Browsing by Subject "SHEEP"

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  • Einwaller, Joy; Painer, Johanna; Raekallio, Marja; Gasch, Kristina; Restitutti, Flavia; Auer, Ulrike; Stalder, Gabrielle L. (2020)
    Objective To determine the effect of intravenous vatinoxan administration on bradycardia, hypertension and level of anaesthesia induced by medetomidine-tiletamine-zolazepam in red deer (Cervus elaphus). Study design and animals A total of 10 healthy red deer were enrolled in a randomized, controlled, experimental, crossover study. Methods Deer were administered a combination of 0.1 mg kg-1 medetomidine hydrochloride and 2.5 mg kg-1 tiletamine-zolazepam intramuscularly, followed by 0.1 mg kg-1 vatinoxan hydrochloride or equivalent volume of saline intravenously (IV) 35 minutes after anaesthetic induction. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), respiration rate (fR), end-tidal CO2 (PE′CO2), arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2), rectal temperature (RT) and level of anaesthesia were assessed before saline/vatinoxan administration (baseline) and at intervals for 25 minutes thereafter. Differences within treatments (change from baseline) and between treatments were analysed with linear mixed effect models (p <0.05). Results Maximal (81 ± 10 beats minute-1) HR occurred 90 seconds after vatinoxan injection and remained significantly above baseline (42 ± 4 beats minute-1) for 15 minutes. MAP significantly decreased from baseline (122 ± 10 mmHg) to a minimum MAP of 83 ± 6 mmHg 60 seconds after vatinoxan and remained below baseline until end of anaesthesia. HR remained unchanged from baseline (43 ± 5 beats minute-1) with the saline treatment, while MAP decreased significantly (112 ± 16 mmHg) from baseline after 20 minutes. PE′CO2, fR, and SpO2 showed no significant differences between treatments, while RT decreased significantly 25 minutes after vatinoxan. Level of anaesthesia was not significantly influenced by vatinoxan. Conclusion and clinical relevance Vatinoxan reversed hypertension and bradycardia induced by medetomidine without causing hypotension or affecting the level of anaesthesia in red deer. However, the effect on HR subsided 15 minutes after vatinoxan IV administration. Vatinoxan has the potential to reduce anaesthetic side effects in non-domestic ruminants immobilized with medetomidine-tiletamine-zolazepam.
  • Demirözer, Ozan; Pekbey, Gamze; Hayat, Rustem; Herdogan, Azime; Acanski, Jelena; Milicic, Marija; Uzun, Asiye (2020)
    Despite the increasing importance of species richness of blowfly fauna and their environmental, medical, and agricultural importance in the world they are poorly studied in Turkey. This study was carried out in 2014 and 2015 to determine the distribution, abundance, and species richness of blowfly species in Isparta Province of Turkey. A total of 15 species (10 from Calliphoridae, 4 from Polleniidae, and 1 from Rhiniidae) were identified from 13 different localities. The adult specimens were obtained from areas of organic and decayed organic matters, waste and dumpsite, surrounding waste water deposits, and flowering plants. While all the species were new for Isparta, Bellardia tatrica (Enderlein, 1933), Calliphora subalpina (Ringdahl, 1931), Lucilia silvarium (Meigen, 1826), Melinda gentilis (Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830) and Pollenia griseotomentosa (Jacentkovsky, 1944) were determined as new records for the Turkish fauna. According to the study results, the highest levels of blowfly species richness will be mainly focused in the eastern part of Isparta Province. Chrysomya albiceps and Lucilia sericata were determined as the most common species in the study.
  • Rosato, Giuliana; Ruiz Subira, Andres; Al-Saadi, Mohammed; Michalopoulou, Eleni; Verin, Ranieri; Dettwiler, Martina; Nordgren, Heli; Chiers, Koen; Grossmann, Ernst; Köhler, Kernt; Suntz, Michael; Stewart, James P.; Kipar, Anja (2021)
    The genus Macavirus, subfamily Gammaherpesvirinae, comprises ungulate viruses that infect domestic and wild ruminants and swine. They cause asymptomatic latent infections in reservoir hosts and malignant catarrhal fever in susceptible species. Lung, spleen, bronchial lymph node, and tongue were collected from 448 cattle (348 necropsied, 100 slaughtered) in Switzerland, United Kingdom, Finland, Belgium, and Germany to determine their infection with bovine herpesvirus-6 (BoHV-6) and gammaherpesviruses of other ruminants, i.e., ovine herpesvirus-1 and -2, caprine herpesvirus-2, and bison lymphotropic herpesvirus, using quantitative PCR. Only BoHV-6 was detected, with an overall frequency of 32%, ranging between 22% and 42% in the different countries. Infection was detected across all ages, from one day after birth, and was positively correlated with age. There was no evidence of an association with specific disease processes. In positive animals, BoHV-6 was detected in all organs with high frequency, consistently in the lungs or spleen. Viral loads varied substantially. In BoHV-6-positive gravid cows, organs of fetuses tested negative for infection, indicating that the virus is not vertically transmitted. Our results confirm previous data indicating that BoHV-6 is a commensal of domestic cattle not associated with disease processes and confirm that infections with other macaviruses are rare and sporadic.
  • García-Fernández, Alfredo; Manzano, Pablo; Seoane, Javier; Azcárate, Francisco M.; Iriondo, Jose M.; Peco, Begoña (2019)
    Habitat fragmentation is one of the greatest threats to biodiversity conservation and ecosystem productivity mediated by direct human impact. Its consequences include genetic depauperation, comprising phenomena such as inbreeding depression or reduction in genetic diversity. While the capacity of wild and domestic herbivores to sustain long-distance seed dispersal has been proven, the impact of herbivore corridors in plant population genetics remains to be observed. We conducted this study in the Conquense Drove Road in Spain, where sustained use by livestock over centuries has involved transhumant herds passing twice a year en route to winter and summer pastures. We compared genetic diversity and inbreeding coefficients of Plantago lagopus populations along the drove road with populations in the surrounding agricultural matrix, at varying distances from human settlements. We observed significant differences in coefficients of inbreeding between the drove road and the agricultural matrix, as well as significant trends indicative of higher genetic diversity and population nestedness around human settlements. Trends for higher genetic diversity along drove roads may be present, although they were only marginally significant due to the available sample size. Our results illustrate a functional landscape with human settlements as dispersal hotspots, while the findings along the drove road confirm its role as a pollinator reservoir observed in other studies. Drove roads may possibly also function as linear structures that facilitate long-distance dispersal across the agricultural matrix, while local P. lagopus populations depend rather on short-distance seed dispersal. These results highlight the role of herbivore corridors for conserving the migration capacity of plants, and contribute towards understanding the role of seed dispersal and the spread of invasive species related to human activities.
  • Romano, Javier Sanchez; Mork, Torill; Laaksonen, Sauli; Agren, Erik; Nymo, Ingebjorg H.; Sunde, Marianne; Tryland, Morten (2018)
    Background: Infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC) is one of the most common ocular diseases in ruminants worldwide. In addition to keratitis and conjunctivitis, animals with IKC can develop uveitis, corneal ulcer, and in severe cases, blindness. The bacteria Moraxella spp. has been described as the primary causative agent of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) in cattle (Bos taurus), while Chlamydia spp. and Mycoplasma conjunctivae are considered the main causative agents of IKC in sheep (Ovis aries). Previous studies indicated cervid herpesvirus 2 (CvHV2) as the primary causative agent of IKC in semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus). The aim of the study was to investigate the presence and prevalence of potential pathogens for IKC in reindeer, and compare the ocular microbiota of animals with IKC, with apparently healthy animals. Results: Semi-domesticated reindeer (n = 341), with (n = 108) or without (n = 113) ocular clinical signs, or with no information on clinical status (n = 120), were sampled in Norway, Sweden and Finland in 2010-2014. Seroprevalence was 37.4% for alphaherpesvirus (95/254), 3.8% for gammaherpesvirus (8/211) and 7.1% for pestivirus (15/211) (ELISA). PCR analyses of conjunctival swab samples revealed a prevalence of 28.5% for CvHV2 (57/200), 11.9% for Chlamydiaceae (16/135) and 1.0% for M. conjunctivae (2/197). Bacteriological cultivation of 202 conjunctival swab samples revealed bacterial growth from 75.2% of the samples, with Moraxella spp. being isolated from 21.6% (11/51) of the animals with and 5.6% (5/84) without ocular clinical signs. A significant association (p <0.001) existed between the presence of clinical signs of IKC and CvHV2 DNA in the affected eyes, an association that was not present for other microorganisms. Conclusions: These results support the hypothesis that CvHV2 is the primary agent of IKC in semi-domesticated reindeer in Fennoscandia, with Moraxella bovoculi being a secondary candidate, since it was isolated in two different outbreaks of IKC. Further studies should be carried out to better understand the infection biology and the pathogenesis of IKC in reindeer.
  • Tapio, Heidi; Argüelles Capilla, David; Gracia-Calvo, Luis A.; Raekallio, Marja (2017)
    Objective: To describe a modified technique for permanent translocation of the common carotid artery (CCA) to a subcutaneous position in standing horses. Study Design: Experimental study. Animals: Healthy adult Standardbred and Warmblood horses (n = 8). Methods: Surgery was performed with the horses standing under sedation and with local anesthesia. A combination of previously described techniques was used modifying the approach and closure of the incision. The right CCA was approached through a linear skin incision dorsal and parallel to the jugular vein and through the brachiocephalicus and omohyoideus muscles. The artery was dissected free of its sheath and elevated to the skin incision with Penrose drains. The brachiocephalicus muscle was sutured in two layers underneath the artery leaving it in a subcutaneous position. The horses were allowed to heal for 3 weeks prior to catheterization of the artery. Results: The transposed CCA was successfully used for repeated catheterization in six of eight horses for a period of 10 weeks. None of the horses had intraoperative complications. Two horses developed mild peri-incisional edema that resolved spontaneously. Right-sided laryngeal hemiplegia was observed endoscopically in two horses postoperatively. Two horses developed complications (surgical site infection and excessive periarterial fibrosis) that compromised the patency of the CCA and precluded catheterization. Conclusion: Permanent translocation of the CCA in standing horses was successful in six out of eight horses. Upper airway endoscopy postoperatively may be warranted as laryngeal hemiplegia may ensue.
  • Kinkar, Liina; Laurimae, Teivi; Sharbatkhori, Mitra; Mirhendi, Hossein; Kia, Eshrat Beigom; Ponce-Gordo, Francisco; Andresiuk, Vanessa; Simsek, Sami; Lavikainen, Antti; Irshadullah, Malik; Umhang, Gerald; Oudni-M'rad, Myriam; Acosta-Jamett, Gerardo; Rehbein, Steffen; Saarma, Urmas (2017)
    Cystic echinococcosis, a zoonotic disease caused by Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.), is a significant global public health concern. Echinococcus granulosus s. l. is currently divided into numerous genotypes (G1-G8 and G10) of which G1-G3 are the most frequently implicated genotypes in human infections. Although it has been suggested that G1-G3 could be regarded as a distinct species E. granulosus sensu stricto (s. s.), the evidence to support this is inconclusive. Most importantly, data from nuclear DNA that provide means to investigate the exchange of genetic material between G1-G3 is lacking as none of the published nuclear DNA studies have explicitly included G2 or G3. Moreover, the commonly used relatively short mtDNA sequences, including the complete coxl gene, have not allowed unequivocal differentiation of genotypes G1-G3. Therefore, significantly longer mtDNA sequences are required to distinguish these genotypes with confidence. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the phylogenetic relations and taxonomy of genotypes G1-G3 using sequences of nearly complete mitogenomes (11,443 bp) and three nuclear loci (2984 bp). A total of 23 G1-G3 samples were analysed, originating from 5 intermediate host species in 10 countries. The mtDNA data demonstrate that genotypes G1 and G3 are distinct mitochondrial genotypes (separated by 37 mutations), whereas G2 is not a separate genotype or even a monophyletic cluster, but belongs to G3. Nuclear data revealed no genetic separation of G1 and G3, suggesting that these genotypes form a single species due to ongoing gene flow. We conclude that: (a) in the taxonomic sense, genotypes G1 and G3 can be treated as a single species E. granulosus s. s.; (b) genotypes G1 and G3 should be regarded as distinct genotypes only in the context of mitochondrial data; (c) we recommend excluding G2 from the genotype list. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.