Browsing by Subject "SIGNALING PATHWAYS"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-20 of 21
  • Cui, Fuqiang; Wu, Hongpo; Safronov, Omid; Zhang, Panpan; Kumar, Rajeev; Kollist, Hannes; Salojärvi, Jarkko Tapani; Panstruga, Ralph; Overmyer, Kirk Loren (2018)
    The atmospheric pollutant ozone (O-3) is a strong oxidant that causes extracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, has significant ecological relevance, and is used here as a non-invasive ROS inducer to study plant signalling. Previous genetic screens identified several mutants exhibiting enhanced O-3 sensitivity, but few with enhanced tolerance. We found that loss-of-function mutants in Arabidopsis MLO2, a gene implicated in susceptibility to powdery mildew disease, exhibit enhanced dose-dependent tolerance to O-3 and extracellular ROS, but a normal response to intracellular ROS. This phenotype is increased in a mlo2 mlo6 mlo12 triple mutant, reminiscent of the genetic redundancy of MLO genes in powdery mildew resistance. Stomatal assays revealed that enhanced O-3 tolerance in mlo2 mutants is not caused by altered stomatal conductance. We explored modulation of the mlo2-associated O-3 tolerance, powdery mildew resistance, and early senescence phenotypes by genetic epistasis analysis, involving mutants with known effects on ROS sensitivity or antifungal defence. Mining of publicly accessible microarray data suggests that these MLO proteins regulate accumulation of abiotic stress response transcripts, and transcript accumulation of MLO2 itself is O-3 responsive. In summary, our data reveal MLO2 as a novel negative regulator in plant ROS responses, which links biotic and abiotic stress response pathways.
  • Kale, Liga; Nakurte, Ilva; Jalakas, Pirko; Kunga-Jegere, Laura; Brosche, Mikael; Rostoks, Nils (2019)
    Arabidopsis thaliana cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel gene 4 (AtCNGC4) loss-of-function mutant dnd2 exhibits elevated accumulation of salicylic acid (SA), dwarfed morphology, reduced hypersensitive response (HR), altered disease resistance and spontaneous lesions on plant leaves. An orthologous barley mutant, nec1, has been reported to over-accumulate indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and to exhibit changes in stomatal regulation in response to exogenous auxin. Here we show that the Arabidopsis dnd2 over-accumulates both IAA and abscisic acid (ABA) and displays related phenotypic and physiological changes, such as, reduced stomatal size, higher stomatal density and stomatal index. dnd2 showed increased salt tolerance in root growth assay and significantly reduced stomatal conductance, while maintaining near wt reaction in stomatal conductance upon external application of ABA, and probably consequently increased drought stress tolerance. Introduction of both sid2-1 and fmo1 into dnd2 background resulting in removal of SA did not alter stomatal conductance. Hence, the closed stomata of dnd2 is probably a result of increased ABA levels and not increased SA levels. The triple dnd2sid2abi1-1 mutant exhibited intermediate stomatal conductance compared to dnd2 and abil-1 (ABA insensitive, open stomata), while the response to external ABA was as in abi1-1 suggesting that reduced stomatal conductance in dnd2 is not due to impaired ABA signaling. In conclusion, Arabidopsis dnd2 mutant exhibited ABA overaccumulation and stomatal phenotypes, which may contribute to the observed improvement in drought stress resistance. Thus, Arabidopsis dnd2 mutant may serve as a model for studying crosstalk between biotic and abiotic stress and hormonal response in plants.
  • Shapiguzov, Alexey; Vainonen, Julia; Hunter, Kerri Alyssa; Tossavainen, Helena P M; Tiwari, Arjun; Järvi, Sari; Hellman, Maarit Helena; Aarabi, Fayezeh; Alseekh, Saleh; Wybouw, Brecht; Van Der Kelen, Katrien; Nikkanen, Lauri; Krasensky-Wrzaczek, Julia; Sipari, Nina Hannele; Keinänen, Markku; Tyystjaervi, Esa; Rintamäki, Eevi; De Rybel, Bert; Salojärvi, Jarkko Tapani; Van Breusegem, Frank; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Brosche, Mikael Johan; Permi, Perttu Esko Ilari; Aro, Eva-Mari; Wrzaczek, Michael Alois; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko Sakari (2019)
    Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent signaling pathways from chloroplasts and mitochondria merge at the nuclear protein RADICAL-INDUCED CELL DEATH1 (RCD1). RCD1 interacts in vivo and suppresses the activity of the transcription factors ANAC013 and ANAC017, which mediate a ROS-related retrograde signal originating from mitochondrial complex III. Inactivation of RCD1 leads to increased expression of mitochondrial dysfunction stimulon (MDS) genes regulated by ANAC013 and ANAC017. Accumulating MDS gene products, including alternative oxidases (AOXs), affect redox status of the chloroplasts, leading to changes in chloroplast ROS processing and increased protection of photosynthetic apparatus. ROS alter the abundance, thiol redox state and oligomerization of the RCD1 protein in vivo, providing feedback control on its function. RCD1-dependent regulation is linked to chloroplast signaling by 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphate (PAP). Thus, RCD1 integrates organellar signaling from chloroplasts and mitochondria to establish transcriptional control over the metabolic processes in both organelles.
  • Zimmermann, Martina; Armeanu-Ebinger, Sorin; Bossow, Sascha; Lampe, Johanna; Smirnow, Irina; Schenk, Andrea; Lange, Sebastian; Weiss, Thomas S.; Neubert, Wolfgang; Lauer, Ulrich M.; Bitzer, Michael (2014)
  • Voutilainen, Maria; Lindfors, Päivi; Trela, Ewelina; Lönnblad, Darielle; Shirokova, Vera; Elo, Teresa; Rysti, Elisa; Schmidt-Ullrich, Ruth; Schneider, Pascal; Mikkola, Marja L. (2015)
    Mammary gland development commences during embryogenesis with the establishment of a species typical number of mammary primordia on each flank of the embryo. It is thought that mammary cell fate can only be induced along the mammary line, a narrow region of the ventro-lateral skin running from the axilla to the groin. Ectodysplasin (Eda) is a tumor necrosis factor family ligand that regulates morphogenesis of several ectodermal appendages. We have previously shown that transgenic overexpression of Eda (K14-Eda mice) induces formation of supernumerary mammary placodes along the mammary line. Here, we investigate in more detail the role of Eda and its downstream mediator transcription factor NF-kappa B in mammary cell fate specification. We report that K14-Eda mice harbor accessory mammary glands also in the neck region indicating wider epidermal cell plasticity that previously appreciated. We show that even though NF-kappa B is not required for formation of endogenous mammary placodes, it is indispensable for the ability of Eda to induce supernumerary placodes. A genome-wide profiling of Eda-induced genes in mammary buds identified several Wnt pathway components as potential transcriptional targets of Eda. Using an ex vivo culture system, we show that suppression of canonical Wnt signalling leads to a dose-dependent inhibition of supernumerary placodes in K14-Eda tissue explants.
  • Crespo-Enriquez, Ivan; Partanen, Juha; Martinez, Salvador; Echevarria, Diego (2012)
  • Singh, Pooja; Ahi, Ehsan Pashay; Sturmbauer, Christian (2021)
    Background The oral and pharyngeal jaw of cichlid fishes are a classic example of evolutionary modularity as their functional decoupling boosted trophic diversification and contributed to the success of cichlid adaptive radiations. Most studies until now have focused on the functional, morphological, or genetic aspects of cichlid jaw modularity. Here we extend this concept to include transcriptional modularity by sequencing whole transcriptomes of the two jaws and comparing their gene coexpression networks. Results We show that transcriptional decoupling of gene expression underlies the functional decoupling of cichlid oral and pharyngeal jaw apparatus and the two units are evolving independently in recently diverged cichlid species from Lake Tanganyika. Oral and pharyngeal jaw coexpression networks reflect the common origin of the jaw regulatory program as there is high preservation of gene coexpression modules between the two sets of jaws. However, there is substantial rewiring of genetic architecture within those modules. We define a global jaw coexpression network and highlight jaw-specific and species-specific modules within it. Furthermore, we annotate a comprehensive in silico gene regulatory network linking the Wnt and AHR signalling pathways to jaw morphogenesis and response to environmental cues, respectively. Components of these pathways are significantly differentially expressed between the oral and pharyngeal jaw apparatus. Conclusion This study describes the concerted expression of many genes in cichlid oral and pharyngeal jaw apparatus at the onset of the independent life of cichlid fishes. Our findings suggest that - on the basis of an ancestral gill arch network-transcriptional rewiring may have driven the modular evolution of the oral and pharyngeal jaws, highlighting the evolutionary significance of gene network reuse. The gene coexpression and in silico regulatory networks presented here are intended as resource for future studies on the genetics of vertebrate jaw morphogenesis and trophic adaptation.
  • Ozkan-Dagliyan, Irem; Diehl, J. Nathaniel; George, Samuel D.; Schaefer, Antje; Papke, Bjoern; Klotz-Noack, Kathleen; Waters, Andrew M.; Goodwin, Craig M.; Gautam, Prson; Pierobon, Mariaelena; Peng, Sen; Gilbert, Thomas S. K.; Lin, Kevin H.; Dagliyan, Onur; Wennerberg, Krister; Petricoin, Emanuel F.; Tran, Nhan L.; Bhagwat, Shripad; Tiu, Ramon; Peng, Sheng-Bin; Herring, Laura E.; Graves, Lee M.; Sers, Christine; Wood, Kris C.; Cox, Adrienne D.; Der, Channing J. (2020)
    We address whether combinations with a pan-RAF inhibitor (RAFi) would be effective in KRAS mutant pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Chemical library and CRISPR genetic screens identify combinations causing apoptotic anti-tumor activity. The most potent combination, concurrent inhibition of RAF (RAFi) and ERK (ERKi), is highly synergistic at low doses in cell line, organoid, and rat models of PDAC, whereas each inhibitor alone is only cytostatic. Comprehensive mechanistic signaling studies using reverse phase protein array (RPPA) pathway mapping and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) show that RAFi/ERKi induced insensitivity to loss of negative feedback and system failures including loss of ERK signaling, FOSL1, and MYC; shutdown of the MYC transcriptome; and induction of mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition. We conclude that low-dose vertical inhibition of the RAF-MEK-ERK cascade is an effective therapeutic strategy for KRAS mutant PDAC.
  • Nyman, Tuula A.; Lorey, Martina B.; Cypryk, Wojciech; Matikainen, Sampsa (2017)
    Introduction: The immune system is our defense system against microbial infections and tissue injury, and understanding how it works in detail is essential for developing drugs for different diseases. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics can provide in-depth information on the molecular mechanisms involved in immune responses.Areas covered: Summarized are the key immunology findings obtained with MS-based proteomics in the past five years, with a focus on inflammasome activation, global protein secretion, mucosal immunology, immunopeptidome and T cells. Special focus is on extracellular vesicle-mediated protein secretion and its role in immune responses.Expert commentary: Proteomics is an essential part of modern omics-scale immunology research. To date, MS-based proteomics has been used in immunology to study protein expression levels, their subcellular localization, secretion, post-translational modifications, and interactions in immune cells upon activation by different stimuli. These studies have made major contributions to understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in innate and adaptive immune responses. New developments in proteomics offer constantly novel possibilities for exploring the immune system. Examples of these techniques include mass cytometry and different MS-based imaging approaches which can be widely used in immunology.
  • Kontio, Juho A. J.; Pyhäjärvi, Tanja; Sillanpää, Mikko J. (2021)
    Author summary Here we built up a mathematically justified bridge between 1) parametric approaches and 2) co-expression networks in light of identifying molecular interactions underlying complex traits. We first shared our concern that methodological improvements around these schemes, adjusting only their power and scalability, are bounded by more fundamental scheme-specific limitations. Subsequently, our theoretical results were exploited to overcome these limitations to find gene-by-gene interactions neither of which can capture alone. We also aimed to illustrate how this framework enables the interpretation of co-expression networks in a more parametric sense to achieve systematic insights into complex biological processes more reliably. The main procedure was fit for various types of biological applications and high-dimensional data to cover the area of systems biology as broadly as possible. In particular, we chose to illustrate the method's applicability for gene-profile based risk-stratification in cancer research using public acute myeloid leukemia datasets. A wide variety of 1) parametric regression models and 2) co-expression networks have been developed for finding gene-by-gene interactions underlying complex traits from expression data. While both methodological schemes have their own well-known benefits, little is known about their synergistic potential. Our study introduces their methodological fusion that cross-exploits the strengths of individual approaches via a built-in information-sharing mechanism. This fusion is theoretically based on certain trait-conditioned dependency patterns between two genes depending on their role in the underlying parametric model. Resulting trait-specific co-expression network estimation method 1) serves to enhance the interpretation of biological networks in a parametric sense, and 2) exploits the underlying parametric model itself in the estimation process. To also account for the substantial amount of intrinsic noise and collinearities, often entailed by expression data, a tailored co-expression measure is introduced along with this framework to alleviate related computational problems. A remarkable advance over the reference methods in simulated scenarios substantiate the method's high-efficiency. As proof-of-concept, this synergistic approach is successfully applied in survival analysis, with acute myeloid leukemia data, further highlighting the framework's versatility and broad practical relevance.
  • Gallud, Audrey; Delaval, Mathilde; Kinaret, Pia; Marwah, Veer Singh; Fortino, Vittorio; Ytterberg, Jimmy; Zubarev, Roman; Skoog, Tiina; Kere, Juha; Correia, Manuel; Loeschner, Katrin; Al-Ahmady, Zahraa; Kostarelos, Kostas; Ruiz, Jaime; Astruc, Didier; Monopoli, Marco; Handy, Richard; Moya, Sergio; Savolainen, Kai; Alenius, Harri; Greco, Dario; Fadeel, Bengt (2020)
    Despite considerable efforts, the properties that drive the cytotoxicity of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) remain poorly understood. Here, the authors inverstigate a panel of 31 ENMs with different core chemistries and a variety of surface modifications using conventional in vitro assays coupled with omics-based approaches. Cytotoxicity screening and multiplex-based cytokine profiling reveals a good concordance between primary human monocyte-derived macrophages and the human monocyte-like cell line THP-1. Proteomics analysis following a low-dose exposure of cells suggests a nonspecific stress response to ENMs, while microarray-based profiling reveals significant changes in gene expression as a function of both surface modification and core chemistry. Pathway analysis highlights that the ENMs with cationic surfaces that are shown to elicit cytotoxicity downregulated DNA replication and cell cycle responses, while inflammatory responses are upregulated. These findings are validated using cell-based assays. Notably, certain small, PEGylated ENMs are found to be noncytotoxic yet they induce transcriptional responses reminiscent of viruses. In sum, using a multiparametric approach, it is shown that surface chemistry is a key determinant of cellular responses to ENMs. The data also reveal that cytotoxicity, determined by conventional in vitro assays, does not necessarily correlate with transcriptional effects of ENMs.
  • Fred, Senem Merve; Laukkanen, Liina; Brunello, Cecilia A.; Vesa, Liisa; Göös, Helka; Cardon, Iseline; Moliner, Rafael; Maritzen, Tanja; Varjosalo, Markku; Casarotto, Plinio C.; Castren, Eero (2019)
    Several antidepressant drugs activate tropomyosin-related kinase B (TRKB) receptor, but it remains unclear whether these compounds employ a common mechanism for TRKB activation. Here, using MS, we found that a single intraperitoneal injection of fluoxetine disrupts the interaction of several proteins with TRKB in the hippocampus of mice. These proteins included members of adaptor protein complex-2 (AP-2) involved in vesicular endocytosis. The interaction of TRKB with the cargo-docking ? subunit of the AP-2 complex (AP2M) was confirmed to be disrupted by both acute and repeated fluoxetine treatments. Of note, fluoxetine disrupted the coupling between full-length TRKB and AP2M, but not the interaction between AP2M and the TRKB C-terminal region, indicating that the fluoxetine-binding site in TRKB lies outside the TRKB:AP2M interface. ELISA experiments revealed that in addition to fluoxetine, other chemically diverse antidepressants, such as imipramine, rolipram, phenelzine, ketamine, and its metabolite 2R,6R-hydroxynorketamine, also decreased the interaction between TRKB and AP2M in vitro. Silencing the expression of AP2M in a TRKB-expressing mouse fibroblast cell line (MG87.TRKB) increased cell-surface expression of TRKB and facilitated its activation by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), observed as levels of phosphorylated TRKB. Moreover, animals haploinsufficient for the Ap2m1 gene displayed increased levels of active TRKB, along with enhanced cell-surface expression of the receptor in cultured hippocampal neurons. Taken together, our results suggest that disruption of the TRKB:AP2M interaction is a common mechanism underlying TRKB activation by several chemically diverse antidepressants.
  • Kleino, Iivari; Jarviluoma, Annika; Hepojoki, Jussi; Huovila, Ari Pekka; Saksela, Kalle (2015)
    A disintegrin and metalloproteinases (ADAMs) constitute a protein family essential for extracellular signaling and regulation of cell adhesion. Catalytic activity of ADAMs and their predicted potential for Src-homology 3 (SH3) domain binding show a strong correlation. Here we present a comprehensive characterization of SH3 binding capacity and preferences of the catalytically active ADAMs 8, 9, 10, 12, 15, 17, and 19. Our results revealed several novel interactions, and also confirmed many previously reported ones. Many of the identified SH3 interaction partners were shared by several ADAMs, whereas some were ADAM-specific. Most of the ADAM-interacting SH3 proteins were adapter proteins or kinases, typically associated with sorting and endocytosis. Novel SH3 interactions revealed in this study include TOCA1 and CIP4 as preferred partners of ADAM8, and RIMBP1 as a partner of ADAM19. Our results suggest that common as well as distinct mechanisms are involved in regulation and execution of ADAM signaling, and provide a useful framework for addressing the pathways that connect ADAMs to normal and aberrant cell behavior.
  • Hasan, Md Rakibul; Takatalo, Maarit; Ma, Hongqiang; Rice, Ritva; Mustonen, Tuija; Rice, David P. C. (2020)
    Mutations in the gene encoding Ras-associated binding protein 23 (RAB23) cause Carpenter Syndrome, which is characterized by multiple developmental abnormalities including polysyndactyly and defects in skull morphogenesis. To understand how RAB23 regulates skull development, we generated Rab23-deficient mice that survive to an age where skeletal development can be studied. Along with polysyndactyly, these mice exhibit premature fusion of multiple sutures resultant from aberrant osteoprogenitor proliferation and elevated osteogenesis in the suture. FGF10-driven FGFR1 signaling is elevated in Rab23(-/-) sutures with a consequent imbalance in MAPK, Hedgehog signaling and RUNX2 expression. Inhibition of elevated pERK1/2 signaling results in the normalization of osteoprogenitor proliferation with a concomitant reduction of osteogenic gene expression, and prevention of craniosynostosis. Our results suggest a novel role for RAB23 as an upstream negative regulator of both FGFR and canonical Hh-GLI1 signaling, and additionally in the non-canonical regulation of GLI1 through pERK1/2.
  • Perea, Daniel; Guiu, Jordi; Hudry, Bruno; Konstantinidou, Chrysoula; Milona, Alexandra; Hadjieconomou, Dafni; Carroll, Thomas; Hoyer, Nina; Natarajan, Dipa; Kallijärvi, Jukka; Walker, James A.; Soba, Peter; Thapar, Nikhil; Burns, Alan J.; Jensen, Kim B.; Miguel-Aliaga, Irene (2017)
    Expression of the Ret receptor tyrosine kinase is a defining feature of enteric neurons. Its importance is underscored by the effects of its mutation in Hirschsprung disease, leading to absence of gut innervation and severe gastrointestinal symptoms. We report a new and physiologically significant site of Ret expression in the intestine: the intestinal epithelium. Experiments in Drosophila indicate that Ret is expressed both by enteric neurons and adult intestinal epithelial progenitors, which require Ret to sustain their proliferation. Mechanistically, Ret is engaged in a positive feedback loop with Wnt/Wingless signalling, modulated by Src and Fak kinases. We find that Ret is also expressed by the developing intestinal epithelium of mice, where its expression is maintained into the adult stage in a subset of enteroendocrine/enterochromaffin cells. Mouse organoid experiments point to an intrinsic role for Ret in promoting epithelial maturation and regulating Wnt signalling. Our findings reveal evolutionary conservation of the positive Ret/Wnt signalling feedback in both developmental and homeostatic contexts. They also suggest an epithelial contribution to Ret loss-of-function disorders such as Hirschsprung disease.
  • Wasik, Anita; Dumont, Vincent; Tienari, Jukka-Pekka; Nyman, Tuula A.; Fogarty, Christopher; Forsblom, Carol; Lehto, Markku; Lehtonen, Eero; Groop, Per-Henrik; Lehtonen, Sanna (2017)
    Glomerular epithelial cells, podocytes, are insulin responsive and can develop insulin resistance. Here, we demonstrate that the small GTPase septin 7 forms a complex with nonmuscle myosin heavy chain HA (NMHC-HA; encoded by MYH9), a component of the nonmuscle myosin HA (NM-IIA) hexameric complex. We observed that knockdown of NMHC-IIA decreases insulin-stimulated glucose uptake into podocytes. Both septin 7 and NM-IIA associate with SNAP23, a SNARE protein involved in GLUT4 storage vesicle (GSV) docking and fusion with the plasma membrane. We observed that insulin decreases the level of septin 7 and increases the activity of NM-IIA in the SNAP23 complex, as visualized by increased phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain. Also knockdown of septin 7 increases the activity of NM-IIA in the complex. The activity of NM-IIA is increased in diabetic rat glomeruli and cultured human podocytes exposed to macroalbuminuric sera from patients with type 1 diabetes. Collectively, the data suggest that the activity of NM-IIA in the SNAP23 complex plays a key role in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake into podocytes. Furthermore, we observed that septin 7 reduces the activity of NM-IIA in the SNAP23 complex and thereby hinders GSV docking and fusion with the plasma membrane.
  • Vahtola, Erik; Louhelainen, Marjut; Forsten, Hanna; Merasto, Saara; Raivio, Johanna; Kaheinen, Petri; Kyto, Ville; Tikkanen, Ilkka; Levijoki, Jouko; Mervaala, Eero (2010)
  • Piisilä, Maria; Keceli, Mehmet A.; Brader, Günter; Jakobson, Liina; Joesaar, Indrek; Sipari, Nina; Kollist, Hannes; Palva, E. Tapio; Kariola, Tarja (2015)
  • Kivela, Riikka; Salmela, Ida; Nguyen, Yen Hoang; Petrova, Tatiana V.; Koistinen, Heikki A.; Wiener, Zoltan; Alitalo, Kari (2016)
    The remarkable adaptive and regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle is regulated by several transcription factors and pathways. Here we show that the transcription factor Prox1 is an important regulator of myoblast differentiation and of slow muscle fibre type. In both rodent and human skeletal muscles Prox1 is specifically expressed in slow muscle fibres and in muscle stem cells called satellite cells. Prox1 activates the NFAT signalling pathway and is necessary and sufficient for the maintenance of the gene program of slow muscle fibre type. Using lineage-tracing we show that Prox1-positive satellite cells differentiate into muscle fibres. Furthermore, we provide evidence that Prox1 is a critical transcription factor for the differentiation of myoblasts via bi-directional crosstalk with Notch1. These results identify Prox1 as an essential transcription factor that regulates skeletal muscle phenotype and myoblast differentiation by interacting with the NFAT and Notch pathways.
  • Lecaudey, Laurene Alicia; Singh, Pooja; Sturmbauer, Christian; Duenser, Anna; Gessl, Wolfgang; Ahi, Ehsan Pashay (2021)
    BackgroundTeleosts display a spectacular diversity of craniofacial adaptations that often mediates ecological specializations. A considerable amount of research has revealed molecular players underlying skeletal craniofacial morphologies, but less is known about soft craniofacial phenotypes. Here we focus on an example of lip hypertrophy in the benthivorous Lake Tangnayika cichlid, Gnathochromis permaxillaris, considered to be a morphological adaptation to extract invertebrates out of the uppermost layer of mud bottom. We investigate the molecular and regulatory basis of lip hypertrophy in G. permaxillaris using a comparative transcriptomic approach.ResultsWe identified a gene regulatory network involved in tissue overgrowth and cellular hypertrophy, potentially associated with the formation of a locally restricted hypertrophic lip in a teleost fish species. Of particular interest were the increased expression level of apoda and fhl2, as well as reduced expression of cyp1a, gimap8, lama5 and rasal3, in the hypertrophic lip region which have been implicated in lip formation in other vertebrates. Among the predicted upstream transcription factors, we found reduced expression of foxp1 in the hypertrophic lip region, which is known to act as repressor of cell growth and proliferation, and its function has been associated with hypertrophy of upper lip in human.ConclusionOur results provide a genetic foundation for future studies of molecular players shaping soft and exaggerated, but locally restricted, craniofacial morphological changes in fish and perhaps across vertebrates. In the future, we advocate integrating gene regulatory networks of various craniofacial phenotypes to understand how they collectively govern trophic and behavioural adaptations.