclusion, the results from this work showed that the prepared sludge-based alginate beads can be used for REEs recovery from diluted waste streams and the tested sludge treatment options were also found effective in converting the waste to resource i.e., sludge to adsorbent for REEs recovery.