Browsing by Subject "SIZE"

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  • Qi, Lu; Vogel, Alexander L.; Esmaeilirad, Sepideh; Cao, Liming; Zheng, Jing; Jaffrezo, Jean-Luc; Fermo, Paola; Kasper-Giebl, Anne; Dällenbach, Kaspar; Chen, Mindong; Ge, Xinlei; Baltensperger, Urs; Prevot, Andre S. H.; Slowik, Jay G. (2020)
    The aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), combined with statistical methods such as positive matrix factorization (PMF), has greatly advanced the quantification of primary organic aerosol (POA) sources and total secondary organic aerosol (SOA) mass. However, the use of thermal vaporization and electron ionization yields extensive thermal decomposition and ionization-induced fragmentation, which limit chemical information needed for SOA source apportionment. The recently developed extractive electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (EESI-TOF) provides mass spectra of the organic aerosol fraction with a linear response to mass and no thermal decomposition or ionization-induced fragmentation. However, the costs and operational requirements of online instruments make their use impractical for long-term or spatially dense monitoring applications. This challenge was overcome for AMS measurements by measuring re-nebulized water extracts from ambient filter samples. Here, we apply the same strategy for EESI-TOF measurements of 1 year of 24 h filter samples collected approximately every fourth day throughout 2013 at an urban site. The nebulized water extracts were measured simultaneously with an AMS. The application of positive matrix factorization (PMF) to EESI-TOF spectra resolved seven factors, which describe water-soluble OA: less and more aged biomass burning aerosol (LABB(EESI) and MABB(EESI), respectively), cigarette-smoke-related organic aerosol, primary biological organic aerosol, biogenic secondary organic aerosol, and a summer mixed oxygenated organic aerosol factor. Seasonal trends and relative contributions of the EESI-TOF OA sources were compared with AMS source apportionment factors, measured water-soluble ions, cellulose, and meteorological data. Cluster analysis was utilized to identify key factor-specific ions based on PMF. Both LABB and MABB contribute strongly during winter. LABB is distinguished by very high signals from C6H10O5 (levoglucosan and isomers) and C8H12O6, whereas MABB is characterized by a large number of CxHyOz and CxHyOzN species of two distinct populations: one with low H : C and high O : C and the other with high H : C and low O : C. Two oxygenated summertime SOA sources were attributed to terpene-derived biogenic SOA, a major summertime aerosol source in central Europe. Furthermore, a primary biological organic aerosol factor was identified, which was dominated by plant-derived fatty acids and correlated with free cellulose. The cigarette-smoke-related factor contained a high contribution of nicotine and high abundance of organic nitrate ions with low m/z.
  • Novakovic, Bojan; Tsirvoulis, Georgios; Granvik, Mikael; Todovic, Ana (2017)
    We report the discovery of a new asteroid family among the dark asteroids residing in the Phocaea region the Tamara family. We make use of available physical data to separate asteroids in the region according to their surface reflectance properties, and establish the membership of the family. We determine the slope of the cumulative magnitude distribution of the family, and find it to be significantly steeper than the corresponding slope of all the asteroids in the Phocaea region. This implies that subkilometer dark Phocaeas are comparable in number to bright S-type objects, shedding light on an entirely new aspect of the composition of small Phocaea asteroids. We then use the Yarkovsky V-shape based method and estimate the age of the family to be 264 +/- 43Myr. Finally, we carry out numerical simulations of the dynamical evolution of the Tamara family. The results suggest that up to 50 Tamara members with absolute magnitude H <19.4 may currently be found in the near-Earth region. Despite their relatively small number in the near-Earth space, the rate of Earth impacts by small, dark Phocaeas is non-negligible.
  • Macias-Hernandez, Nuria; Ramos, Cândida; Domènech, Marc; Febles, Sara; Santos, Irene; Arnedo, Miquel A.; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Emerson, Brent C.; Cardoso, Pedro (2020)
    Background There is an increasing demand for databases including species trait information for biodiversity and community ecology studies. The existence of trait databases is useful for comparative studies within taxa or geographical regions, but there is low availability of databases for certain organisms. Here we present an open access functional trait database for spiders from Macaronesia and the Iberian Peninsula, recording several morphological and ecological traits related to the species life histories, microhabitat and trophic preferences. New information We present a database that includes 12 biological traits for 506 spider species present in natural forests of the Iberian Peninsula (Spain) and three Macaronesian archipelagoes (Azores, Madeira and Canary Islands). The functional trait database consists of two sections: 1. individual-level data for six morphological traits (total body size, prosoma length, prosoma width, prosoma height, tibia I length and fang length), based on direct measurements of 2844 specimens of all spider species; and 2. species-level aggregate data for 12 traits (same 6 morphological traits as in the previous section plus dispersal ability, vertical stratification, circadian activity, foraging strategy, trophic specialization and colonization status), based on either the average of the direct measurements or bibliographic searches. This functional trait database will serve as a data standard for currently ongoing analyses that require trait and functional diversity statistics.
  • Kemppainen, Petri; Husby, Arild (2018)
    A fundamental assumption in quantitative genetics is that traits are controlled by many loci of small effect. Using genomic data, this assumption can be tested using chromosome partitioning analyses, where the proportion of genetic variance for a trait explained by each chromosome (h(c)(2)), is regressed on its size. However, as h(c)(2)-estimates are necessarily positive (censoring) and the variance increases with chromosome size (heteroscedasticity), two fundamental assumptions of ordinary least squares (OLS) regression are violated. Using simulated and empirical data we demonstrate that these violations lead to incorrect inference of genetic architecture. The degree of bias depends mainly on the number of chromosomes and their size distribution and is therefore specific to the species; using published data across many different species we estimate that not accounting for this effect overall resulted in 28% false positives. We introduce a new and computationally efficient resampling method that corrects for inflation caused by heteroscedasticity and censoring and that works under a large range of dataset sizes and genetic architectures in empirical datasets. Our new method substantially improves the robustness of inferences from chromosome partitioning analyses.
  • Maragkidou, Androniki; Jaghbeir, Omar; Hämeri, Kaarle; Hussein, Tareq (2018)
    In this study, we measured the concentrations of accumulation and coarse particles inside an educational workshop (March 31–April 6, 2015), calculated particle emission and losses rates, and estimated inhaled deposited dose. We used an Optical Particle Sizer (TSI OPS 3330) that measures the particle number size distribution (diameter 0.3–10 μm) and we converted that into particle mass size distribution (assuming spherical particles and unit density). We focused on two particle size fractions: 0.3–1 μm (referred as PN0.3−1 and PM0.3−1) and 1–10 μm (referred as PN1−10 and PM1−10). The occupants' activities included coffee brewing, lecturing, tobacco smoking, welding, scrubbing, and sorting/drilling iron. The highest concentrations were observed during welding with PN0.3−1 (PM0.3−1) was ∼1866 cm−3 (55 μg/m3) and PN1−10 (PM1−10) was ∼7 cm−3 (103 μg/m3). The lowest concentrations were observed during coffee brewing and metal turning with PN0.3−1 (PM0.3−1) was ∼22 cm−3 (0.7 μg/m3) and PN1−10 (PM1−10) was ∼0.5 cm−3 (4 μg/m3). The emissions rate of coarse particles was 85–1010 particles/hour × cm3 whereas that for submicron particle in the diameter range 0.3–1 μm was 5.7 × 104–9.3 × 104 particles/hour × cm3 depending on the activity and the ventilation rate. The coarse particles losses rate was 0.35–2.1 h−1 and the ventilation rate was 0.24–2.1 h−1. The alveolar received the majority and particles below 1 μm with a fraction of about 53% of the total inhaled deposited dose whereas the head/throat region received about 18%. This study is important for better understanding the health effects at educational workshops.
  • Hu, Man; Lehtonen, Aleksi; Minunno, Francesco; Mäkelä, Annikki (2020)
    Tree structure equations derived from pipe model theory (PMT) are well-suited to estimate biomass allocation in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestrisL.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies[L.] Karst.). However, age dependence of parameters should be accounted for when applying the equations.
  • Laursen, Karsten; Moller, Anders Pape; Haugaard, Lars; Öst, Markus; Vainio, Jouni (2019)
    Capital breeders, such as the eider duck Somateria mollissima, accumulate resources before the start of breeding. Eiders preferentially feed on blue mussels Mytilus edulis to build up body condition during winter. We explored how body condition and gizzard mass of wintering eiders relate to mussel quality and quantity, winter climate and body condition of females at the breeding grounds. Body condition during winter (defined as scaled body mass index) of eiders increased during winter and the magnitude of the effect depended on age and mussel quality. Gizzard mass of eiders increased during winter with effects of mussel quality, mussel stocks and sex. Body condition in winter of adult females increased from the first half of January to the second half of February on average by 1.5%, equal to c. 96 g. During the same period gizzard mass of adult females increased by 12.2%, i.e., a nearly ten-fold increase compared to that observed in body condition in winter. Body condition of females at the breeding grounds in Finland (defined as body condition at hatching) was significantly positively correlated with gizzard mass in winter, but not significantly correlated with body condition in winter. Thus, eiders allocate body reserves to increase gizzard mass but less so to increase body condition in winter. This can be considered an adaptive migratory strategy of these eiders, whereby large winter (pre-migratory) gizzards increase food processing capacity, making it possible for eiders to arrive at the breeding grounds with superior body condition and a high reproductive potential.
  • Spadaro, Maria Chiara; Zhao, Junlei; Terry, William D.; Liu, Jian; Yin, Feng; Djurabekova, Flyura; Palmer, Richard E. (2019)
    The matrix assembly cluster source (MACS) represents a bridge between conventional instruments for cluster beam deposition (CBD) and the level of industrial production. The method is based on Ar+ ion sputtering of a pre-condensed Ar-M matrix (where M, is typically a metal such as Ag). Each Ar+ ion produces a collision cascade and thus the formation of metal clusters is in the matrix, which are then sputtered out. Here we present an experimental and computational investigation of the cluster emission process, specifically its dependence on the Ar+ ion angle of incidence and the cluster emission angle. We find the incidence angle strongly influences the emerging cluster flux, which is assigned to the spatial location of the deposited primary ion energy relative to the cluster into the matrix. We also found an approximately constant angle between the incident ion beam and the peak in the emitted cluster distribution, with value between 99 degrees and 109 degrees.
  • Luoma, Ville; Saarinen, Ninni; Wulder, Michael A.; White, Joanne C.; Vastaranta, Mikko; Holopainen, Markus; Hyyppä, Juha (2017)
    Forest resource information has a hierarchical structure: individual tree attributes are summed at the plot level and then in turn, plot-level estimates are used to derive stand or large-area estimates of forest resources. Due to this hierarchy, it is imperative that individual tree attributes are measured with accuracy and precision. With the widespread use of different measurement tools, it is also important to understand the expected degree of precision associated with these measurements. The most prevalent tree attributes measured in the field are tree species, stem diameter-at-breast-height (dbh), and tree height. For dbh and height, the most commonly used measuring devices are calipers and clinometers, respectively. The aim of our study was to characterize the precision of individual tree dbh and height measurements in boreal forest conditions when using calipers and clinometers. The data consisted of 319 sample trees at a study area in Evo, southern Finland. The sample trees were measured independently by four trained mensurationists. The standard deviation in tree dbh and height measurements was 0.3 cm (1.5%) and 0.5 m (2.9%), respectively. Precision was also assessed by tree species and tree size classes; however, there were no statistically significant differences between the mensurationists for dbh or height measurements. Our study offers insights into the expected precision of tree dbh and height as measured with the most commonly used devices. These results are important when using sample plot data in forest inventory applications, especially now, at a time when new tree attribute measurement techniques based on remote sensing are being developed and compared to the conventional caliper and clinometer measurements.
  • Leinonen, Jaakko T.; Surakka, Ida; Havulinna, Aki S.; Kettunen, Johannes; Luoto, Riitta; Salomaa, Veikko; Widen, Elisabeth (2012)
  • Bimbo, Luis M.; Sarparanta, Mirkka; Santos, Helder A.; Airaksinen, Anu J.; Makila, Ermei; Laaksonen, Timo; Peltonen, Leena; Lehto, Vesa-Pekka; Hirvonen, Jouni; Salonen, Jarno (AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY., 2010)
  • Bimbo, Luis M.; Sarparanta, Mirkka; Santos, Helder A.; Airaksinen, Anu J.; Makila, Ermei; Laaksonen, Timo; Peltonen, Leena; Lehto, Vesa-Pekka; Hirvonen, Jouni; Salonen, Jarno (AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY., 2010)
  • Pfeifer, Marion; Lefebvre, Veronique; Gardner, Toby A.; Arroyo-Rodriguez, Victor; Baeten, Lander; Banks-Leite, Cristina; Barlow, Jos; Betts, Matthew G.; Brunet, Joerg; Cerezo, Alexis; Cisneros, Laura M.; Collard, Stuart; D'Cruze, Neil; da Silva Motta, Catarina; Duguay, Stephanie; Eggermont, Hilde; Eigenbrod, Felix; Hadley, Adam S.; Hanson, Thor R.; Hawes, Joseph E.; Scalley, Tamara Heartsill; Klingbeil, Brian T.; Kolb, Annette; Kormann, Urs; Kumar, Sunil; Lachat, Thibault; Lakeman Fraser, Poppy; Lantschner, Victoria; Laurance, William F.; Leal, Inara R.; Lens, Luc; Marsh, Charles J.; Medina-Rangel, Guido F.; Melles, Stephanie; Mezger, Dirk; Oldekop, Johan A.; Overal, William L.; Owen, Charlotte; Peres, Carlos A.; Phalan, Ben; Pidgeon, Anna M.; Pilia, Oriana; Possingham, Hugh P.; Possingham, Max L.; Raheem, Dinarzarde C.; Ribeiro, Danilo B.; Ribeiro Neto, Jose D.; Robinson, W. Douglas; Robinson, Richard; Rytwinski, Trina; Scherber, Christoph; Slade, Eleanor M.; Somarriba, Eduardo; Stouffer, Philip C.; Struebig, Matthew J.; Tylianakis, Jason M.; Tscharntke, Teja; Tyre, Andrew J.; Urbina Cardona, Jose N.; Vasconcelos, Heraldo L.; Wearn, Oliver; Wells, Konstans; Willig, Michael R.; Wood, Eric; Young, Richard P.; Bradley, Andrew V.; Ewers, Robert M. (2014)
  • Näkki, Pinja; Setälä, Outi; Lehtiniemi, Maiju (2017)
    Microplastics (MPs) are observed to be present on the seafloor ranging from coastal areas to deep seas. Because bioturbation alters the distribution of natural particles on inhabited soft bottoms, a mesocosm experiment with common benthic invertebrates was conducted to study their effect on the distribution of secondary MPs (different-sized pieces of fishing line <1 mm). During the study period of three weeks, the benthic community increased MP concentration in the depth of 1.7-5.1 cm in the sediment. The experiment revealed a clear vertical gradient in MP distribution with their abundance being highest in the uppermost parts of the sediment and decreasing with depth. The Baltic clam Macoma balthica was the only study animal that ingested MPs. This study highlights the need to further examine the vertical distribution of MPs in natural sediments to reliably assess their abundance on the seafloor as well as their potential impacts on benthic communities.
  • Pineda-Munoz, Silvia; Jukar, Advait M.; Toth, Aniko B.; Fraser, Danielle; Du, Andrew; Barr, W. Andrew; Amatangelo, Kathryn L.; Balk, Meghan A.; Behrensmeyer, Anna K.; Blois, Jessica; Davis, Matt; Eronen, Jussi T.; Gotelli, Nicholas J.; Looy, Cindy; Miller, Joshua H.; Shupinski, Alexandria B.; Soul, Laura C.; Villasenor, Amelia; Wing, Scott; Lyons, S. Kathleen (2021)
    The late Quaternary of North America was marked by prominent ecological changes, including the end-Pleistocene megafaunal extinction, the spread of human settlements and the rise of agriculture. Here we examine the mechanistic reasons for temporal changes in mammal species association and body size during this time period. Building upon the co-occurrence results from Lyons et al. (2016) - wherein each species pair was classified as spatially aggregated, segregated or random - we examined body mass differences (BMD) between each species pair for each association type and time period (Late Pleistocene: 40 000(14)C-11 700(14)C ybp, Holocene: 11 700(14)C-50 ybp and Modern: 50-0 yr). In the Late Pleistocene and Holocene, the BMD of both aggregated and segregated species pairs was significantly smaller than the BMD of random pairs. These results are consistent with environmental filtering and competition as important drivers of community structure in both time periods. Modern assemblages showed a breakdown between BMD and co-occurrence patterns: the average BMD of aggregated, segregated and random species pairs did not differ from each other. Collectively, these results indicate that the late Quaternary mammalian extinctions not only eliminated many large-bodied species but were followed by a re-organization of communities that altered patterns of species coexistence and associated differences in body size.
  • Masalin, Senja; Rönö, Kristiina; Kautiainen, Hannu; Gissler, Mika; Eriksson, Johan G.; Laine, Merja K. (2019)
    AimsTo assess the relationship between body surface area (BSA) at birth and future risk for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).MethodsThis is an observational cohort study from Vantaa, Finland. The cohort included 1548 Finnish primiparous women, aged 15-28 years, without pre-existing diabetes, who gave birth 2009-2015. All women were born full-term and had complete information about their birth weight and length, from the Finnish Medical Birth Register. Additional data for the study were provided by individual patient health records and Statistics Finland. Study participants were divided into five levels (I-V) according to BSA at birth, based on normal distribution.ResultsThere was an inverse association between BSA at birth and risk for GDM (p=0.015 for linearity, after adjustments for age, educational attainment, pre-pregnancy BMI and smoking). The odds ratio (OR) for GDM in level V, with the largest BSA at birth, compared with level I, with the smallest BSA at birth, was 0.43 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.22-0.83]; adjusted for age, educational attainment, pre-pregnancy body mass index and smoking. The OR for GDM was 0.8 (95% CI 0.68-0.95, p=0.009) for each one standard deviation increase in BSA at birth, adjusted for the same confounders. BSA at birth correlated with adult anthropometry: correlation coefficients were r=0.16 (95% CI 0.11-0.21) for weight, r=0.31 (95% CI 0.26-0.35) for height, and r=0.06 (95% CI 0.01-0.11) for BMI.ConclusionsBody surface area at birth is inversely associated with future risk for GDM in primiparous women.
  • The CMS collaboration; Sirunyan, A. M.; Eerola, P.; Kirschenmann, H.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Havukainen, J.; Heikkilä, J. K.; Järvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampen, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurila, S.; Lehti, S.; Linden, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Siikonen, H.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuuva, T. (2020)
    Bose-Einstein correlations of charged hadrons are measured over a broad multiplicity range, from a few particles up to about 250 reconstructed charged hadrons in proton-proton collisions at s = 13 TeV. The results are based on data collected using the CMS detector at the LHC during runs with a special low-pileup configuration. Three analysis techniques with different degrees of dependence on simulations are used to remove the non-Bose-Einstein background from the correlation functions. All three methods give consistent results. The measured lengths of homogeneity are studied as functions of particle multiplicity as well as average pair transverse momentum and mass. The results are compared with data from both CMS and ATLAS at s = 7 TeV, as well as with theoretical predictions.
  • Kaivola, Karri; Kiviharju, Anna; Jansson, Lilja; Rantalainen, Ville; Eriksson, Johan G.; Strandberg, Timo E.; Laaksovirta, Hannu; Renton, Alan E; Traynor, Bryan J.; Myllykangas, Liisa; Tienari, Pentti (2019)
    The hexanucleotide repeat expansion in C9orf72 is a common cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/frontotemporal dementia and also rarely found in other psychiatric and neurodegenerative conditions. Alleles with >30 repeats are often considered an expansion, but the pathogenic repeat length threshold is still unclear. It is also unclear whether intermediate repeat length alleles (often defined either as 7-30 or 20-30 repeats) have clinically significant effects. We determined the C9orf72 repeat length distribution in 3142 older Finns (aged 60-104 years). The longest nonexpanded allele was 45 repeats. We found 7-45 repeats in 1036/3142 (33%) individuals, 20-45 repeats in 56/3142 (1.8%), 30-45 repeats in 12/3142 (0.38%), and expansion (>45 repeats) in 6/3142 (0.19%). There was no apparent clustering of neurodegenerative or psychiatric diseases in individuals with 30-45 repeats indicating that 30-45 repeats are not pathogenic. None of the 6 expansion carriers had a diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/frontotemporal dementia but 4 had a diagnosis of a neurodegenerative or psychiatric disease. Intermediate length alleles (categorized as 7-45 and 20-45 repeats) did not associate with Alzheimer's disease or cognitive impairment. (C) 2019 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • Kaivola, Karri; Salmi, Samuli J.; Jansson, Lilja; Launes, Jyrki; Hokkanen, Laura; Niemi, Anna-Kaisa; Majamaa, Kari; Lahti, Jari; Eriksson, Johan G.; Strandberg, Timo; Laaksovirta, Hannu; Tienari, Pentti J. (2020)
    The hexanucleotide repeat expansion in intron 1 of the C9orf72 gene causes amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia. In addition to the effects of the pathogenic expansion, a role of intermediate-length alleles has been suggested in ALS, corticobasal degeneration and Parkinson's disease. Due to the rarity of intermediate-length alleles with over 20 repeats and the geographical variability in their frequency, large studies that account for population stratification are needed to elucidate their effects. To this aim, we used repeat-primed PCR and confirmatory PCR assays to determine the C9orf72 repeat allele lengths in 705 ALS patients and 3958 controls from Finland. After exclusion of expansion carriers (25.5% of the ALS patients and 0.2% of the controls), we compared the frequency of intermediate-length allele carriers of 525 ALS cases and 3950 controls using several intermediate-length allele thresholds (7-45, 17-45, 21-45, 24-45 and 24-30). The carriership of an intermediate-length allele did not associate with ALS (Fisher's test, all p >= 0.15) nor was there any association with survival (p >= 0.33), when we divided our control group into three age groups (18-65, 66-84 and 85-105 years). Carriership of two intermediate-length alleles was associated with ALS, when the longer allele was >= 17 repeats (p=0.002, OR 5.32 95% CI 2.02-14.05) or >= 21 repeats (p=0.00016, OR 15.21 95% CI 3.79-61.0). Our results show that intermediate-length alleles are a risk factor of ALS when present in both alleles, whereas carrying just one intermediate-length allele was not associated with ALS or survival.
  • Qi, Shengcai; Zhang, Pengfei; Ma, Ming; Yao, Minghua; Wu, Jinjin; Mäkilä, Ermei; Salonen, Jarno; Ruskoaho, Heikki; Xu, Yuanzhi; Santos, Helder A.; Zhang, Hongbo (2019)
    Nanotechnology employs multifunctional engineered materials in the nanoscale range that provides many opportunities for translational stem cell research and therapy. Here, a cell-penetrating peptide (virus-1 transactivator of transcription)-conjugated, porous silicon nanoparticle (TPSi NP) loaded with the Wnt3a protein to increase both the cell survival rate and the delivery precision of stem cell transplantation via a combinational theranostic strategy is presented. The TPSi NP with a pore size of 10.7 nm and inorganic framework enables high-efficiency loading of Wnt3a, prolongs Wnt3a release, and increases antioxidative stress activity in the labeled mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which are highly beneficial properties for cell protection in stem cell therapy for myocardial infarction. It is confirmed that the intracellular aggregation of TPSi NPs can highly amplify the acoustic scattering of the labeled MSCs, resulting in a 2.3-fold increase in the ultrasound (US) signal compared with that of unlabeled MSCs. The translational potential of the designed nanoagent for real-time US imaging-guided stem cell transplantation is confirmed via intramyocardial injection of labeled MSCs in a nude mouse model. It is proposed that the intracellular aggregation of protein drug-loaded TPSi NPs could be a simple but robust strategy for improving the therapeutic effect of stem cell therapy.