Browsing by Subject "SICKNESS ABSENCE"

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  • Nyberg, Solja T.; Batty, G. David; Pentti, Jaana; Madsen, Ida E. H.; Alfredsson, Lars; Bjorner, Jakob B.; Borritz, Marianne; Burr, Hermann; Ervasti, Jenni; Goldberg, Marcel; Jokela, Markus; Knutsson, Anders; Koskinen, Aki; Lallukka, Tea; Lindbohm, Joni V.; Nielsen, Martin L.; Oksanen, Tuula; Pejtersen, Jan H.; Pietiläinen, Olli; Rahkonen, Ossi; Rugulies, Reiner; Shipley, Martin J.; Sipilä, Pyry N.; Sorensen, Jeppe K.; Stenholm, Sari; Suominen, Sakari; Vaananen, Ari; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Marianna; Westerlund, Hugo; Zins, Marie; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Kivimäki, Mika (2022)
    Background Heavy alcohol consumption increases the risk of several chronic diseases. In this multicohort study, we estimated the number of life-years without major chronic diseases according to different characteristics of alcohol use. Methods In primary analysis, we pooled individual-level data from up to 129,942 adults across 12 cohort studies with baseline data collection on alcohol consumption, drinking patterns, and history between 1986 and 2005 (the IPD-Work Consortium). Self-reported alcohol consumption was categorised according to UK guidelines - non-drinking (never or former drinkers); moderate consumption (1-14 units); heavy consumption (>14 units per week). We further subdivided moderate and heavy drinkers by binge drinking pattern (alcohol-induced loss of consciousness). In addition, we assessed problem drinking using linked data on hospitalisations due to alcohol abuse or poisoning. Follow-up for chronic diseases for all participants included incident type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, cancer, and respiratory disease (asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) as ascertained via linkage to national morbidity and mortality registries, repeated medical examinations, and/or self-report. We estimated years lived without any of these diseases between 40 and 75 years of age according to sex and characteristics of alcohol use. We repeated the main analyses using data from 427,621 participants in the UK Biobank cohort study. Findings During 1.73 million person-years at risk, 22,676 participants in IPD-Work cohorts developed at least one chronic condition. From age 40 to 75 years, never-drinkers [men: 29.3 (95%CI 27.9-30.8) years, women 29.8 (29.2 - 30.4) years)] and moderate drinkers with no binge drinking habit [men 28.7 (28.4-29.0) years, women 29.6 (29.4-29.7) years] had the longest disease-free life span. A much shorter disease-free life span was apparent in participants who experienced alcohol poisoning [men 23.4 (20.9-26.0) years, women 24.0 (21.4-26.5) years] and those with self-reported heavy overall consumption and binge drinking [men: 26.0 (25.3-26.8), women 27.5 (26.4 - 28.5) years]. The pattern of results for alcohol poisoning and self-reported alcohol consumption was similar in UK Biobank. In IPD-Work and UK Biobank, differences in disease-free years between self-reported moderate drinkers and heavy drinkers were 1.5 years or less. Interpretation Individuals with alcohol poisonings or heavy self-reported overall consumption combined with a binge drinking habit have a marked 3- to 6-year loss in healthy longevity. Differences in disease-free life between categories of self-reported weekly alcohol consumption were smaller. Copyright (C) 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Shiri, Rahman; Falah-Hassani, Kobra; Lallukka, Tea (2020)
    The aim of this study was to determine the associations of body mass index (BMI) with all-cause and cause-specific disability retirement. Literature searches were conducted in PubMed, Embase and Web of Science from their inception to May 2019. A total of 27 (25 prospective cohort and 2 nested case-control) studies consisting of 2 199 632 individuals qualified for a meta-analysis. Two reviewers independently assessed the methodological quality of the included studies. We used a random effects meta-analysis, assessed heterogeneity and publication bias, and performed sensitivity analyses. There were a large number of participants and the majority of studies were rated at low or moderate risk of bias. There was a J-shaped relationship between BMI and disability retirement. Underweight (hazard ratio (HR)/risk ratio (RR)=1.20, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.41), overweight (HR/RR=1.13, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.19) and obese individuals (HR/RR=1.52, 95% CI 1.36 to 1.71) were more commonly granted all-cause disability retirement than normal-weight individuals. Moreover, overweight increased the risk of disability retirement due to musculoskeletal disorders (HR/RR=1.26, 95% CI 1.15 to 1.39) and cardiovascular diseases (HR=1.73, 95% CI 1.24 to 2.41), and obesity increased the risk of disability retirement due to musculoskeletal disorders (HR/RR=1.66, 95% CI 1.42 to 1.94), mental disorders (HR=1.29, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.61) and cardiovascular diseases (HR=2.80, 95% CI 1.85 to 4.24). The association between excess body mass and all-cause disability retirement did not differ between men and women and was independent of selection bias, performance bias, confounding and adjustment for publication bias. Obesity markedly increases the risk of disability retirement due to musculoskeletal disorders, cardiovascular diseases and mental disorders. Since the prevalence of obesity is increasing globally, disease burden associated with excess body mass and disability retirement consequently are projected to increase. Reviewregistrationnumber: CRD42018103110.
  • Lahti, Jouni; Holstila, Ansku; Mänty, Minna; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi (2016)
    Background: Disability retirement is an economic, public health and work life issue causing costs for employees, workplaces and society. Adopting physical activity at middle-age has been associated with reduced risk of sickness absence and mortality. The aim of this study was to examine how changes over time in leisure time physical activity are associated with subsequent disability retirement among midlife employees. Methods: The Helsinki Health Study cohort baseline (phase 1) mail questionnaire survey data were collected in 2000, 2001 and 2002 among 40-60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland. A phase 2 survey was conducted in 2007 (N = 3943). Respondents were classified into three groups: 1. low-active ( = 14 MET-hours/week in moderate-intensity physical activity) and 3. vigorously active (> = 14 MET-hours/week including vigorous physical activity) at both phases. This yielded nine groups for describing stability and change of leisure time physical activity. Disability retirement data were derived from the registry of the Finnish Centre for Pensions until the end of 2013. A Cox regression analysis was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and their 95 % confidence intervals (CI) adjusting for covariates. Results: During the follow-up, 264 (6.7 %) participants retired due to disability. Compared with those who were persistently low-active, those who increased their physical activity from low to vigorous had a lower risk of subsequent disability retirement (HR = 0.38, 95 % CI = 0.15-0.97) when adjusting for age, gender, occupational social class, strenuousness of work, smoking and binge drinking. Similarly, compared with those who were persistently moderately active, those increasing from moderate to vigorous (HR = 0.50, 95 % CI = 0.28-0.86) had a reduced risk. In contrast, those decreasing their physical activity from vigorous to low (HR = 2.42, 95 % CI = 1. 32-4.41) or moderate (HR = 1.70, 95 % CI = 1.03-2.82) had an increased risk, compared with those who were persistently vigorously active. Adjusting for BMI, limiting longstanding illness and prior sickness absence somewhat attenuated the associations. Conclusions: Adopting vigorous physical activity was associated with a reduced risk of disability retirement. Promoting vigorous physical activity among midlife employees may help prevent disability retirement.
  • Manty, Minna; Kouvonen, Anne; Lallukka, Tea; Lahti, Jouni; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi (2015)
    Objectives The aim this study was to examine the effect of changes in physical and psychosocial working conditions on physical health functioning among ageing municipal employees. Methods Follow-up survey data were collected from midlife employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland, at three time points: wave 1(2000-2002), wave 2(2007), and wave 3 (2012). Changes in physical and psychosocial working conditions were assessed between waves 1 and 2. Physical health functioning was measured by the physical component summary (PCS) of the Short-Form 36 questionnaire at each of the three waves. In total, 2784 respondents (83% women) who remained employed over the follow-up were available for the analyses. Linear mixed-effect models were used to assess the associations and adjust for key covariates (age, gender, obesity, chronic diseases, and health behaviors). Results Repeated and increased exposure to adverse physical working conditions was associated with greater decline in physical health functioning over time. In contrast, decrease in exposures reduced the decline Of the psychosocial working conditions, changes in job demands had no effects on physical health functioning. However, decreased job control was associated with greater decline and repeated high or increased job control reduced the decline in physical health functioning over time. Conclusions Adverse changes in physical working conditions and job control were associated with greater decline in physical health functioning over time, whereas favorable changes in these exposures reduced the decline. Preventing deterioration and promoting improvement of working conditions are likely to help maintain better physical health functioning among ageing employees.
  • Halonen, Jaana I.; Kivimaki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi; Pentti, Jaana; Virtanen, Marianna; Ervasti, Jenni; Oksanen, Tuula; Lallukka, Tea (2017)
    Objectives To examine the combined effects of childhood adversities and low adult socioeconomic status (SES) on the risk of future work disability. Methods Included were 34 384 employed Finnish Public Sector study participants who responded to questions about childhood adversities (none vs any adversity, eg, parental divorce or financial difficulties) in 2008, and whose adult SES in 2008 was available. We categorised exposure into four groups: neither (reference), childhood adversity only, low SES only or both. Participants were followed from 2009 until the first period of register-based work disability (sickness absence >9 days or disability pension) due to any cause, musculoskeletal or mental disorders; retirement; death or end of follow-up (December 2011). We ran Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for behavioural, health-related and work-related covariates, and calculated synergy indices for the combined effects. Results When compared with those with neither exposure, HR for work disability from any cause was increased among participants with childhood adversity, with low SES, and those with both exposures. The highest hazard was observed in those with both exposures: HR 2.53, 95% CI 2.29 to 2.79 for musculoskeletal disability, 1.55, 95% CI 1.36 to 1.78 for disability due to mental disorders and 1.29, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.39 for disability due to other reasons. The synergy indices did not indicate synergistic effects. Conclusions These findings indicate that childhood psychosocial adversity and low adult SES are additive risk factors for work disability.
  • Hiilamo, Aapo; Shiri, Rahman; Kouvonen, Anne; Manty, Minna; Butterworth, Peter; Pietilainen, Olli; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lallukka, Tea (2019)
    Objective: We examined trajectories of work disability, indicated by sickness absence and disability retirement, among midlife public sector employees with and without common mental disorders (CMD) at baseline. We also examined adverse childhood events, occupational class, long-standing illness and health behaviour as determinants of the trajectories. Methods: A sample from the Helsinki Health Study was extracted comprising 2350 employees. Baseline characteristics were obtained from mail surveys conducted in 2000-2 and 2007. CMD were measured by the General Health Questionnaire. Participants were followed between the ages of 50-59. Work disability trajectories were modelled by the annual number of work disability months in group-based trajectory analysis. Multinomial regression was used to predict trajectory group memberships. Results: Three trajectories were identified: no work disability (consisting 59% of the all employees), stable/low (31%) and high/increasing disability (10%). Employees with CMD were more likely to belong to the stable/low (odds ratio 1.73 [95% confidence interval 1.37-2.18]), and the high/increasing (2.55 [1.81-3.59]) trajectories. Stratified models showed that the determinants of the trajectories were largely similar for those with CMD compared to those without CMD except that obesity was a somewhat stronger predictor of the high/increasing trajectory among employees with CMD. Limitations: The focus on midlife public sector employees limits the generalisability to other employment sectors and younger employees. Conclusions: CMD were strongly associated with a trajectory leading to early exit from employment and a stable/ low work disability trajectory. These findings have implications for interventions promoting work ability of employees with mental ill-health.
  • Taponen, Saara; Lehtimaki, Lauri; Karvala, Kirsi; Luukkonen, Ritva; Uitti, Jukka (2017)
    Background: This study aims to elucidate factors that among adults with asthma are associated with working full-time. Methods: This cross-sectional survey of 2613 working-age adults with asthma included questions on asthma history, symptoms and use of asthma medication, socioeconomic factors and health behavior. Full-time workers were compared to groups according to employment status: unemployed, work disability and retired due to age. Results: Adults with asthma working full time were younger and more often nonmanual workers, experienced less asthma symptoms, used less asthma medication and smoked less than subjects with work disability. After adjusting for age, gender, smoking and professional status, having frequent symptoms of asthma during last month was associated with an increase in the risk of unemployment (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.3-4.2) and with an increase in the risk of work disability (OR 4.4, 95% CI 2.3-8.2). Conclusions: Among adults with asthma, full-time work was associated with younger age, less symptomatic asthma despite of less medication, nonmanual work and less smoking. Having more severe symptoms of asthma was associated with undesirable employment status such as unemployment or work disability. Possibilities to change from manual to nonmanual work may be important in preventing work disability and early exit from work.
  • Rantonen, J.; Karppinen, J.; Vehtari, A.; Luoto, S.; Viikari-Juntura, E.; Hupli, M.; Malmivaara, A.; Taimela, S. (2016)
    Background: Evidence shows that low back specific patient information is effective in sub-acute low back pain (LBP), but effectiveness and cost-effectiveness (CE) of information in early phase symptoms is not clear. We assessed effectiveness and CE of patient information in mild LBP in the occupational health (OH) setting in a quasi-experimental study. Methods: A cohort of employees (N = 312, aged Results: Compared to NC, the Booklet reduced HC costs by 196(sic) and SA by 3.5 days per year. In 81 % of the bootstrapped cases the Booklet was both cost saving and effective on SA. Compared to NC, in the Combined arm, the figures were 107(sic), 0.4 days, and 54 %, respectively. PHI decreased in both interventions. Conclusions: Booklet information alone was cost-effective in comparison to natural course of mild LBP. Combined information reduced HC costs. Both interventions reduced physical impairment. Mere booklet information is beneficial for employees who report mild LBP in the OH setting, and is also cost saving for the health care system.
  • Ervasti, Jenni; Vahtera, Jussi; Pentti, Jaana; Oksanen, Tuula; Ahola, Kirsi; Kivimaki, Mika; Virtanen, Marianna (2013)
  • Ervasti, Jenni; Airaksinen, Jaakko; Pentti, Jaana; Vahtera, Jussi; Suominen, Sakari; Virtanen, Marianna; Kivimäki, Mika (2019)
    Objectives We examined the extent to which an increase in physical activity would reduce the excess risk of work disability among overweight and obese people (body mass index >= 25kg/m(2)). Methods We used counterfactual modelling approaches to analyze longitudinal data from two Finnish prospective cohort studies (total N=38 744). Weight, height and physical activity were obtained from surveys and assessed twice and linked to electronic records of two indicators of long-term work disability (>= 90-day sickness absence and disability pension) for a 7-year follow-up after the latter survey. The models were adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Results The confounder-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of long-term sickness absence for overweight compared to normal-weight participants was 1.43 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.35-1.53]. An increase in physical activity among overweight compared to normal-weight individuals was estimated to reduce this HR to 1.40 (95% CI 1.31-1.48). In pseudo-trial analysis including only the persistently overweight, initially physically inactive participants, the HR for long-term sickness absence was 0.82 (95% CI 0.70-0.94) for individuals with increased physical activity compared to those who remained physically inactive. The results for disability pension as an outcome were similar. Conclusions These findings suggest that the excess risk of work disability among overweight individuals would drop by 3-4% if they increased their average physical activity to the average level of normal-weight people. However, overweight individuals who are physically inactive would reduce their risk of work disability by about 20% by becoming physically active.
  • Saltychev, Mikhail; Laimi, Katri; El-Metwally, Ashraf; Oksanen, Tuula; Pentti, Jaana; Virtanen, Marianna; Kouvonen, Anne; Kivimaki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi (2012)
  • Rantonen, J.; Karppinen, J.; Vehtari, A.; Luoto, S.; Viikari-Juntura, E.; Hupli, M.; Malmivaara, A.; Taimela, S. (2018)
    Background: We assessed the effectiveness of three interventions that were aimed to reduce non-acute low back pain (LBP) related symptoms in the occupational health setting. Methods: Based on a survey (n = 2480; response rate 71%) on LBP, we selected a cohort of 193 employees who reported moderate LBP (Visual Analogue Scale VAS > 34 mm) and fulfilled at least one of the following criteria during the past 12 months: sciatica, recurrence of LBP >= 2 times, LBP >= 2 weeks, or previous sickness absence. A random sample was extracted from the cohort as a control group (Control, n = 50), representing the natural course of LBP. The remaining 143 employees were invited to participate in a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of three 1:1:1 allocated parallel intervention arms: multidisciplinary rehabilitation (Rehab, n = 43); progressive exercises (Physio, n = 43) and self-care advice (Advice, n = 40). Seventeen employees declined participation in the intervention. The primary outcome measures were physical impairment (PHI), LBP intensity (Visual Analogue Scale), health related quality of life (QoL), and accumulated sickness absence days. We imputed missing values with multiple imputation procedure. We assessed all comparisons between the intervention groups and the Control group by analysing questionnaire outcomes at 2 years with ANOVA and sickness absence at 4 years by using negative binomial model with a logarithmic link function. Results: Mean differences between the Rehab and Control groups were - 3 [95% CI -5 to - 1] for PHI, - 13 [- 24 to - 1] for pain intensity, and 0.06 [0.00 to 0.12] for QoL. Mean differences between the Physio and Control groups were - 3 [95% CI -5 to - 1] for PHI, -13 [- 29 to 2] for pain intensity, and 0.07 [0.01 to 0.13] for QoL. The main effects sizes were from 0.4 to 0.6. The interventions were not effective in reducing sickness absence. Conclusions: Rehab and Physio interventions improved health related quality of life, decreased low back pain and physical impairment in non-acute, moderate LBP, but we found no differences between the Advice and Control group results. No effectiveness on sickness absence was observed.
  • Karhula, Kati; Salo, Paula; Koskinen, Aki; Ojajärvi, Anneli; Oksanen, Tuula; Puttonen, Sampsa; Kivimäki, Mika; Härmä, Mikko (2019)
    We aimed to study the association of perceived control over scheduling of shifts with objectively measured working hour characteristics in shift workers. The participants were 5128 hospital employees (91% women, 85% nursing personnel, average age 43 years) in period-based work (114:45h/3 weeks) from the 2015 Finnish Public Sector study. Survey responses to a measure of control over scheduling of shifts were linked to payroll data on working hour characteristics during the 91 days preceding the survey. We used multinomial logistic regression to assess differences in dichotomized proportion of working hour characteristics (being full-time worker, number of work shifts, long work weeks (>40h and >48h/week), long work shifts (>12-h), evening and night shifts, quick returns (4 consecutive work shifts, and variability of shift length with cut points at 10% or 25% between employees with high, intermediate, or low control over scheduling of shifts. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, education, full-/part-time work (where applicable), duration of shift work experience, perceived work ability, children <18 years in the household, and overall stressfulness of the life situation. Differences between age groups, men and women, and levels of work ability were examined using interaction terms. In adjusted analyses, the proportion of full-time workers was lower among employees with intermediate control over scheduling of shifts compared to those with high control (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.61-0.98). High proportion (>25%) of weekend work was lower among employees with low control over scheduling of shifts compared to high control (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.61-0.93). High proportion (>25%) of having >4 consecutive work shifts was associated with lower control over scheduling of shifts (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.13-1.62). Variability of shift length was lower among employees with intermediate and low control over scheduling of shifts compared to those with high control (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.66-0.93; OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.51-0.75, respectively). No association was observed between the level of control over scheduling of shifts and high proportion of long work weeks (>25% of >40h weeks and >10% of >48h weeks), long work shifts (>25%), quick returns (>25%), single days off (>25%), and evening or night shifts (>10%) in the whole sample. In subgroup analyses, women with low control over scheduling shifts had lower odds ratio (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.37-0.91) and men had higher odds ratio (OR 2.97, 95% CI 1.26-6.98) for large proportion of >12-h shifts. In conclusion, the employees with high control over scheduling of shifts had slightly more often unsocial working hour characteristics than those with intermediate or low control over scheduling of shifts. The findings, however, suggest that good work time control in shift work can be possible without compromising shift ergonomics.
  • Halonen, Jaana I.; Shiri, Rahman; Mänty, Minna; Sumanen, Hilla; Solovieva, Svetlana; Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Kähönen, Mika; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli T.; Lallukka, Tea (2019)
    Objectives To examine whether exposure to heavy physical work from early to later adulthood is associated with primary healthcare visits due to cause-specific musculoskeletal diseases in midlife. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Nationally representative Young Finns Study cohort, Finland. Participants 1056 participants of the Young Finns Study cohort. Exposure measure Physical work exposure was surveyed in early (18-24years old, 1986 or 1989) and later adulthood (2007 and 2011), and it was categorised as: 'no exposure', 'early exposure only', 'later exposure only' and 'early and later exposure'. Primary and secondary outcome measures Visits due to any musculoskeletal disease and separately due to spine disorders, and upper extremity disorders were followed up from national primary healthcare register from the date of the third survey in 2011 until 2014. Results Prevalence of any musculoskeletal disease during the follow-up was 20%, that for spine disorders 10% and that for upper extremity disorders 5%. Those with physically heavy work in early adulthood only had an increased risk of any musculoskeletal disease (risk ratio (RR) 1.55, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.28) after adjustment for age, sex, smoking, body mass index, physical activity and parental occupational class. Later exposure only was associated with visits due to any musculoskeletal disease (RR 1.46, 95%CI 1.01 to 2.12) and spine disorders (RR 2.40, 95%CI 1.41 to 4.06). Early and later exposure was associated with all three outcomes: RR 1.99 (95% CI 1.44 to 2.77) for any musculoskeletal disease, RR 2.43 (95% CI 1.42 to 4.14) for spine disorders and RR 3.97 (95% CI 1.86 to 8.46) for upper extremity disorders. Conclusions To reduce burden of musculoskeletal diseases, preventive actions to reduce exposure to or mitigate the consequences of physically heavy work throughout the work career are needed.
  • Virtanen, Marianna; Oksanen, Tuula; Batty, G. David; Ala-Mursula, Leena; Salo, Paula; Elovainio, Marko; Pentti, Jaana; Lyback, Katinka; Vahtera, Jussi; Kivimaki, Mika (2014)
  • Ropponen, Annina; Narusyte, Jurgita; Silventoinen, Karri; Svedberg, Pia (2020)
    BackgroundTo investigate whether the clustering of different health behaviours (i.e. physical activity, tobacco use and alcohol consumption) influences the associations between psychosocial working conditions and disability pension due to different diagnoses.MethodsA population-based sample of 24,987 Swedish twins born before 1958 were followed from national registers for disability pension until 2013. Baseline survey data in 1998-2003 were used to assess health behaviours and psychosocial Job Exposure Matrix for job control, job demands and social support. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI).ResultsDuring follow-up, 1252 disability pensions due to musculoskeletal disorders (5%), 601 due to mental diagnoses (2%) and 1162 due to other diagnoses (5%) occurred. In the models controlling for covariates, each one-unit increase in job demands was associated with higher (HR 1.16, 95%CI 1.01-1.33) and in job control with lower (HR 0.87, 95%CI 0.80-0.94) risk of disability pension due to musculoskeletal disorders among those with unhealthy behaviours. Among those with healthy behaviours, one-unit increase of social support was associated with a higher risk of disability pension due to mental and due to other diagnoses (HRs 1.29-1.30, 95%CI 1.04-1.63).ConclusionsJob control and job demands were associated with the risk of disability pension due to musculoskeletal disorders only among those with unhealthy behaviours. Social support was a risk factor for disability pension due to mental or other diagnoses among those with healthy behaviours. Workplaces and occupational health care should acknowledge these simultaneous circumstances in order to prevent disability pension.
  • Ervasti, Jenni; Kivimaki, Mika; Pentti, Jaana; Salo, Paula; Oksanen, Tuula; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Marianna (2016)
    Objective: The proportion of aging employees with cardiometabolic diseases, such as heart or cerebrovascular disease, diabetes and chronic hypertension is on the rise. We explored the extent to which health- and work-related factors were associated with the risk of disability pension among individuals with such cardiometabolic disease. Methods: A cohort of 4798 employees with and 9716 employees without a cardiometabolic disease were followed up for 7 years (2005-2011) for disability pension. For these participants, register and survey data (from 2004) were linked to records on disability pensions. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used for estimating the hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: Individuals with heart or cerebrovascular disease had 2.88-fold (95% CI = 2.50-331) higher risk of all cause disability pension compared to employees with no cardiometabolic disease. Diabetes was associated with a 1.84-fold (95% CI = 1.52-2.23) and hypertension a 1.50-fold (95% CI = 131-1.72) increased risk of disability pension. Obesity in cases of diabetes and hypertension (15%) and psychological distress in cases of heart or cerebrovascular disease (9%) were the strongest contributing factors. All 12 health- and work-related risk factors investigated accounted for 24% of the excess work disability in hypertension, 28% in diabetes, and 11% in heart or cerebrovascular disease. Cause-specific analyses (disability pension due to mental, musculoskeletal and circulatory system diseases) yielded similar results. Conclusions: In this study, modifiable risk factors, such as obesity and mental comorbidity, predicted permanent exit from the labor market due to disability in individuals with cardiometabolic disease. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Halonen, Jaana I.; Koskinen, Aki; Varje, Pekka; Kouvonen, Anne; Hakanen, Jari J.; Väänänen, Ari (2018)
    Background: We defined gender-specific profiles of mental ill-health for the main occupational groups using three outcomes; antidepressant use, sickness absence (SA) due to depression, and suicides. We also examined which occupational groups had the highest risk of the outcomes, and compared the importance of their predictors. Methods: From a random register cohort of Finnish working age population, individuals in the six largest occupational groups in 2004 for men and women were included (N = 414 357). We used register data to define the first antidepressant purchase (i.e. use), the first long-term SA spell for depression, and suicide between Jan 1st 2005 and Dec 31st 2014. We assessed the risk of each outcome by occupational group with logistic regression models, and used dominance analysis to compare the relative importance of predictors. Results: In all six occupational groups for women, the prevalence of antidepressant use and SA for depression was higher than in the men's occupational groups. The opposite was observed for suicides. The risk of antidepressant use was lower, but the risk of suicide was 2-times higher among men in low vs. high-skilled occupations. Among women, a lower skill-level was associated with a higher risk of SA due to depression. Gender was the most important predictor of all outcomes. Limitations: We lacked information on history of medication use or health problems prior to follow-up. Conclusions: Gendered occupational status was an underlying factor explaining distinctive mental health profiles in the working population. Occupational class-dependent behavioural patterns related to mental health existed among men.
  • Svard, Anna; Lahti, Jouni; Roos, Eira; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero; Lallukka, Tea; Manty, Minna (2017)
    Background: Studies suggest an association between weight change and subsequent poor physical health functioning, whereas the association with mental health functioning is inconsistent. We aimed to examine whether obesity and change of body mass index among normal weight, overweight and obese women and men associate with changes in physical and mental health functioning. Methods: The Helsinki Health Study cohort includes Finnish municipal employees aged 40 to 60 in 2000-02 (phase 1, response rate 67%). Phase 2 mail survey (response rate 82%) took place in 2007 and phase 3 in 2012 (response rate 76%). This study included 5668 participants (82% women). Seven weight change categories were formed based on body mass index (BMI) (phase 1) and weight change (BMI change >= 5%) (phase 1-2). The Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) measured physical and mental health functioning. The change in health functioning (phase 1-3) score was examined with repeated measures analyses. Covariates were age, sociodemographic factors, health behaviours, and somatic ill-health. Results: Weight gain was common among women (34%) and men (25%). Weight-gaining normal weight (-1.3 points), overweight (-1.3 points) and obese (-3.6 points) women showed a greater decline in physical component summary scores than weight-maintaining normal weight women. Among weight-maintainers, only obese (-1.8 points) women showed a greater decline than weight-maintaining normal weight women. The associations were similar, but statistically non-significant for obese men. No statistically significant differences in the change in mental health functioning occurred. Conclusion: Preventing weight gain likely helps maintaining good physical health functioning and work ability.
  • Cachon-Alonso, Laura; Elovainio, Marko (2022)
    Organizational justice refers to employees' perceptions of the fairness of decision-making rules and policies in the workplace. Lack of justice is suggested to be a significant psychosocial risk factor that affects employees' attitudes and health. The aim of this narrative review was to compile the evidence available about the effects of organizational justice on health. To this end, a literature search was carried out using the Web of Science, PubMed, and PsycINFO databases. The final sample consisted of 103 articles that studied the effects of justice on mental health (40 results), job stress (26), sickness absence (15), physical health (14), absenteeism/presenteeism (3), safety at work (3), and health of third parties (2). The results show that perceptions of workplace justice predict employees' mental health, stress-related health problems, and lower levels of sickness absence were relatively compelling. Future studies should focus on less-researched outcomes and on how these associations are modified by other variables for a better understanding of how justice affects health, with a view to being able to carry out preventive measures more efficiently.