Browsing by Subject "SIGNALS"

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  • von Lerber, Tuomo; Lassas, Matti; Lyubopytov, Vladimir S.; Ylinen, Lauri; Chipouline, Arkadi; Hofmann, Klaus; Küppers, Franko (2019)
    An all-optical computer has remained an elusive concept. To construct a practical computing primitive equivalent to an electronic Boolean logic, one should utilize nonlinearity that overcomes weaknesses that plague many optical processing schemes. An advantageous nonlinearity provides a complete set of logic operations and allows cascaded operations without changes in wavelength or in signal encoding format. Here we demonstrate an all-optical majority gate based on a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL). Using emulated signal coupling, the arrangement provides Bit Error Ratio (BER) of 10(-6) at the rate of 1 GHz without changes in the wavelength or in the signal encoding format. Cascaded operation of the injection-locked laser majority gate is simulated on a full adder and a 3-bit ripple-carry adder circuits. Finally, utilizing the spin-flip model semiconductor laser rate equations, we prove that injection-locked lasers may perform normalization operations in the steady-state with an arbitrary linear state of polarization.
  • Zhu, Yongjie; Wang, Xiaoyu; Mathiak, Klaus; Toiviainen, Petri; Ristaniemi, Tapani; Xu, Jing; Chang, Yi; Cong, Fengyu (2021)
    To examine the electrophysiological underpinnings of the functional networks involved in music listening, previous approaches based on spatial independent component analysis (ICA) have recently been used to ongoing electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG). However, those studies focused on healthy subjects, and failed to examine the group-level comparisons during music listening. Here, we combined group-level spatial Fourier ICA with acoustic feature extraction, to enable group comparisons in frequency-specific brain networks of musical feature processing. It was then applied to healthy subjects and subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD). The music-induced oscillatory brain patterns were determined by permutation correlation analysis between individual time courses of Fourier-ICA components and musical features. We found that (1) three components, including a beta sensorimotor network, a beta auditory network and an alpha medial visual network, were involved in music processing among most healthy subjects; and that (2) one alpha lateral component located in the left angular gyrus was engaged in music perception in most individuals with MDD. The proposed method allowed the statistical group comparison, and we found that: (1) the alpha lateral component was activated more strongly in healthy subjects than in the MDD individuals, and that (2) the derived frequency-dependent networks of musical feature processing seemed to be altered in MDD participants compared to healthy subjects. The proposed pipeline appears to be valuable for studying disrupted brain oscillations in psychiatric disorders during naturalistic paradigms.
  • Liu, Yixin; Kaljunen, Heidi; Pavic, Ana; Saarenpää, Tuulia; Himanen, Juha P.; Nikolov, Dimitar B.; Goldman, Adrian (2018)
    Eph/Ephrin signaling pathways are crucial in regulating a large variety of physiological processes during development, such as cell morphology, proliferation, migration and axonal guidance. EphrinA (efn-A) ligands, in particular, can be activated by EphA receptors at cellcell interfaces and have been proposed to cause reverse signaling via RET receptor tyrosine kinase. Such association has been reported to mediate spinal motor axon navigation, but conservation of the interactive signaling pathway and the molecular mechanism of the interaction are unclear. Here, we found Danio rerio efn-A5b bound to Mus musculus EphA4 with high affinity, revealing structurally and functionally conserved EphA/efn-A signaling. Interestingly, we observed no interaction between efn-A5b and RET from zebrafish, unlike earlier cell-based assays. Their lack of association indicates how complex efn-A signaling is and suggests that there may be other molecules involved in efn-A5-induced RET signaling.
  • Koskinen, Miika; Kurimo, Mikko; Gross, Joachim; Hyvärinen, Aapo; Hari, Riitta (2020)
    Natural speech builds on contextual relations that can prompt predictions of upcoming utterances. To study the neural underpinnings of such predictive processing we asked 10 healthy adults to listen to a 1-h-long audiobook while their magnetoencephalographic (MEG) brain activity was recorded. We correlated the MEG signals with acoustic speech envelope, as well as with estimates of Bayesian word probability with and without the contextual word sequence (N-gram and Unigram, respectively), with a focus on time-lags. The MEG signals of auditory and sensorimotor cortices were strongly coupled to the speech envelope at the rates of syllables (4-8 Hz) and of prosody and intonation (0.5-2 Hz). The probability structure of word sequences, independently of the acoustical features, affected the
  • Yeung, Dennis; Guerra, Irene Mendez; Barner-Rasmussen, Ian; Siponen, Emilia; Farina, Dario; Vujaklija, Ivan (2022)
    Objective: In this work, we present a myoelectric interface that extracts natural motor synergies from multi-muscle signals and adapts in real-time with new user inputs. With this unsupervised adaptive myocontrol (UAM) system, optimal synergies for control are continuously co-adapted with changes in user motor control, or as a function of perturbed conditions via online non-negative matrix factorization guided by physiologically informed sparseness constraints in lieu of explicit data labelling. Methods: UAM was tested in a set of virtual target reaching tasks completed by able-bodied and amputee subjects. Tests were conducted under normative and electrode perturbed conditions to gauge control robustness with comparisons to non-adaptive and supervised adaptive myocontrol schemes. Furthermore, UAM was used to interface an amputee with a multi-functional powered hand prosthesis during standardized Clothespin Relocation Tests, also conducted in normative and perturbed conditions. Results: In virtual tests, UAM effectively mitigated performance degradation caused by electrode displacement, affording greater resilience over an existing supervised adaptive system for amputee subjects. Induced electrode shifts also had negligible effect on the real world control performance of UAM with consistent completion times (23.91 +/- 1.33 s) achieved across Clothespin Relocation Tests in the normative and electrode perturbed conditions. Conclusion: UAM affords comparable robustness improvements to existing supervised adaptive myocontrol interfaces whilst providing additional practical advantages for clinical deployment. Significance: The proposed system uniquely incorporates neuromuscular control principles with unsupervised online learning methods and presents a working example of a freely co-adaptive bionic interface.
  • Sharifian, Fariba; Heikkinen, Hanna; Vigrio, Ricardo; Vanni, Simo (2016)
    In the visual cortex, stimuli outside the classical receptive field (CRF) modulate the neural firing rate, without driving the neuron by themselves. In the primary visual cortex (V1), such contextual modulation can be parametrized with an area summation function (ASF): increasing stimulus size causes first an increase and then a decrease of firing rate before reaching an asymptote. Earlier work has reported increase of sparseness when CRF stimulation is extended to its surroundings. However, there has been no clear connection between the ASF and network efficiency. Here we aimed to investigate possible link between ASF and network efficiency. In this study, we simulated the responses of a biomimetic spiking neural network model of the visual cortex to a set of natural images. We varied the network parameters, and compared the Vi excitatory neuron spike responses to the corresponding responses predicted from earlier single neuron data from primate visual cortex. The network efficiency was quantified with firing rate (which has direct association to neural energy consumption), entropy per spike and population sparseness. All three measures together provided a clear association between the network efficiency and the ASF. The association was clear when varying the horizontal connectivity within V-1, which influenced both the efficiency and the distance to ASF, DAS. Given the limitations of our biophysical model, this association is qualitative, but nevertheless suggests that an ASF-like receptive field structure can cause efficient population response.
  • Hopkins, Juhani; Lehtonen, Topi K.; Baudry, Gautier; Kaitala, Arja (2021)
    How fecundity might be traded off with mate attraction and other aspects of reproduction in females remains poorly understood. We investigated these allocation trade-offs using the common glowworm (Lampyris noctiluca), a lampyrid beetle, in which flightless, sedentary females only use resources gathered during the larval stage to attract flying males by glowing. While sexual signaling was not found to have a significant fecundity cost, a delay in successfully attracting a mate greatly increased the risk of reproductive failure, with fecundity losses being more severe in small females. These findings are among the first to show that failure to quickly attract a mate can decrease female fecundity. The results also show how the length of delay before mating can drive the evolution of female sexual ornamentation.
  • Harju, Jarkko; Vehkaoja, Antti; Lindroos, Ville; Kumpulainen, Pekka; Liuhanen, Sasu; Yli-Hankala, Arvi; Oksala, Niku (2017)
    Alterations in arterial blood oxygen saturation, heart rate (HR), and respiratory rate (RR) are strongly associated with intra-hospital cardiac arrests and resuscitations. A wireless, easy-to-use, and comfortable method for monitoring these important clinical signs would be highly useful. We investigated whether the Nellcor (TM) OxiMask MAX-FAST forehead sensor could provide data for vital sign measurements when located at the distal forearm instead of its intended location at the forehead to provide improved comfortability and easy placement. In a prospective setting, we recruited 30 patients undergoing surgery requiring postoperative care. At the postoperative care unit, patients were monitored for two hours using a standard patient monitor and with a study device equipped with a Nellcor (TM) Forehead SpO(2) sensor. The readings were electronically recorded and compared in post hoc analysis using Bland-Altman plots, Spearman's correlation, and root-mean-square error (RMSE). Bland-Altman plot showed that saturation (SpO(2)) differed by a mean of -0.2 % points (SD, 4.6), with a patient-weighted Spearman's correlation (r) of 0.142, and an RMSE of 4.2 points. For HR measurements, the mean difference was 0.6 bpm (SD, 2.5), r = 0.997, and RMSE = 1.8. For RR, the mean difference was -0.5 1/min (4.1), r = 0.586, and RMSE = 4.0. The SpO(2) readings showed a low mean difference, but also a low correlation and high RMSE, indicating that the Nellcor (TM) saturation sensor cannot reliably assess oxygen saturation at the forearm when compared to finger PPG measurements.
  • George, Harriet E.; Rodger, Craig J.; Clilverd, Mark A.; Cresswell-Moorcock, Kathy; Brundell, James B.; Thomson, Neil R. (2019)
    A technique for analyzing very low frequency (VLF) radiowave signals is investigated in order to achieve rapid, real-time detection of large solar flares, through the monitoring of changes in VLF radio signal propagation conditions. The reliability of the use of VLF phase and amplitude perturbations to determine the X-ray fluxes involved during 10 large solar flare events (>X1) is examined. Linear regression analysis of signals from the NPM transmitter in Hawaii, received at Arrival Heights, Scott Base, Antarctica, over the years 2011-2015 shows that VLF phase perturbations during large solar flares have a 1.5-3 times lower mean square error when modeling the long wavelength X-ray fluxes than the equivalent short wavelength fluxes. The use of VLF amplitude observations to determine long or short wavelength X-ray flux levels have a 4-10 times higher mean square error than when using VLF phase. Normalized linear regression analysis identifies VLF phase as the most important parameter in the regression, followed by solar zenith angle at the midpoint of the propagation path, then the initial solar X-ray flux level (from 5 min before the impact of the solar flare), with F10.7 cm flux from the day beforehand providing the least important contribution. Transmitter phase measurements are more difficult to undertake than amplitude. However, networks of VLF receivers already exist which include the high quality phase capability required for such a nowcasting product. Such narrowband VLF data can be a redundant source of flare monitoring if satellite data is not available.
  • Abdel-Rahman, Wael M.; Ruosaari, Saila; Knuutila, Sakari; Peltomäki, Päivi T (2012)
  • Anttonen, Mikko; Pihlajoki, Marjut; Andersson, Noora; Georges, Adrien; L'Hote, David; Vattulainen, Sanna; Farkkila, Anniina; Unkila-Kallio, Leila; Veitia, Reiner A.; Heikinheimo, Markku (2014)
  • Nokelainen, Ossi; Galarza, Juan A.; Kirvesoja, Jimi; Suisto, Kaisa; Mappes, Johanna (2022)
    The definition of colour polymorphism is intuitive: genetic variants express discretely coloured phenotypes. This classification is, however, elusive as humans form subjective categories or ignore differences that cannot be seen by human eyes. We demonstrate an example of a 'cryptic morph' in a polymorphic wood tiger moth (Arctia plantaginis), a phenomenon that may be common among well-studied species. We used pedigree data from nearly 20,000 individuals to infer the inheritance of hindwing colouration. The evidence supports a single Mendelian locus with two alleles in males: WW and Wy produce the white and yy the yellow hindwing colour. The inheritance could not be resolved in females as their hindwing colour varies continuously with no clear link with male genotypes. Next, we investigated if the male genotype can be predicted from their phenotype by machine learning algorithms and by human observers. Linear discriminant analysis grouped male genotypes with 97% accuracy, whereas humans could only group the yy genotype. Using vision modelling, we also tested whether the genotypes have differential discriminability to humans, moth conspecifics and their bird predators. The human perception was poor separating the genotypes, but avian and moth vision models with ultraviolet sensitivity could separate white WW and Wy males. We emphasize the importance of objective methodology when studying colour polymorphism. Our findings indicate that by-eye categorization methods may be problematic, because humans fail to see differences that can be visible for relevant receivers. Ultimately, receivers equipped with different perception than ours may impose selection to morphs hidden from human sight.
  • Annala, Eemeli; Ecker, Christian; Hoyos, Carlos; Jokela, Niko; Rodriguez Fernandez, David; Vuorinen, Aleksi (2018)
    We investigate a simple holographic model for cold and dense deconfined QCD matter consisting of three quark flavors. Varying the single free parameter of the model and utilizing a Chiral Effective Theory equation of state (EoS) for nuclear matter, we find four different compact star solutions: traditional neutron stars, strange quark stars, as well as two non-standard solutions we refer to as hybrid stars of the second and third kind (HS2 and HS3). The HS2s are composed of a nuclear matter core and a crust made of stable strange quark matter, while the HS3s have both a quark mantle and a nuclear crust on top of a nuclear matter core. For all types of stars constructed, we determine not only their mass-radius relations, but also tidal deformabilities, Love numbers, as well as moments of inertia and the mass distribution. We find that there exists a range of parameter values in our model, for which the novel hybrid stars have properties in very good agreement with all existing bounds on the stationary properties of compact stars. In particular, the tidal deformabilities of these solutions are smaller than those of ordinary neutron stars of the same mass, implying that they provide an excellent fit to the recent gravitational wave data GW170817 of LIGO and Virgo. The assumptions underlying the viability of the different star types, in particular those corresponding to absolutely stable quark matter, are finally discussed at some length.
  • Tamminen, Kaisa; Balboa Alonso, Diego; Toivonen, Sanna; Pakarinen, Mikko P.; Wiener, Zoltan; Alitalo, Kari; Otonkoski, Timo (2015)
    Wnt/beta-catenin signaling plays a central role in guiding the differentiation of the posterior parts of the primitive gut tube into intestinal structures in vivo and some studies suggest that FGF4 is another crucial factor for intestinal development. The aim of this study was to define the effects of Wnt and FGF4 on intestinal commitment in vitro by establishing conditions for differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) into posterior endoderm (hindgut) and further to self-renewing intestinal-like organoids. The most prominent induction of the well-established intestinal marker gene CDX2 was achieved when hPSC-derived definitive endoderm cells were treated with Wnt agonist molecule CHIR99021 during differentiation to hindgut. FGF4 was found to be dispensable during intestinal commitment, but it had an early role in repressing development towards the hepatic lineage. When hindgut stage cells were further cultured in 3D, they formed self-renewing organoid structures containing all major intestinal cell types even without exogenous R-spondin1 (RSPO1), a crucial factor for the culture of epithelial organoids derived from adult intestine. This may be explained by the presence of a mesenchymal compartment in the hPSC-derived organoids. Addition of WNT3A increased the expression of the Paneth cell marker Lysozyme in hPSC-derived organoid cultures, whereas FGF4 inhibited both the formation and maturation of intestinal-like organoids. Similar hindgut and organoid cultures were established from human induced pluripotent stem cells, implying that this approach can be used to create patient-specific intestinal tissue models for disease modeling in vitro.
  • Ruonala, Verneri; Pekkonen, Eero; Airaksinen, Olavi; Kankaanpää, Markku; Karjalainen, Pasi A.; Rissanen, Saara M. (2018)
    Levodopa medication is the most efficient treatment for motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). Levodopa significantly alleviates rigidity, rest tremor, and bradykinesia in PD. The severity of motor symptoms can be graded with UPDRS-III scale. Levodopa challenge test is routinely used to assess patients' eligibility to deep-brain stimulation (DBS) in PD. Feasible and objective measurements to assess motor symptoms of PD during levodopa challenge test would be helpful in unifying the treatment. Twelve patients with advanced PD who were candidates for DBS treatment were recruited to the study. Measurements were done in four phases before and after levodopa challenge test. Rest tremor and rigidity were evaluated using UPDRS-III score. Electromyographic (EMG) signals from biceps brachii and kinematic signals from forearm were recorded with wireless measurement setup. The patients performed two different tasks: arm isometric tension and arm passive flexion-extension. The electromyographic and the kinematic signals were analyzed with parametric, principal component, and spectrum-based approaches. The principal component approach for isometric tension EMG signals showed significant decline in characteristics related to PD during levodopa challenge test. The spectral approach on passive flexion-extension EMG signals showed a significant decrease on involuntary muscle activity during the levodopa challenge test. Both effects were stronger during the levodopa challenge test compared to that of patients' personal medication. There were no significant changes in the parametric approach for EMG and kinematic signals during the measurement. The results show that a wireless and wearable measurement and analysis can be used to study the effect of levodopa medication in advanced Parkinson's disease.
  • Rappe, Anna; McWilliams, Thomas G. (2022)
    Aging is characterised by the progressive accumulation of cellular dysfunction, stress, and inflammation. A large body of evidence implicates mitochondrial dysfunction as a cause or consequence of age-related diseases including metabolic disorders, neuropathies, various forms of cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. Because neurons have high metabolic demands and cannot divide, they are especially vulnerable to mitochondrial dysfunction which promotes cell dysfunction and cytotoxicity. Mitophagy neutralises mitochondrial dysfunction, providing an adaptive quality control strategy that sustains metabolic homeostasis. Mitophagy has been extensively studied as an inducible stress response in cultured cells and short-lived model organisms. In contrast, our understanding of physiological mitophagy in mammalian aging remains extremely limited, particularly in the nervous system. The recent profiling of mitophagy reporter mice has revealed variegated vistas of steady-state mitochondrial destruction across different tissues. The discovery of patients with congenital autophagy deficiency provokes further intrigue into the mechanisms that underpin neural integrity. These dimensions have considerable implications for targeting mitophagy and other degradative pathways in age-related neurological disease.
  • Muukkonen, Ilkka; Kilpeläinen, Markku; Turkkila, Roosa; Saarela, Toni; Salmela, Viljami (2022)
    Previous composite face studies have shown that an unattended face half that differs in identity or in expression from the attended face half distracts face perception. These studies have typically not controlled for the amount of information in different face halves. We investigated feature integration while participants discriminated angry and happy expressions. The stimuli were scaled using individual thresholds to control the expression strength in face halves. In the first experiment, we varied the relative amount of information in upper and lower parts. In the second experiment, participants tried to ignore one half of the face, which was either congruent or incongruent with the attended half. We found both beneficial and obligatory integration of face halves. A robust face composite effect was found both when attending eyes or mouth, and both for congruent and incongruent expressions, suggesting similar processing of face halves when the amount of information is controlled for.
  • Westö, Johan; Martyniuk, Nataliia; Koskela, Sanna; Turunen, Tuomas; Pentikäinen, Santtu; Ala-Laurila, Petri (2022)
    Perception of light in darkness requires no more than a handful of photons, and this remarkable behavioral performance can be directly linked to a particular retinal circuit???the retinal ON pathway. However, the neural limits of shadow detection in very dim light have remained unresolved. Here, we unravel the neural mecha-nisms that determine the sensitivity of mice (CBA/CaJ) to light decrements at the lowest light levels by measuring signals from the most sensitive ON and OFF retinal ganglion cell types and by correlating their sig-nals with visually guided behavior. We show that mice can detect shadows when only a few photon absorp-tions are missing among thousands of rods. Behavioral detection of such ???quantal???shadows relies on the retinal OFF pathway and is limited by noise and loss of single-photon signals in retinal processing. Thus, in the dim-light regime, light increments and decrements are encoded separately via the ON and OFF retinal pathways, respectively.
  • Gordon, Swanne P.; Burdfield-Steel, Emily; Kirvesoja, Jimi; Mappes, Riitta Johanna (2021)
    Polymorphic warning signals in aposematic systems are enigmatic because predator learning should favor the most common form, creating positive frequency-dependent survival. However, many populations exhibit variation in warning signals. There are various selective mechanisms that can counter positive frequency-dependent selection and lead to temporal or spatial warning signal diversification. Examining these mechanisms and their effects requires first confirming whether the most common morphs are favored at both local and regional scales. Empirical examples of this are uncommon and often include potentially confounding factors, such as a lack of knowledge of predator identity and behavior. We tested how bird behavior influences the survival of three coexisting morphs of the aposematic wood tiger moth Arctia plantaginis offered to a sympatric predator (great tit Parus major) at different frequencies. We found that although positive frequency-dependent selection is present, its strength is affected by predator characteristics and varying prey profitability. These results highlight the need to understand predator foraging in natural communities with variable prey defenses in order to better examine how behavioral interactions shape evolutionary outcomes.
  • Uusitalo, J.; Arppe, L.; Hackman, T.; Helama, S.; Kovaltsov, G.; Mielikäinen, K.; Mäkinen, H.; Nöjd, P.; Palonen, V.; Usoskin, I.; Oinonen, M. (2018)
    Recently, a rapid increase in radiocarbon (C-14) was observed in Japanese tree rings at AD 774/775. Various explanations for the anomaly have been offered, such as a supernova, a gamma-ray burst, a cometary impact, or an exceptionally large Solar Particle Event (SPE). However, evidence of the origin and exact timing of the event remains incomplete. In particular, a key issue of latitudinal dependence of the C-14 intensity has not been addressed yet. Here, we show that the event was most likely caused by the Sun and occurred during the spring of AD 774. Particularly, the event intensities from various locations show a strong correlation with the latitude, demonstrating a particle-induced C-14 poleward increase, in accord with the solar origin of the event. Furthermore, both annual C-14 data and carbon cycle modelling, and separate earlywood and latewood C-14 measurements, confine the photosynthetic carbon fixation to around the midsummer.