Browsing by Subject "SKELETAL-MUSCLE MASS"

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  • Jyväkorpi, S. K.; Urtamo, A.; Kivimäki, M.; Strandberg, T. E. (2020)
    Key summary pointsAim To investigate how food and dietary intakes, protein daily distribution and source were associated with appendicular lean mass (ALM)/m(2) in the oldest-old community-dwelling men. Findings ALM/m(2) was associated with total protein intake, source and distribution as well as fruit and vegetable intakes. Message Not only protein intake, but also source and distribution as well as healthy overall diet characterized by abundant amounts of fruits and vegetables were important in maintaining muscle mass in the oldest-old men in our study. Purpose We explored how food and dietary intakes, protein daily distribution and source are associated with appendicular lean mass (ALM)/m(2) of the oldest-old community-dwelling men. Methods Cross-sectional analyses of Helsinki Businessmen Study (HBS, mean age 87 years) participants who came to clinic visit in 2017/2018. Nutritional status, physical performance and fasting blood samples were measured. Food and dietary intakes were retrieved from 3-day food diaries. Body composition was measured and appendicular lean mass (ALM) per m(2) was dichotomized as ALM/m(2) <7 kg/m(2) and >= 7 kg/m(2). Differences between lower and higher ALM were analyzed using t test or Mann-Whitney U test. Analysis of covariance was used to investigate independent associations with ALM/m(2). Results Random sample of 130 participants took part in the medical examinations, 126 returned food diaries, and 102 underwent DXA-scan. ALM/m(2) was associated with total protein (p = 0.033), animal protein (p = 0.043) and meat protein (p = 0.033) intakes. Protein distribution between daily meals differed at lunch; those with higher ALM/m(2) ate more protein (p = .047) at lunch. Consumption of fruits, vegetables (p = 0.022) and meat (p = 0.006) was associated with ALM/m(2). Conclusion Protein intake, source and distribution as well fruit and vegetable intakes were associated with higher ALM in oldest-old men. Study registration The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02526082.
  • Bjorkman, Mikko P.; Pitkala, Kaisu H.; Jyvakorpi, Satu; Strandberg, Timo E.; Tilvis, Reijo S. (2019)
    Objectives: To assess the prognostic significance of various characteristics and measurements of sarcopenia and physical functioning on all-cause mortality among home-dwelling older people with or at-risk of sarcopenia. Design: Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Setting: Porvoo sarcopenia trial in open care. Participants: Community-dwelling people aged 75 and older (N = 428, of which 182 were re-examined at one year) with four years of follow-up. Measurements: Body mass index (BMI), physical functioning (physical component of the RAND-36) and physical performance tests (Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB)), hand grip strength, walking speed, Charlson Comorbity Index, bioimpedance-based surrogates for muscle mass: Single Frequency Skeletal Muscle Index (SF-SMI), and Calf Intracellular Resistance Skeletal Muscle Index (CRi-SMI). Date of death was retrieved from central registers. Survival analyses were performed using Life-Table analyses and Cox models. Results: Most test variables (except BMI) were associated with four-year mortality in a dose-dependent fashion. After controlling for age, gender and co-morbidity, physical performance and functioning (both SPPB and RAND36), muscle strength (hand grip strength) and CRi-SMI appeared to be independent mortality risk indicators (p <0.001) whereas SF-SMI was not. When CRi-SMI values were grouped by gender-specific cut-off points, the probability of surviving for four years decreased by 66% among the older people with low CRi-SMI (HR = 0.34, 95%CI 0.15-0.78, p = 0.011). When low CRi-SMI was further controlled for SPPB, the prognostic significance remained significant (HR = 0.55, 95%CI 0.33-0.92, p = 0.021). After controlling for age, gender, comorbidity, and CRi-SMI, the physical component of the RAND-36 (p = 0.007), SPPB (p <0,001) and hand grip strength (p = 0.009) remained significant mortality predictors. Twelve-month changes were similarly associated with allcause mortality during the follow-up period. Conclusion: CRi-SMI, muscle strength, physical performance and physical functioning are each strong independent predictors of all-cause mortality among home-dwelling older people. Compared to these indicators, BMI seemed to be clearly inferior. Of two bioimpedance-based muscle indices, CRi SMI was better predictor of mortality than SF-SMI. In this regard, muscle mass, muscle strength and physical performance are all suitable targets for the prevention of sarcopenia-related over-mortality.
  • Almada-Correia, Inês; Neves, Pedro Miguel; Mäkitie, Antti; Ravasco, Paula (2019)
    Introduction: Head and neck cancer (HNC) patients show a high risk of malnutrition due to the lifestyle habits adopted prior to the diagnosis as well as to the compromising impact of both the anatomical location of the tumor and the treatment modalities on food intake. Weight change, measurement of skinfold thickness, biochemical parameters, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MRI), or dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) are available techniques to evaluate nutritional status and/or body composition in the clinical practice. Evaluating body composition alterations in HNC patients is essential to be able to offer the best therapeutical interventions. In this paper, we review the existing literature regarding body composition evaluation in HNC patients to determine, which is the most suitable method for this population, regarding availability in the day-to-day practice, patient burden, cost, sensibility, and specificity.Methodology: A literature search for relevant papers indexed in MEDLINE, Cochrane Library and Scielo was conducted, with no publication date restriction and for all published articles until the 31 January, 2019. All the papers written in English, with interventions in humans, exclusively considering HNC patients were selected.Results: A total of 41 studies with different methodologies were included in this review. In 15 studies BIA was the used assessment method and three of them also evaluated skinfold thickness and one was a bioelectric impedance vector analysis (BIVA). Body composition assessment was made with DXA in eight studies, one of which also included muscle biopsies. In two studies the chosen method was both BIA and DXA. CT/ positron emission tomography-CT was applied in 11 studies and one also included MRI. In two studies body composition was assessed with skinfold measurements alone and one study only used BIVA.Conclusions: Despite the different existing body composition assessment tools, it seems that skeletal muscle mass (SMM) measurement at the level of cervical spine C3 vertebra may be a reliable method for SMM assessment as it strongly correlates with cross-sectional area measures at the level of L3 and it allows a cost-effective body composition assessment without the need for additional radiation exposure.
  • Baijens, Laura W. J.; Walshe, Margaret; Aaltonen, Leena-Maija; Arens, Christoph; Cordier, Reinie; Cras, Patrick; Crevier-Buchman, Lise; Curtis, Chris; Golusinski, Wojciech; Govender, Roganie; Eriksen, Jesper Grau; Hansen, Kevin; Heathcote, Kate; Hess, Markus M.; Hosal, Sefik; Klussmann, Jens Peter; Leemans, C. Rene; MacCarthy, Denise; Manduchi, Beatrice; Marie, Jean-Paul; Nouraei, Reza; Parkes, Claire; Pflug, Christina; Pilz, Walmari; Regan, Julie; Rommel, Nathalie; Schindler, Antonio; Schols, Annemie M. W. J.; Speyer, Renee; Succo, Giovanni; Wessel, Irene; Willemsen, Anna C. H.; Yilmaz, Taner; Clave, Pere (2021)
    Purpose To develop a European White Paper document on oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) in head and neck cancer (HNC). There are wide variations in the management of OD associated with HNC across Europe. Methods Experts in the management of specific aspects of OD in HNC across Europe were delegated by their professional medical and multidisciplinary societies to contribute to this document. Evidence is based on systematic reviews, consensus-based position statements, and expert opinion. Results Twenty-four sections on HNC-specific OD topics. Conclusion This European White Paper summarizes current best practice on management of OD in HNC, providing recommendations to support patients and health professionals. The body of literature and its level of evidence on diagnostics and treatment for OD in HNC remain poor. This is in the context of an expected increase in the prevalence of OD due to HNC in the near future. Contributing factors to increased prevalence include aging of our European population (including HNC patients) and an increase in human papillomavirus (HPV) related cancer, despite the introduction of HPV vaccination in various countries. We recommend timely implementation of OD screening in HNC patients while emphasizing the need for robust scientific research on the treatment of OD in HNC. Meanwhile, its management remains a challenge for European professional associations and policymakers.
  • Zillikens, M. Carola; Demissie, Serkalem; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M.; Chou, Wen-Chi; Stolk, Lisette; Livshits, Gregory; Broer, Linda; Johnson, Toby; Koller, Daniel L.; Kutalik, Zoltyn; Luan, Jian'an; Malkin, Ida; Ried, Janina S.; Smith, Albert V.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhang, Weihua; Aghdassi, Ali; Akesson, Kristina; Amin, Najaf; Baier, Leslie J.; Barroso, Ines; Bennett, David A.; Bertram, Lars; Biffar, Rainer; Bochud, Murielle; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Buchman, Aron S.; Byberg, Liisa; Campbell, Harry; Obanda, Natalia Campos; Cauley, Jane A.; Cawthon, Peggy M.; Cederberg, Henna; Chen, Zhao; Cho, Nam H.; Choi, Hyung Jin; Claussnitzer, Melina; Collins, Francis; Cummings, Steven R.; De Jager, Philip L.; Demuth, Ilja; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A. M.; Diatchenko, Luda; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Enneman, Anke W.; Erdos, Mike; Eriksson, Johan G.; Eriksson, Joel; Estrada, Karol; Evans, Daniel S.; Feitosa, Mary F.; Fu, Mao; Garcia, Melissa; Gieger, Christian; Girke, Thomas; Glazer, Nicole L.; Grallert, Harald; Grewal, Jagvir; Han, Bok-Ghee; Hanson, Robert L.; Hayward, Caroline; Hofman, Albert; Hoffman, Eric P.; Homuth, Georg; Hsueh, Wen-Chi; Hubal, Monica J.; Hubbard, Alan; Huffman, Kim M.; Husted, Lise B.; Illig, Thomas; Ingelsson, Erik; Ittermann, Till; Jansson, John-Olov; Jordan, Joanne M.; Jula, Antti; Karlsson, Magnus; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kilpainen, Tuomas O.; Klopp, Norman; Kloth, Jacqueline S. L.; Koistinen, Heikki A.; Kraus, William E.; Kritchevsky, Stephen; Kuulasmaa, Teemu; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Lahti, Jari; Lang, Thomas; Langdahl, Bente L.; Launer, Lenore J.; Lee, Jong-Young; Lerch, Markus M.; Lewis, Joshua R.; Lind, Lars; Lindgren, Cecilia; Liu, Yongmei; Liu, Tian; Liu, Youfang; Ljunggren, Osten; Lorentzon, Mattias; Luben, Robert N.; Maixner, William; McGuigan, Fiona E.; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Meitinger, Thomas; Melhus, Hakan; Mellstrom, Dan; Melov, Simon; Michaelsson, Karl; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Morris, Andrew P.; Mosekilde, Leif; Newman, Anne; Nielson, Carrie M.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Oostra, Ben A.; Orwoll, Eric S.; Palotie, Aarno; Parker, Stephen C. J.; Peacock, Munro; Perola, Markus; Peters, Annette; Polasek, Ozren; Prince, Richard L.; Raikkonen, Katri; Ralston, Stuart H.; Ripatti, Samuli; Robbins, John A.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Satterfield, Suzanne; Schadt, Eric E.; Schipf, Sabine; Scott, Laura; Sehmi, Joban; Shen, Jian; Shin, Chan Soo; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; Smith, Shad; Soranzo, Nicole; Stancakova, Alena; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Streeten, Elizabeth A.; Styrkarsdottir, Unnur; Swart, Karin M. A.; Tan, Sian-Tsung; Tarnopolsky, Mark A.; Thompson, Patricia; Thomson, Cynthia A.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Tikkanen, Emmi; Tranah, Gregory J.; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; van Schoor, Natasja M.; Verma, Arjun; Vollenweider, Peter; Voelzke, Henry; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Walker, Mark; Weedon, Michael N.; Welch, Ryan; Wichmann, H. -Erich; Widen, Elisabeth; Williams, Frances M. K.; Wilson, James F.; Wright, Nicole C.; Xie, Weijia; Yu, Lei; Zhou, Yanhua; Chambers, John C.; Doring, Angela; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Econs, Michael J.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Spector, Timothy D.; Stefansson, Kari; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Ossowski, Vicky; Waterworth, Dawn; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Karasik, David; Harris, Tamara B.; Ohlsson, Claes; Kiel, Douglas P. (2017)
    Lean body mass, consisting mostly of skeletal muscle, is important for healthy aging. We performed a genome-wide association study for whole body (20 cohorts of European ancestry with n = 38,292) and appendicular (arms and legs) lean body mass (n = 28,330) measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry or bioelectrical impedance analysis, adjusted for sex, age, height, and fat mass. Twenty-one single-nucleotide polymorphisms were significantly associated with lean body mass either genome wide (p <5 x 10(-8)) or suggestively genome wide (p <2.3 x 10(-6)). Replication in 63,475 (47,227 of European ancestry) individuals from 33 cohorts for whole body lean body mass and in 45,090 (42,360 of European ancestry) subjects from 25 cohorts for appendicular lean body mass was successful for five single-nucleotide polymorphisms in/ near HSD17B11, VCAN, ADAMTSL3, IRS1, and FTO for total lean body mass and for three single-nucleotide polymorphisms in/ near VCAN, ADAMTSL3, and IRS1 for appendicular lean body mass. Our findings provide new insight into the genetics of lean body mass.
  • Billot, Maxime; Calvani, Riccardo; Urtamo, Annele; Sanchez-Sanchez, Juan Luis; Ciccolari-Micaldi, Cecilia; Chang, Milan; Roller-Wirnsberger, Regina; Wirnsberger, Gerhard; Sinclair, Alan; Vaquero-Pinto, Nieves; Jyväkorpi, Satu; Öhman, Hanna; Strandberg, Timo; Schols, Jos M. G. A.; Schols, Annemie M. W. J.; Smeets, Nick; Topinkova, Eva; Michalkova, Helena; Bonfigli, Anna Rita; Lattanzio, Fabrizia; Rodriguez-Manas, Leocadio; Coelho-Junior, Helio; Broccatelli, Marianna; D'Elia, Maria Elena; Biscotti, Damiano; Marzetti, Emanuele; Freiberger, Ellen (2020)
    One of the most widely conserved hallmarks of aging is a decline in functional capabilities. Mobility loss is particularly burdensome due to its association with negative health outcomes, loss of independence and disability, and the heavy impact on quality of life. Recently, a new condition, physical frailty and sarcopenia, has been proposed to define a critical stage in the disabling cascade. Physical frailty and sarcopenia are characterized by weakness, slowness, and reduced muscle mass, yet with preserved ability to move independently. One of the strategies that have shown some benefits in combatting mobility loss and its consequences for older adults is physical activity. Here, we describe the opportunities and challenges for the development of physical activity interventions in people with physical frailty and sarcopenia. The aim of this article is to review age-related physio(patho)logical changes that impact mobility in old age and to provide recommendations and procedures in accordance with the available literature.
  • THE EUROPEAN WORKING GROUP ON SARCOPENIA IN OLDER PEOPLE 2 (EWGSOP2); THE EXTENDED GROUP FOR EWGSOP2; Cruz-Jentoft, Alfonso J.; Bahat, Gülistan; Bauer, Jürgen; Boirie, Yves; Bruyere, Olivier; Cederholm, Tommy; Cooper, C.; Landi, Francesco; Rolland, Yves; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Schneider, Stephane M.; Sieber, Cornel C.; Topinkova, Eva; Vandewoude, Maurits; Visser, Marjolen; Zamboni, Mauro; Pitkälä, Kaisu Hannele (2019)
    Background in 2010, the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) published a sarcopenia definition that aimed to foster advances in identifying and caring for people with sarcopenia. In early 2018, the Working Group met again (EWGSOP2) to update the original definition in order to reflect scientific and clinical evidence that has built over the last decade. This paper presents our updated findings. Objectives to increase consistency of research design, clinical diagnoses and ultimately, care for people with sarcopenia. Recommendations sarcopenia is a muscle disease (muscle failure) rooted in adverse muscle changes that accrue across a lifetime; sarcopenia is common among adults of older age but can also occur earlier in life. In this updated consensus paper on sarcopenia, EWGSOP2: (1) focuses on low muscle strength as a key characteristic of sarcopenia, uses detection of low muscle quantity and quality to confirm the sarcopenia diagnosis, and identifies poor physical performance as indicative of severe sarcopenia; (2) updates the clinical algorithm that can be used for sarcopenia case-finding, diagnosis and confirmation, and severity determination and (3) provides clear cut-off points for measurements of variables that identify and characterise sarcopenia. Conclusions EWGSOP2's updated recommendations aim to increase awareness of sarcopenia and its risk. With these new recommendations, EWGSOP2 calls for healthcare professionals who treat patients at risk for sarcopenia to take actions that will promote early detection and treatment. We also encourage more research in the field of sarcopenia in order to prevent or delay adverse health outcomes that incur a heavy burden for patients and healthcare systems.