Browsing by Subject "SKILLS"

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  • Ronimus, Miia; Eklund, Kenneth; Westerholm, Jari; Ketonen, Ritva; Lyytinen, Heikki (2020)
    We used a randomized controlled trial to investigate if a mobile game, GraphoLearn (GL), could effectively support the learning of first graders (N = 70), who have severe difficulties in reading and spelling. We studied the effects of two versions of the game: GL Reading, which focused on training letter-sound correspondence and word reading; and GL Spelling, which included additional training in phonological skills and spelling. During the spring of first grade, the children trained with tablet computers which they could carry with them during the six-week intervention. The average exposure time to training was 5 hr 44 min. The results revealed no differences in the development of reading or spelling skills between GL players and the control group. However, pre-training self-efficacy moderated the effect among GL Reading players: children with high self-efficacy developed more than the control group in word reading fluency, whereas children with low self-efficacy developed less than the control group in spelling.
  • Muukkonen, Hanni; Lakkala, Minna; Lahti-Nuuttila, Pekka; Ilomäki, Liisa; Karlgren, Klas; Toom, Auli (2020)
    The necessity to learn competence for collaborative knowledge work during higher education (HE) is accepted widely, but continued work is required to explicate how to define and assess such competence. In this article, the development and validation of a questionnaire for assessing the development of collaborative knowledge work competence is based on object-bound collaborative knowledge creation practices. In total, 546 students responded to a questionnaire on Collaborative Knowledge Practices (CKP). The data were analysed for measurement invariance for two groups of HE students in media engineering and life sciences. Seven scales of the CKP were found to measure course-related learning of collaboration, integration of personal and collective efforts, development through feedback, persistent development of knowledge objects, understanding of different disciplines and related expertise, interdisciplinary collaboration, and using digital technology. The CKP questionnaire scales can be used as a generic self-evaluation tool for students on course-based learning outcomes.
  • Karlgren, Klas; Lakkala, Minna; Toom, Auli; Ilomäki, Liisa; Lahti-Nuuttila, Pekka; Muukkonen, Hanni (2020)
    The Collaborative Knowledge Practices Questionnaire (CKP) is an instrument designed to measure the learning of knowledge-work competence in education. The focus is on qualities of knowledge work which can be learned and taught in multiple educational settings and which may be especially important for courses with collaborative assignments. The original instrument was theoretically based on the knowledge-creation metaphor of learning. The instrument has been validated in Finnish based on student responses from a large number of higher education courses. The validation of the instrument resulted in seven scales relating to different aspects of interdisciplinary, collaborative development of knowledge-objects using digital technology. This study aimed to cross-culturally translate and adapt the original instrument into English and perform an exploratory structural equation modelling (ESEM) analysis in order to investigate whether the same factorial solution of the instrument also works in English in higher education courses in international settings. The original instrument was translated according to established guidelines for cross-cultural adaptation of self-report measures. The translated version has been tested in courses in medical education, online teaching and problem solving. The results provided evidence that the latent factor model found in the original instrument provided a good fit also for the adapted questionnaire.
  • Saviluoto, Anssi; Jäntti, Helena; Kirves, Hetti Anna; Setälä, Piritta; Nurmi, Jouni (2022)
    Background: Pre-hospital anaesthesia is a core competency of helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS). Whether physician pre-hospital anaesthesia case volume affects outcomes is unknown in this setting. We aimed to investigate whether physician case volume was associated with differences in mortality or medical management. Methods: We conducted a registry-based cohort study of patients undergoing drug-facilitated intubation by HEMS physician from January 1, 2013 to August 31, 2019. The primary outcome was 30-day mortality, analysed using multivariate logistic regression controlling for patient-dependent variables. Case volume for each patient was determined by the number of pre-hospital anaesthetics the attending physician had managed in the previous 12 months. The explanatory variable was physician case volume grouped by low (0-12), intermediate (13-36), and high (>= 37) case volume. Secondary outcomes were characteristics of medical management, including the incidence of hypoxaemia and hypotension. Results: In 4818 patients, the physician case volume was 511, 2033, and 2274 patients in low-, intermediate-, and high-case-volume groups, respectively. Higher physician case volume was associated with lower 30-day mortality (odds ratio 0.79 per logarithmic number of cases [95% confidence interval: 0.64-0.98]). High-volume physician providers had shorter on-scene times (median 28 [25th-75th percentile: 22-38], compared with intermediate 32 [23-42] and lowest 32 [23-43] case-volume groups; P Conclusions: Mortality appears to be lower after pre-hospital anaesthesia when delivered by physician providers with higher case volumes.
  • Holopainen, Leena; Kofler, Doris; Koch, Arno; Hakkarainen, Airi; Bauer, Kristin; Taverna, Livia (2020)
    The aim of this study was to use path modelling to establish how rapid automatized naming (RAN), verbal short-term memory (VSTM), letter-sound connection (LSC), phoneme blending (PHB), and Raven tasks predict reading in Finnish and German. Students (N = 769) from Finland, Germany, and Italy (German-speaking children from South Tyrol) were followed from first grade until the end of second grade. Firstly, in all countries, LSC was found to be the strongest predictor for reading in first grade. Secondly, Finnish students' word-reading skills were better than those of German and Italian students throughout the follow-up period, but word-reading level in first grade predicted word-reading level after one year only for Italian and German students. Thirdly, rapid automatized naming (RAN) and verbal short-term memory (VSTM) predicted reading skills in each orthography and country with a different power and at different phases, implying that the educational system also has a role in predicting reading skills.
  • Ueda, Riyo; Kaga, Yoshimi; Kita, Yosuke; Nakagawa, Eiji; Okada, Takashi; Inagaki, Masumi (2021)
    Background Poor reading ability is one of the common causes of low academic performance. In previous studies, children with dyslexia were found to demonstrate poor academic achievement due to poor reading ability. However, the relationship between academic achievement and reading ability in children with a borderline full-scale intellectual quotient (FSIQ) is unknown. This study aimed to clarify the clinical characteristics of children with borderline FSIQ and poor reading ability, and differentiate these characteristics from those of children with higher FSIQ and poor reading ability. Methods A total of 126 children (aged 6-15 years) identified as having low academic performance were enrolled. The reading ability of children was assessed through their performance on the hiragana (Japanese syllabary) reading task, while their reading and writing achievement was assessed through their reading and writing score on the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition. Children were categorized into two groups based on their FSIQ score (FSIQ > 85 and 85 >= FSIQ >= 70). Reading ability in children was evaluated by referring to the linear relationship between FSIQ and the standard deviation value of reading tasks in typically developing children. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to examine clinical characteristics between higher and lower FSIQ groups. Associations between reading and writing achievement, reading ability, and ages of children were assessed using Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficients for the higher and lower FSIQ groups. Results Poorer reading and writing achievement was associated with poorer reading ability in the higher FSIQ group. Conversely, poorer reading and writing achievement and poor reading ability were associated with older age in the lower FSIQ group. Conclusions Poor reading and writing achievement were associated with older age, not with poor reading ability in the lower FSIQ group. Children with lower FSIQ need appropriate educational interventions based on independent assessments to further their academic achievement and reading ability. Moreover, they need more frequent evaluations of their academic achievement than do children with higher FSIQ and poor reading ability since they are more likely to be at a lower academic achievement level at an older age.
  • Jeon, Yunsuk; Lakanmaa, Riitta-Liisa; Meretoja, Riitta; Leino-Kilpi, Helena (2017)
    Purpose: To identify competence assessment instruments in perianesthesia nursing care and to describe the validity and reliability of the instruments. Design: A scoping review in a systematic manner. Methods: A search in CINAHL, MEDLINE, and ERIC was carried out to identify empirical studies from 1994 to 2015. A narrative synthesis approach was undertaken to analyze the data. Findings: Nine competence assessment instruments in perianesthesia nursing care were identified. The instruments used three types of data collection methods: Self-report, observation, and written examinations. The most commonly reported validity method was content validity involving expert panels and reliability tests for internal consistency and inter-rater's consistency. Conclusions: Integrating more than one data collection method may give support to overcoming some of the limitations, such as lack of objectivity and misinterpretation of the assessment results. In an ever-changing environment, perianesthesia nursing competence requires constant reassessment from the perspective of content validity, scoring methods, and reliability.
  • Smith, Martine M.; Batorowicz, Beata; Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren; Murray, Janice; Stadskleiv, Kristine; van Balkom, Hans; Neuvonen, Kirsi; von Tetzchner, Stephen (2018)
    Narratives are a pervasive form of discourse and a rich source for exploring a range of language and cognitive skills. The limited research base to date suggests that narratives generated using aided communication may be structurally simple, and that features of cohesion and reference may be lacking. This study reports on the analysis of narratives generated in interactions involving aided communication in response to short, silent, video vignettes depicting events with unintended or unexpected consequences. Two measures were applied to the data: the Narrative Scoring Scheme and the Narrative Analysis Profile. A total of 15 participants who used aided communication interacted with three different communication partners (peers, parents, professionals) relaying narratives about three video events. Their narratives were evaluated with reference to narratives of 15 peers with typical development in response to the same short videos and to the narratives that were interpreted by their communication partners. Overall, the narratives generated using aided communication were shorter and less complete than those of the speaking peers, but they incorporated many similar elements. Topic maintenance and inclusion of scene-setting elements were consistent strengths. Communication partners offered rich interpretations of aided narratives. Relative to the aided narratives, these interpreted narratives were typically structurally more complete and cohesive and many incorporated more elaborated semantic content. The data reinforce the robust value of narratives in interaction and their potential for showcasing language and communication achievements in aided communication.
  • Vandenbroucke, Loren; Verschueren, Karine; Desoete, Annemie; Aunio, Pirjo; Ghesquiere, Pol; Baeyens, Dieter (2018)
    Working memory is important for a variety of life domains,. including for children's school functioning. As such, it is crucial to understand its development, antecedents and consequences. The current study investigates the development of different working memory components (phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad, central executive), the influence of different aspects of the teacher-student relationship (closeness, conflict, dependency) and its predictive value for academic achievement (reading, spelling, mathematics) across the transition from kindergarten to first grade. The sample consisted of 107 kindergarten children. Working memory tasks were administered at the end of kindergarten and first grade. Teachers reported on teacher-student relationship quality in the middle of first grade. Standardized tests were used to assess academic achievement at the end of first grade. Results indicate moderate to large increases in the phonological loop and visuospatial sketchpad and large gains in the central executive. Dependency of the student towards the teacher significantly predicted visuospatial sketchpad performance at the end of first grade. Reading was significantly predicted by the visuospatial sketchpad and phonological loop in kindergarten, while for spelling the visuospatial sketchpad was important. Finally, mathematics was predicted by performance on the phonological loop and the visuospatial sketchpad. The current study indicates the importance of the affective quality of the teacher-student relationship for working memory performance, which in turn is important for academic achievement. It is therefore critical to attend to the early detection and prevention or intervention of working memory problems in the classroom in order to prevent future academic problems. Additionally, maintaining a positive relationship with students and encouraging their independent exploration may be important when preventing such problems, complementary to cognitive or other types of training and intervention.
  • Laakso, Noora L.; Korhonen, Tiina S.; Hakkarainen, Kai P. J. (2021)
    Background: This exploratory study engaged teams of elementary and middle school students in the collaborative design of digital games. Game design is theoretically examined in this study as a form of knowledge-creating learning that is characterized by collaborative efforts to advance a shared object of activity, i.e., the game being designed. Using mixed methods, we examined how students experienced the game design project and how the project fostered connected learning, that is, integration of students' personal interests and supportive peer relations with their schoolwork, and how their self-assessed digital competences developed. Methods: The digital competences of 98 comprehensive school students across Finland were traced using pre-and post-questionnaires. The post-questionnaire also included validated measures on connected learning. Quantitative methods were used to analyze structured measures, and qualitative methods were used to analyze open-ended measures. Findings: Students experienced game design as an inspiring, challenging activity. Game design engaged student teams in sustained, collaborative efforts to create shared digital artifacts. Their efforts involved a great deal of mutual support and knowledge sharing. Participation also improved students' self-reported technical and artistic digital competences. The game design project fostered informal, interest-driven, sociodigital participation; inspired learning engagement; and improved schoolwork practices. Contribution: The game design project appeared to be a pedagogically meaningful way of engaging students in knowledge-creating learning and of connecting students' formal and informal learning. The project sparked students' motivation to learn, fostered digital competences, and enriched the learning environment.
  • Törmänen, Minna; Roebers, Claudia M. (2018)
    This longitudinal study investigates the differences in cognitive and socio-emotional development and academic achievement between children educated in special education classes (N = 37) and regular classes (N = 37). The study is retrospective. The first measurement point was while children were attending play-oriented kindergarten and no decision about their education had yet been made. The second measurement point followed after 2 years of schooling. Comparing carefully matched groups, no differences in executive functions (EFs) were found before beginning school. Children assigned to special education had poorer language, fine motor skills and a lower pre-academic self-concept, self-regulatory skills and social integration. Notably, every fourth child in special education was an immigrant, 9% of whom later attended regular classes. After 2 years of schooling in either setting, the groups differed significantly in academic achievement, EFs, fine motor skills and cognitive self-regulatory skills. However, it was not - as school officials had intended - that children in special education classes had caught up, except in regard to their academic self-concept and social integration.
  • Niemi, Hannele; Niu, Shuanghong Jenny (2021)
    The aim of this study was to uncover how digital storytelling advances students’ self-efficacy in mathematics learning and what kinds of learning experiences contribute to self-efficacy. Four Chinese classes with 10- to 11-year-old students (N = 121) participated in the project. The mathematics learning theme was geometry. Quantitative data was collected with questionnaires. The qualitative data was based on teachers’ and students’ interviews and observations. Both data sets showed that the students’ self-efficacy increased significantly during the project. The most important mediator was students’ perception of the meaningfulness of mathematics learning; digital storytelling enhanced the students’ ability to see mathematics learning as useful. They became more confident that they could learn mathematics and understand what they had learned. They also felt more confident in talking with their classmates about mathematical concepts. The role of self-efficacy was twofold: it supported students’ learning during the project and it increased due to meaningful mathematics learning experiences.
  • Koota, Elina; Kääriäinen, Maria; Melender, Hanna-Leena (2018)
    Introduction: Emergency nurses are expected to adopt evidence-based practice (EBP). The aim of this systematic review was to describe educational interventions promoting EBP and their outcomes among emergency nurses, compared with no education, to inform clinicians and researchers about effective educational interventions suitable for use in emergency departments (EDs). Methods: CINAHL, Cochrane, PubMed and Scopus were systematically searched to identify studies published between January 1, 2006 and October 20, 2016 describing educational interventions designed to promote EBP among emergency nurses. 711 studies were identified and screened; 10 were selected for inclusion and quality assessment. The studies were analyzed using deductive content analysis, and the review's results are presented in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. Results: Ten relevant studies on nine different self-developed educational interventions were identified. Eight studies had highly significant or significant results. Interventions involving face-to-face contact led to significant or highly significant effects on patient benefits and emergency nurses' knowledge, skills, and behavior. Interventions using written self-directed learning material led to significant improvements in nurses' knowledge of EBP. All the descriptions of the interventions were incomplete, and the reported details varied considerably between the studies. Conclusions: There have been few studies on educational interventions to promote EBP among emergency nurses but the available results are promising.
  • Löfgren, Sami; Ilomäki, Liisa; Toom, Auli (2020)
    To become employed, upper-secondary vocational graduates need adequate competences that correspond with the needs of working life, particularly with the expectations of their potential employers. However, research on the necessary competences of upper-secondary vocational education and training (VET) students is limited. This study examined what competences technical-trade employers expect of initial vocational education (IVET) graduates, which competences stand out in recruitment and what kind of experiences the employers had on the competences of their recent apprentices and novice employees. The study was conducted in the metropolitan area of Southern Finland. Ten representatives of employers offering apprenticeships for technical-trade IVET students were interviewed. The data consisted of interview transcriptions that were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The findings indicate that graduates' motivational, attitudinal and social competences contribute to businesses' employment decisions but only when the graduates have shown potential for vocational development as well. The findings further suggest that when graduating, young people possess adequate competences to a varying degree and some of them are insufficiently prepared.
  • Syrjämäki, Marja; Pihlaja, Päivi; Sajaniemi, Nina (2019)
    This article focuses on the initiatives taken by children and the responses given by professional adults with regard to the pedagogy of enhancing peer interaction among diverse learners. The study took place in four integrated special groups of public early childhood education. In groups of this kind, typically developing children and those with special educational needs (SEN) spent time together on a daily basis. We analysed 12 videotaped play sessions with 33 (3- to 6-year-old) children and 10 adults to examine the children's initiatives, the adults' responses, and the consequences that ensued. The study revealed verbal and nonverbal initiatives followed by a variety of responses scaffolding the children's interaction and participation. However, the nonverbal or faint initiatives, especially those taken by the children with SEN, were at risk of being unnoticed or ignored. These findings call for professional reflection on pedagogical sensitivity in recognizing and responding to the initiatives of children.
  • Kleemola, Katri; Hyytinen, Heidi (2019)
    As Finnish university admissions are reformed, more information is needed on the relationship between performance in prior education and later academic achievement. Transition to university is a critical period, and low performance in prior education is associated with challenges in later study. In the present study, law students' (n = 426) performance in the National Matriculation Examination was investigated in relation to later academic achievement at university. Quantitative methods were used. Findings showed that prior performance was not only associated with study success but also with study progress. The results also showed that law students who had grades in the advanced mathematics course were faster and more successful at university. This work contributes to the existing knowledge of university admissions ahead of the Finnish reform by providing new insights into prior performance and how it is related to academic achievement at university.
  • Asikainen, Marja; Kylliäinen, Anneli; Mäkelä, Tiina E.; Saarenpää-Heikkilä, Outi; Paavonen, E. Juulia (2021)
    Aim This study evaluated early speech and language development at 18 and 24 months, and associated factors, based on parental reports. Method We followed up the CHILD-SLEEP birth cohort of 1667 Finnish-speaking families, who were randomly recruited in 2011-2013 during routine visits to maternity clinics in the Pirkanmaa Hospital District of Finland. The women were approximately 32 weeks' pregnant at enrolment. Parents reported the size of their child's expressive vocabulary, word combinations, intelligibility, finger-pointing and adherence to instructions. A subsample was studied using the Expressive Language subscale of the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition. Results The children's vocabulary was smaller than previously reported. At 18 months of age, 68.8% of the 997 children had a vocabulary of 20 words or less and 35.7% used about five words at most. At 24 months, 32.4% of the 822 children had a vocabulary of 50 words or less and 18.4% used about 20 words at most. Longer child and parental exposure to electronic media was negatively associated with the size of the child's expressive vocabulary. Conclusion Vocabulary size at 18 and 24 months was smaller than previously reported and negatively associated with exposure to electronic media.
  • Antoniades, Athos; Nicolaidou, Iolie; Spachos, Dimitris; Mylläri, Jarkko; Giordano, Daniela; Dafli, Eleni; Mitsopoulou, Evangelia; Schizas, Christos N.; Pattichis, Constantinos; Nikolaidou, Maria; Bamidis, Panagiotis (2015)
    Background: The mEducator Best Practice Network (BPN) implemented and extended standards and reference models in e-learning to develop innovative frameworks as well as solutions that enable specialized state-of-the-art medical educational content to be discovered, retrieved, shared, and re-purposed across European Institutions, targeting medical students, doctors, educators and health care professionals. Scenario-based evaluation for usability testing, complemented with data from online questionnaires and field notes of users' performance, was designed and utilized for the evaluation of these solutions. Objective: The objective of this work is twofold: (1) to describe one instantiation of the mEducator BPN solutions (mEducator3.0 - "MEdical Education LINnked Arena" MELINA+) with a focus on the metadata schema used, as well as on other aspects of the system that pertain to usability and acceptance, and (2) to present evaluation results on the suitability of the proposed metadata schema for searching, retrieving, and sharing of medical content and with respect to the overall usability and acceptance of the system from the target users. Methods: A comprehensive evaluation methodology framework was developed and applied to four case studies, which were conducted in four different countries (ie, Greece, Cyprus, Bulgaria and Romania), with a total of 126 participants. In these case studies, scenarios referring to creating, sharing, and retrieving medical educational content using mEducator3.0 were used. The data were collected through two online questionnaires, consisting of 36 closed-ended questions and two open-ended questions that referred to mEducator 3.0 and through the use of field notes during scenario-based evaluations. Results: The main findings of the study showed that even though the informational needs of the mEducator target groups were addressed to a satisfactory extent and the metadata schema supported content creation, sharing, and retrieval from an end-user perspective, users faced difficulties in achieving a shared understanding of the meaning of some metadata fields and in correctly managing the intellectual property rights of repurposed content. Conclusions: The results of this evaluation impact researchers, medical professionals, and designers interested in using similar systems for educational content sharing in medical and other domains. Recommendations on how to improve the search, retrieval, identification, and obtaining of medical resources are provided, by addressing issues of content description metadata, content description procedures, and intellectual property rights for re-purposed content.
  • Kallio, Heli; Virta, Kalle; Kallio, Manne (2018)
    Metacognitive awareness consists of two components, i.e. regulation of cognition and knowledge of cognition. In earlier studies self-evaluation is aligned as a sub-component of regulation of cognition. However, in this study we point out that self-evaluation does not actually regulate the ongoing or forthcoming process but it is a tool used to reflect both knowledge and regulation. This alignment is modelled to assess to what extend self-evaluation can be predicted by the other components of the metacognitive awareness. The model is tested empirically among vocational education students (N= 578) using the Metacognitive Awareness Inventory (MAI). The results of SEM concludes that the conditions and goals appointed by the learner predict the selection of contents and strategies towards self-evaluation of one’s own learning. In other words, by measuring planning or conditional knowledge we could predict other components of knowledge or regulation and, especially, self-evaluation. The findings of this study extensively confirm that planning and knowledge of conditions predict success through the learning process. The results encourage teachers to support students in improving their metacognitive awareness, i.e. expect them to set goals for their own learning.
  • Mäenpää, Kati; Järvenoja, Hanna; Peltonen, Jouni; Pyhältö, Kirsi (2020)
    Although there is a strong body of evidence showing that motivational factors are critical components of self‐regulated professional learning and commitment to work, little is known about nursing students' motivation regulation during their studies. The aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of nursing students' motivation regulation (MR) strategies and factors contributing to their reported use along their 3‐year study path in a blended learning environment. A purposeful sampling was used to select 12 undergraduate nursing students, who exhibited different MR profiles and had completed almost 3 years of study in a BL degree program. A qualitative, deductive, content analysis was used to depict students' experiences from their retrospective recollection in the interview situation. Seven motivation strategies were identified: environmental structuring, self‐consequating, goal‐oriented self‐talk, efficacy management, emotion regulation, regulation of value, and interest enhancement. Individual and situational factors were found to enhance and to sustain the use of appropriate MR strategies. The students exhibited versatility in their use of MR strategies, which were related to the study phase. These findings regarding nursing students' MR strategies should be considered in the development of nursing education programs and the implementation of improvements that contribute to professional and self‐regulated learning in BL programs.