Browsing by Subject "SHOULDER"

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  • Grahn, Petra; Pöyhiä, Tiina; Sommarhem, Antti; Nietosvaara, Yrjänä (2019)
    Background and purpose - Patient selection for nerve surgery in brachial plexus birth injury (BPBI) is difficult. Decision to operate is mostly based on clinical findings. We assessed whether MRI improves patient selection. Patients and methods - 157 BPBI patients were enrolled for a prospective study during 2007-2015. BPBI was classified at birth as global plexus injury (GP) or upper plexus injury (UP). The global plexus injury was subdivided into flail upper extremity (FUE) and complete plexus involvement (CP). Patients were seen at set intervals. MRI was scheduled for patients that had either GP at 1 month of age or UP with no antigravity biceps function by 3 months of age. Type (total or partial avulsion, thinned root), number and location of root injuries and pseudomeningoceles (PMC) were registered. Position of humeral head (normal, subluxated, dislocated) and glenoid shape (normal, posteriorly rounded, pseudoglenoid) were recorded. Outcome was assessed at median 4.5 years (1.6-8.6) of age. Results - Cervical MRI was performed on 34/157 patients at median 3.9 months (0.3-14). Total root avulsions (n = 1-3) were detected on MRI in 12 patients (8 FUE, 4 CP). Reconstructive surgery was performed on 10/12 with total avulsions on MRI, and on all 10 with FUE at birth. Sensitivity and specificity of MRI in detecting total root avulsions was 0.88 and 1 respectively. Posterior shoulder subluxation/dislocation was seen in 15/34 patients (3.2-7.7 months of age). Interpretation - Root avulsion(s) on MRI and flail upper extremity at birth are both good indicators for nerve surgery in brachial plexus birth injury. Shoulder pathology develops very early in permanent BPBI.
  • Karjalainen, M.; Saltevo, J.; Tiihonen, M.; Haanpää, M.; Kautiainen, H.; Mäntyselkä, P. (2018)
    Background: The association between pain and diabetes in older people has been largely unexplored. The aim of this survey was to analyze the prevalence and characteristics of pain among Finnish men and women 65 or older with and without diabetes in primary care. Methods: All home-dwelling persons 65 years or older with diabetes (N = 527) and age and gender matched controls (N = 890) were identified from electronic patient records. Frequent pain was regarded as any pain experienced more often than once a week, and it was divided into pain experienced several times a week but not daily and pain experienced daily or continuously. The Numeric Rating Scale (0-10) (NRS) was used to assess the intensity and interference of the pain. Results: The number of subjects who returned the questionnaire was 1084 (76.5%). The prevalence of frequent pain in the preceding week was 50% among women without diabetes and 63% among women with diabetes (adjusted, p = 0.22). In men, the corresponding proportions were 42% without diabetes and 47% with diabetes (adjusted, p = 0.58). In both genders, depressive symptoms and the number of comorbidities were associated with pain experienced more often than once a week and with daily pain. Diabetes was not associated with pain intensity or pain interference in either women or men. Conclusions: Pain in older adults is associated with depressive symptoms and the number of comorbidities more than with diabetes itself.
  • Grahn, Petra M.; Sommarhem, Antti J.; Lauronen, Leena M.; Nietosvaara, A. Yrjänä (2020)
    Background: Active shoulder external rotation in adduction can be restored by selective neurotization of the infraspinatus muscle with the spinal accessory nerve in select patients with brachial plexus birth injury. Does the improved shoulder external rotation stand the test of time? Methods: Fourteen consecutive brachial plexus birth injury patients with active shoulder external rotation in adduction of = 90 degrees underwent selective neurotization of the infraspinatus muscle at mean 2 years of age between 2012 and 2016. All 14 patients had congruent shoulders joints with passive external rotation in adduction of 30 degrees. Pre-and postoperative electromyography was done to seven patients. Shoulder function and the subjective outcome was assessed after a mean follow-up of 3.8 years. Results: Shoulder external rotation in adduction improved by a mean 57 degrees in the 12 children who did not develop shoulder internal rotation contracture. Shoulder external rotation in abduction and shoulder abduction increased in all 14 patients. Reinnervation of the supraspinatus muscle was evident in all seven children who underwent postoperative EMG. Thirteen patients' parents were satisfied with the outcome. Conclusions: Functionally significant shoulder external rotation can be restored and maintained by reinnervation of the infraspinatus muscle in brachial plexus birth injury patients with congruent shoulder joints, if internal rotation contracture does not develop.
  • Ramo, Lasse; Taimela, Simo; Lepola, Vesa; Malmivaara, Antti; Lähdeoja, Tuomas; Paavola, Mika (2017)
    Introduction Humeral shaft fractures represent 1%-3% of all fractures and 20% of humeral fractures in adults. The treatment of these fractures is mainly conservative and operative treatment is usually reserved for specific circumstances. To date, no randomised controlled trial (RCT) has compared operative treatment of humeral shaft fractures with conservative treatment. Methods and analysis We will conduct an RCT to compare the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of surgical and conservative treatment of humeral shaft fractures. After providing informed consent, 80 patients from 18 years of age with humeral shaft fracture will be randomly assigned to open reduction and internal fixation with locking plate or conservative treatment with functional bracing. We will follow the patients for 10 years and compare the results at different time points. The primary outcome will be Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) at 12 months. The secondary outcomes will include Numerical Rating Scale for pain at rest and in activities, Constant Score and quality of life instrument 15D. Patients not willing to participate in the RCT will be asked to participate in a prospective cohort follow-up study, 'the declined cohort'. This cohort will be followed up at the same time points as the randomised patients to assess the potential effect of participation bias on RCT results and to enhance the external validity of the RCT. In one of the recruiting centres, all cooperative patients with humeral shaft fractures not eligible for randomisation will be asked to participate in a 'non-eligible cohort' study. We will use blinded data interpretation of the randomised cohort to avoid biased interpretation of outcomes. Our null hypothesis is that there is no clinically relevant difference in the primary outcome measure between the two treatment groups. We will consider a difference of a minimum of 10 points in DASH clinically relevant. Ethics and dissemination The institutional review board of the Helsinki and Uusimaa Hospital District has approved the protocol. We will disseminate the findings of this study through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations.
  • Launonen, Antti P.; Sumrein, Bakir O.; Reito, Aleksi; Lepola, Vesa; Paloneva, Juha; Jonsson, Kenneth; Wolf, Olof; Ström, Peter; Berg, Hans E.; Felländer-Tsai, Li; Jansson, Karl-Åke; Fell, Daniel; Mechlenburg, Inger; Dossing, Kaj; Ostergaard, Helle T.; Märtson, Aare; Laitinen, Minna K.; Mattila, Ville M. (2019)
    Background Although increasingly used, the benefit of surgical treatment of displaced 2-part proximal humerus fractures has not been proven. This trial evaluates the clinical effectiveness of surgery with locking plate compared with non-operative treatment for these fractures. Methods and findings The NITEP group conducted a superiority, assessor-blinded, multicenter randomized trial in 6 hospitals in Finland, Estonia, Sweden, and Denmark. Eighty-eight patients aged 60 years or older with displaced (more than 1 cm or 45 degrees) 2-part surgical or anatomical neck proximal humerus fracture were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to undergo either operative treatment with a locking plate or non-operative treatment. The mean age of patients was 72 years in the non-operative group and 73 years in the operative group, with a female sex distribution of 95% and 87%, respectively. Patients were recruited between February 2011 and April 2016. The primary outcome measure was Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) score at 2-year follow-up. Secondary outcomes included Constant–Murley score, the visual analogue scale for pain, the quality of life questionnaire 15D, EuroQol Group’s 5- dimension self-reported questionnaire EQ-5D, the Oxford Shoulder Score, and complications. The mean DASH score (0 best, 100 worst) at 2 years was 18.5 points for the operative treatment group and 17.4 points for the non-operative group (mean difference 1.1 [95% CI −7.8 to 9.4], p = 0.81). At 2 years, there were no statistically or clinically significant between-group differences in any of the outcome measures. All 3 complications resulting in secondary surgery occurred in the operative group. The lack of blinding in patient-reported outcome assessment is a limitation of the study. Our assessor physiotherapists were, however, blinded. Conclusions This trial found no significant difference in clinical outcomes at 2 years between surgery and non-operative treatment in patients 60 years of age or older with displaced 2-part fractures of the proximal humerus. These results suggest that the current practice of performing surgery on the majority of displaced proximal 2-part fractures of the humerus in older adults may not be beneficial. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01246167.
  • Sandelin, Henrik; Jalanko, T.; Huhtala, H.; Lassila, H.; Haapala, J.; Helkamaa, T. (2016)
    Background and Aims: Patient-rated outcome measures have become increasingly important in clinical research. They provide research and clinical tools which can be utilized in the assessment of patient recovery and treatment efficacy. The purpose of our study was to translate and validate the original version of the PRWE form into Finnish. Material and Methods: We conducted the translation of the PRWE questionnaire according to standardized guidelines. Patients (N=119) with an acute distal radius fracture were recruited, and they completed the PRWE and QuickDASH questionnaires at 2months and 4months after the wrist injury. Results: The mean answering times were 52days (standard deviation [SD] 9.8 days) and 116days (standard deviation [SD] 14.8 days), respectively. Both the internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) of 0.976 and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.992 (95% CI 0.966-0.998) showed excellent reliability for the total PRWE score. The correlation coefficients between the total score, the subscales, and for improvement over time for PRWE and QuickDASH were excellent. The responsiveness was good with an effect size of 0.83 and a standard response mean of 1.22. Conclusion: Our study shows that the Finnish version of the PRWE is reliable, valid, and responsive for the evaluation of pain and disability after distal radius fracture.
  • Repo, J.P.; Barner-Rasmussen, I.; Roine, R. P.; Sintonen, H.; Tukiainen, E. J. (2016)
    Background: Extensive compound tibial fractures present reconstructive challenges. The present study aimed to assess the outcomes of microvascular latissimus dorsi (LD) flap combined with the Ilizarov technique for extensive compound tibial fractures with bone loss and bone healing complications. Methods: Patient records were reviewed retrospectively. The Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS), the Disabilities of the Arm, Hand and Shoulder (DASH), and the 15D health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instrument were applied. Results: Between 1989 and 2014, 16 patients underwent reconstruction with a microvascular LD flap and bone transport (11/16) or late bone lengthening (5/16). The mean clinical follow-up time was 6.6 (standard deviation (SD): 6.5) years. Three patients had minor complications requiring reoperation. Partial necrosis of one flap required late flap reconstruction in one case. Late bone grafting was used to enhance union in eight of 16 cases. The mean new bone gain was 3.8 cm (SD: 2.5). Overall, 11 patients completed the questionnaires in a mean of 22.3 years (SD: 2.4) after surgery. The main findings revealed a relatively good function of the reconstructed limb and good shoulder function. The mean HRQoL was comparable to that of an age-standardized sample of the general population. Conclusion: Segmental tibia transport and lengthening to correct limb length discrepancy do not compromise the microvascular muscle flap. Combined microvascular LD flap reconstruction and the Ilizarov technique can be used in treating acute compound tibial defects, pseudoarthrosis, and osteitis, all associated with significant amputation risk. Fair long-term functional outcomes and HRQoL are achieved when these combined techniques are used. (C) 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Launonen, Antti P.; Lepola, Vesa; Flinkkila, Tapio; Laitinen, Minna; Paavola, Mika; Malmivaara, Antti (2015)
    Background and purpose - There is no consensus on the treatment of proximal humerus fractures in the elderly. Patients and methods - We conducted a systematic search of the medical literature for randomized controlled trials and controlled clinical trials from 1946 to Apr 30, 2014. Predefined PICOS criteria were used to search relevant publications. We included randomized controlled trials involving 2- to 4-part proximal humerus fractures in patients over 60 years of age that compared operative treatment to any operative or nonoperative treatment, with a minimum of 20 patients in each group and a minimum follow-up of 1 year. Outcomes had to be assessed with functional or disability measures, or a quality-of-life score. Results - After 2 independent researchers had read 777 abstracts, 9 publications with 409 patients were accepted for the final analysis. No statistically significant differences were found between nonoperative treatment and operative treatment with a locking plate for any disability, for quality-of-life score, or for pain, in patients with 3- or 4-part fractures. In 4-part fractures, 2 trials found similar shoulder function between hemiarthroplasty and nonoperative treatment. 1 trial found slightly better health related quality of life (higher EQ-5D scores) at 2-year follow-up after hemiarthroplasty. Complications were common in the operative treatment groups (10-29%). Interpretation - Nonoperative treatment over locking plate systems and tension banding is weakly supported. 2 trials provided weak to moderate evidence that for 4-part fractures, shoulder function is not better with hemiarthroplasty than with nonoperative treatment. 1 of the trials provided limited evidence that health-related quality of life may be better at 2-year follow-up after hemiarthroplasty. There is a high risk of complications after operative treatment.