Browsing by Subject "SLEEP"

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  • Stahlmann, Katharina; Hebestreit, Antje; DeHenauw, Stefaan; Hunsberger, Monica; Kaprio, Jaakko; Lissner, Lauren; Molnar, Denes; Ayala-Marin, Aleli M.; Reisch, Lucia A.; Russo, Paola; Tornaritis, Michael; Veidebaum, Toomas; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Bogl, Leonie H. (2020)
    Background There has been an increase in children growing up in non-traditional families, such as single-parent and blended families. Children from such families have a higher prevalence of obesity and poorer health outcomes, but research on the relationship with obesogenic behaviours is limited. Objectives Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether there are associations between family structures and obesogenic behaviours and related family rules in European children and adolescents. Methods The sample included 7664 children (mean age +/- SD: 10.9 +/- 2.9) from 4923 families who were participants of the multi-centre I.Family study (2013/2014) conducted in 8 European countries. Family structure was assessed by a detailed interview on kinship and household. Obesogenic behaviours (screen time, sleep duration, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs)) and family rules (rules for computer and television, bedtime routine, availability of SSBs during meals) were determined by standardized questionnaires. Multilevel mixed-effects linear and logistic regression models were used to model the associations of family structure with obesogenic behaviours and family rules. Sex, age, parental education level, number of children and adults in the household and BMI z-score were covariates in the models. Two-parent biological families were set as the reference category. Results Children from single-parent families were less likely to have family rules regarding screen time (OR: 0.62, 95% CI: 0.40-0.94, p = 0.026) with higher reported hours of screen time per week (beta = 2.70 h/week, 95% CI: 1.39-4.00, p <0.001). The frequency of weekly SSB consumption differed by family structure in a sex-specific manner: girls from single-parent (beta = 3.19 frequency/week, 95% CI: 0.91-5.47, p = 0.006) and boys from blended/adoptive families (beta = 3.01 frequency/week, 95% CI: 0.99-5.03, p = 0.004) consumed more SSBs. Sleep duration, bedtime routines and availability of SSBs during meals did not differ between children from these family structures. Parental education did not modify any of these associations. Conclusions Parents in non-traditional family structures appear to experience more difficulties in restricting screen time and the intake of SSBs in their children than parents in traditional two-parent family structures. Our findings therefore suggest that additional support and effective strategies for parents in non-traditional families may help to reduce obesogenic behaviours in children from such family types.
  • Orjatsalo, Maija; Partinen, Eemil; Wallukat, Gerd; Alakuijala, Anniina; Partinen, Markku (2021)
    Study objectives: Narcolepsy type 1 is a rare hypersomnia of central origin, which is caused by loss of hypothalamic neurons that produce the neuropeptides hypocretin-1 and -2. Hypocretin-containing nerve terminals are found in areas known to play a central role in autonomic control and in pain signaling. Cholinergic M2 receptors are found in brain areas involved with the occurrence of hallucinations and cataplexy. In addition to classical symptoms of narcolepsy, the patients suffer frequently from autonomic dysfunction, chronic pain, and hypnagogic/hypnopompic hallucinations. We aimed to test whether narcolepsy type 1 patients have autoantibodies against autonomic beta 2 adrenergic receptor, M2 muscarinic receptors, or nociception receptors. Methods: We tested the serum of ten narcolepsy type 1 patients (five female) for activating beta 2 adrenergic receptor autoantibodies, M2 muscarinic receptor autoantibodies, and nociception receptor autoantibodies. Results: Ten of ten patients were positive for muscarinic M2 receptor autoantibodies (P <0.001), 9/10 were positive for autoantibodies against nociception receptors (P <0.001), and 5/10 were positive for beta 2 adrenergic receptor autoantibodies (P <0.001). Conclusions: Narcolepsy type 1 patients harbored activating autoantibodies against M2 muscarinic receptors, nociception receptors, and beta 2 adrenergic receptors. M2 receptor autoantibodies may be related to the occurrence of cataplexy and, moreover, hallucinations in narcolepsy since they are found in the same brain areas that are involved with these symptoms. The occurrence of nociception receptor autoantibodies strengthens the association between narcolepsy type 1 and pain. The connection between narcolepsy type 1, autonomic complaints, and the presumed cardiovascular morbidity might be associated with the occurrence of beta 2 adrenergic receptor autoantibodies. On the other hand, the presence of the autoantibodies may be secondary to the destruction of the hypocretin pathways. (C) 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Celikkayalar, Ercan; Airaksinen, Marja; Kivelä, Sirkka-Liisa; Nieminen, Jenni; Kleme, Jenni; Puustinen, Juha (2021)
    Purpose: The use of benzodiazepines and related drugs (BZD) is common among older adults although there is growing evidence of their harmful effects. This study investigated how well older people are aware of the potential risks related to the BZD they are taking and whether the risk awareness has changed in the years between 2004 and 2015. Patients and Methods: The data were collected by interviewing BZD using home-dwelling patients aged >= 65 years with normal cognitive function (MMSE >= 20) who were admitted to the hospital within a 1 month study period in the years 2004 and 2015. Patients were asked whether they were aware of the ten main potential risks related to BZD use. A risk awareness score (range 0-10) was assessed for each patient, each known potential risk yielding one point. Results: The study included 37 patients in 2004 and 31 patients in 2015. In 2004,6/37 patients (16%), while 16/31 patients (52%) in 2015 had risk awareness scores between 6 and 10. Awareness of dependence (p=0.047), interaction with alcohol (p=0.001), dizziness (p=0.002) and developing tolerance (p=0.002) had improved, while awareness of the other potential risks remained unchanged, muscle weakness being the least known (3/37 in 2004 and 4/31 in 2015 were aware of it as a potential risk). Regular BZD use had declined (p=0.043) but pro re nata (PRN; when required) BZD use had increased (p=0.003) between the years 2004 and 2015. Conclusion: Older BZD users' awareness of some potential risks related to BZD use (dependence, interaction with alcohol, dizziness and developing tolerance) had improved between 2004 and 2015, while awareness of other potential risks remained unchanged.
  • Chen, Bozhi; Bernard, Jonathan Y.; Padmapriya, Natarajan; Ning, Yilin; Cai, Shirong; Lanca, Carla; Tan, Kok Hian; Yap, Fabian; Chong, Yap-Seng; Shek, Lynette; Godfrey, Keith M.; Saw, Seang Mei; Chan, Shiao-Yng; Eriksson, Johan G.; Tan, Chuen Seng; Muller-Riemenschneider, Falk (2020)
    Background Screen viewing is a sedentary behaviour reported to interfere with sleep and physical activity. However, few longitudinal studies have assessed such associations in children of preschool age (0-6 years) and none have accounted for the compositional nature of these behaviours. We aimed to investigate the associations between total and device-specific screen viewing time at age 2-3 years and accelerometer-measured 24 h movement behaviours, including sleep, sedentary behaviour, light physical activity, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) at age 5.5 years. Methods The Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) study is an ongoing longitudinal birth cohort study in Singapore, which began in June 2009. We recruited pregnant women during their first ultrasound scan visit at two major public maternity units in Singapore. At clinic visits done at age 2-3 years, we collected parent-reported information about children's daily total and device-specific screen viewing time (television, handheld devices, and computers). At 5.5 years, children's movement behaviours for 7 consecutive days were measured using wrist-worn accelerometers. We assessed the associations between screen viewing time and movement behaviours (sedentary behaviour, light physical activity, MVPA, and sleep) using Dirichlet regression, which accounts for the compositional nature of such behaviours. This study is active but not recruiting and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01174875. Findings Between June 1, 2009, and Oct 12, 2010, 1247 pregnant women enrolled and 1171 singleton births were enrolled. 987 children had parent-reported screen data at either 2 or 3 years, of whom 840 attended the clinic visit at age 5.5 years, and 577 wore an accelerometer. 552 children had at least 3 days of accelerometer data and were included in the analysis. Total screen viewing time at age 2-3 years had a significant negative association with sleep (p=0.008), light physical activity (p= 3 h screen viewing time]), and less light physical activity (384.6 vs 356.2 mins per day), and MVPA (76.2 vs 63.4 mins per day) at age 5.5 years. No significant differences in time spent sleeping were observed between the groups (539.5 vs 540.4 mins per day). Similar trends were observed for television viewing and handheld device viewing. Interpretation Longer screen viewing time in children aged 2-3 years was associated with more time spent engaged in sedentary behaviour and shorter time engaged in light physical activity and MVPA in later childhood. Our findings indicate that screen viewing might displace physical activity during early childhood, and suggest that reducing screen viewing time in early childhood might promote healthier behaviours and associated outcomes later in life. Copyright (C) 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Merikanto, Ilona; Lahti, Tuuli; Seitsalo, Seppo; Kronholm, Erkki; Laatikainen, Tiina; Peltonen, Markku; Vartiainen, Erkki; Partonen, Timo (2014)
    Earlier studies have revealed that the more the preference to schedule daily activities towards the evening hours is, the higher the odds for a range of health hazards are. Therefore, we wanted to analyze, whether the behavioral trait of morningness-eveningness is associated with articular and spinal diseases or those with musculoskeletal disorders. Participants (n=6089), as part of the National FINRISK 2007 Study, were derived from the general population, aged 25 to 74 years, living in Finland. Chronotype was assessed based on six items from the original Horne-Ostberg Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire. Information about risk factors and the diagnoses of articular and spinal diseases were based on the self-reported information. Our results suggest that Evening-types have higher odds for articular and spinal diseases as compared with Morning-types, and this risk is heightened especially regarding spinal disease and backache (odds ratios of 1.8 to 2.1, and 1.6 to 1.8, respectively) and remains significant after controlling for the sex, age, education, civil status, physical activity, alcohol use, and smoking, and additionally for the body-mass index, insufficient sleep, or depressive symptoms.
  • Jalava-Broman, J.; Makinen, J.; Sillanmaki, L.; Vahtera, J.; Rautava, P. (2016)
    Objective: To investigate which patient characteristics are associated with the initiation of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in a cohort of Finnish women. Study design: Responses to postal questionnaires distributed to a nationwide, randomly selected cohort of women in 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005 and 2010 were analyzed. The cohort members were aged 40-44 years at the beginning of the study. Information on hormone replacement therapy was received from the national prescription register. Women who started taking HRT between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2011 were included and previous users were excluded from the analysis. Main outcome measures: Initiation of HRT was the main outcome measure. The following explanatory factors for predicting the use of HRT were examined: sociodemographic factors, personality, health behavior, physiological and mental symptoms, chronic diseases and use of psychopharmaceuticals. The associations between starting HRT and the explanatory factors were analyzed with single-predictor and multi-predictor logistic regression models. Results: Factors predicting that a woman would start taking HRT were: living with a partner, weak sense of coherence, BMI less than 30 kg/m(2), heavy or moderate alcohol use, symptoms of hyperactivity of the sympathetic nervous system, climacteric symptoms and use of psychopharmaceuticals. Conclusions: Women with a good sense of coherence can cope with climacteric symptoms without resorting to HRT. Clinicians need to bear in mind the burden of menopausal symptoms on a woman's personal and working life when HRT is being considered. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Björkqvist, Johan; Kuula, Juho; Kuula, Liisa; Nurhonen, Markku; Hovi, Petteri; Räikkönen, Katri; Pesonen, Anu; Kajantie, Eero (2020)
    Chronotype is the temporal preference for activity and sleep during the 24 h day and is linked to mental and physical health, quality of life, and mortality. Later chronotypes, so-called “night owls”, consistently display poorer health outcomes than “larks”. Previous studies have suggested that preterm birth (<37 weeks of gestation) is associated with an earlier chronotype in children, adolescents, and young adults, but studies beyond this age are absent. Our aim was to determine if adults born preterm at very low birth weight (VLBW, ≤1500 g) display different chronotypes than their siblings. We studied VLBW adults, aged 29.9 years (SD 2.8), matched with same-sex term-born siblings as controls. A total of 123 participants, consisting of 53 sibling pairs and 17 unmatched participants, provided actigraphy-derived data on the timing, duration, and quality of sleep from 1640 nights (mean 13.3 per participant, SD 2.7). Mixed effects models provided estimates and significance tests. Compared to their siblings, VLBW adults displayed 27 min earlier sleep midpoint during free days (95% CI: 3 to 51 min, p =.029). This was also reflected in the timing of falling asleep, waking up, and sleep-debt corrected sleep midpoint. The findings were emphasized in VLBW participants born small for gestational age. VLBW adults displayed an earlier chronotype than their siblings still at age 30, which suggests that the earlier chronotype is an enduring individual trait not explained by shared family factors. This preference could provide protection from risks associated with preterm birth.
  • Sulkava, Sonja; Ollila, Hanna M.; Alasaari, Jukka; Puttonen, Sampsa; Harma, Mikko; Viitasalo, Katriina; Lahtinen, Alexandra; Lindstrom, Jaana; Toivola, Auli; Sulkava, Raimo; Kivimaki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi; Partonen, Timo; Silander, Kaisa; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja; Paunio, Tiina (2017)
    Study Objectives: Tolerance to shift work varies; only some shift workers suffer from disturbed sleep, fatigue, and job-related exhaustion. Our aim was to explore molecular genetic risk factors for intolerance to shift work. Methods: We assessed intolerance to shift work with job-related exhaustion symptoms in shift workers using the emotional exhaustion subscale of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, and carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using Illumina's Human610-Quad BeadChip (n = 176). The most significant findings were further studied in three groups of Finnish shift workers (n = 577). We assessed methylation in blood cells with the Illumina HumanMethylation450K BeadChip, and examined gene expression levels in the publicly available eGWAS Mayo data. Results: The second strongest signal identified in the GWAS (p = 2.3 x 10E-6) was replicated in two of the replication studies with p Conclusions: These findings suggest that a variant near MTNR1A may be associated with job-related exhaustion in shift workers. The risk variant may exert its effect via epigenetic mechanisms, potentially leading to reduced melatonin signaling in the brain. These results could indicate a link between melatonin signaling, a key circadian regulatory mechanism, and tolerance to shift work.
  • Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Hedeker, Donald; Fogelholm, Mikael; Standage, Martyn; Onywera, Vincent; Lambert, Estelle V.; Tremblay, Mark S.; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Sarmiento, Olga; Matsudo, Victor; Kurpad, Anura; Kuriyan, Rebecca; Zhao, Pei; Hu, Gang; Olds, Timothy; Maher, Carol; Maia, Jose (2017)
    The purpose of this study was to describe children's daily compliance with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) recommendations across a week in different parts of the world, and to identify individual-and school-level correlates that may explain differences in daily MVPA compliance. The sample included 6553 children aged 9-11 years from 12 countries, and multilevel statistical analyses were used, including both child-and school-level variables. Most children did not comply with the MVPA guidelines on a daily basis: Chinese children complied the least, whereas Finnish, Australian, Colombian, UK, and Kenyan children complied the most. Boys (rate ratio [RR] = 1.47) and children with higher unhealthy diet scores (RR = 1.08) complied more, but overweight/obese children (RR = 0.81), earlier maturing children (RR = 0.93), and those who spent more time in screen activities (RR = 0.98) and sleeping (RR = 0.96) had the lowest compliance. At the school level, children with access to playground or sport equipment (RR = 0.88, for both) tended to comply less, whereas those with access to a gymnasium outside the school hours complied more with the MVPA guidelines (RR = 1.14). Significant between-country differences in children's daily MVPA compliance were observed, reflecting not only site characteristics, but also the importance of individual traits and local school contexts.
  • Nordentoft, Mads; Rod, Naja H.; Bonde, Jens Peter; Bjorner, Jakob B.; Madsen, Ida E. H.; Pedersen, Line R. M.; Cleal, Bryan; Hanson, Linda L. Magnusson; Nexo, Mette A.; Pentti, Jaana; Stenholm, Sari; Sterud, Tom; Vahtera, Jussi; Rugulies, Reiner (2020)
    Objective: To examine the prospective relation between effort-reward imbalance at work and risk of type 2 diabetes. Methods: We included 50,552 individuals from a national survey of the working population in Denmark, aged 30-64 years and diabetes-free at baseline. Effort-reward imbalance was defined, in accordance with the literature, as a mismatch between high efforts at work (e.g. high work pace, time pressure), and low rewards received in return (e.g. low recognition, job insecurity) and assessed as a continuous and a categorical variable. Incident type 2 diabetes was identified in national health registers. Using Cox regression we calculated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for estimating the association between effort-reward imbalance at baseline and risk of onset of type 2 diabetes during follow-up, adjusted for sex, age, socioeconomic status, cohabitation, children at home, migration background, survey year and sample method. Results: During 136,239 person-years of follow-up (mean = 2.7 years) we identified 347 type 2 diabetes cases (25.5 cases per 10,000 person-years). For each one standard deviation increase of the effort-reward imbalance score at baseline, the fully adjusted risk of type 2 diabetes during follow-up increased by 9% (HR: 1.09, 95% CI: 0.98-1.21). When we used effort-reward imbalance as a dichotomous variable, exposure to effort-reward imbalance was associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes with a HR of 1.27 (95% CI: 1.02-1.58). Conclusion The results of this nationwide study of the Danish workforce suggest that effort-reward imbalance at work may be a risk factor for type 2 diabetes.
  • Auvinen, Piritta; Mäntyselkä, Pekka; Koponen, Hannu; Kautiainen, Hannu; Korniloff, Katariina; Ahonen, Tiina; Vanhala, Mauno (2018)
    Background: Restless legs syndrome is a sensorimotor disorder associated with several mental illnesses particularly depression. Methods: A cross-sectional study of primary care patients. The prevalence of restless legs symptoms was studied in 706 patients with depressive symptoms and 426 controls without a psychiatric diagnosis by using a structured questionnaire. The depressive symptoms were evaluated with the BDI and the psychiatric diagnosis was confirmed by means of a diagnostic interview (M.I.N.I.). The subjects with elevated depressive symptoms were divided into two groups subjects with depressive symptoms with and without clinical depression. Results: The prevalence of restless legs symptoms was 24.8% in the controls, 50.0% in the patients with clinical depression and 42.4% in the patients with depressive symptoms. CRP value was significantly higher (p =.003) in the clinically depressed patients than in the other groups. There was a higher concentration of TNF-alpha in the subjects with restless legs symptoms (7.4 ng/l +/- 3.2) compared with the subjects without symptoms (6.7 ng/1 +/- 2.3)(p Conclusions: TNF-alpha level was associated with restless legs symptoms only among subjects with depressive symptoms whether they had clinical depression or not. We suggest that TNF-alpha could be an underlying factor between restless legs symptoms and comorbidities.
  • O'Toole, J. M.; Boylan, G. B.; Vanhatalo, S.; Stevenson, N. J. (2016)
    Objective: To develop an automated estimate of EEG maturational age (EMA) for preterm neonates. Methods: The EMA estimator was based on the analysis of hourly epochs of EEG from 49 neonates with gestational age (GA) ranging from 23 to 32 weeks. Neonates had appropriate EEG for GA based on visual interpretation of the EEG. The EMA estimator used a linear combination (support vector regression) of a subset of 41 features based on amplitude, temporal and spatial characteristics of EEG segments. Estimator performance was measured with the mean square error (MSE), standard deviation of the estimate (SD) and the percentage error (SE) between the known GA and estimated EMA. Results: The EMA estimator provided an unbiased estimate of EMA with a MSE of 82 days (SD = 9.1 days; SE = 4.8%) which was significantly lower than a nominal reading (the mean GA in the dataset; MSE of 267 days, SD of 16.3 days, SE = 8.4%: p <0.001). The EMA estimator with the lowest MSE used amplitude, spatial and temporal EEG characteristics. Conclusions: The proposed automated EMA estimator provides an accurate estimate of EMA in early preterm neonates. Significance: Automated analysis of the EEG provides a widely accessible, noninvasive and continuous assessment of functional brain maturity. (C) 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Ternman, Emma; Pastell, Matti; Hänninen, Laura; Agenäs, Sigrid; Nielsen, Per P. (2018)
    In human sleep studies, the probability of discomfort from the electrodes and the change in environment usually results in first-night recordings being discarded. Sleep recordings from the first night in human subjects often differ in amount of REM (rapid eye movement) sleep and the overall sleep architecture. This study investigated whether recordings of sleep states in dairy cows also show a first-night effect. Non-invasive electrophysiological recordings were carried out on nine cows of the Swedish Red breed during three consecutive 24-hour periods (recording days 1–3). Overall, cows spent 12.9 ± 1.4 hours awake, 8.2 ± 1 hours ruminating, 57.2 ± 20.3 min drowsing, 44.1 ± 20.2 min in REM sleep and 64.3 ± 38.1 min in NREM (non-rapid eye movement) sleep (mean ± SD) and there were no significant differences between recording days in total duration for any of the sleep and awake states. However, the bouts of REM sleep and rumination were longer, and the awake bouts were shorter, at night time compared to daytime, regardless of recording day. The awake bouts also showed an interaction effect with longer bouts at daytime during day 1 compared to daytime on day 3. Data on sleep and awake states recorded in adult dairy cows during three consecutive 24-h periods showed great variation in sleep time between cows, but total time for each state was not significantly affected by recording day. Further and more detailed studies of how sleep architecture is affected by recording day is necessary to fully comprehend the first-night effect in dairy cows.
  • Pospelov, Alexey S.; Yukin, Alexey Y.; Blumberg, Mark S.; Puskarjov, Martin; Kaila, Kai (2016)
    Febrile seizures are the most common type of convulsive events in children. It is generally assumed that the generalization of these seizures is a result of brainstem invasion by the initial limbic seizure activity. Using precollicular transection in 13-day-old rats to isolate the forebrain from the brainstem, we demonstrate that the forebrain is not required for generation of tonic-clonic convulsions induced by hyperthermia or kainate. Compared with sham-operated littermate controls, latency to onset of convulsions in both models was significantly shorter in pups that had undergone precollicular transection, indicating suppression of the brainstem seizure network by the forebrain in the intact animal. We have shown previously that febrile seizures are precipitated by hyperthermia-induced respiratory alkalosis. Here, we show that triggering of hyperthermia-induced hyperventilation and consequent convulsions in transected animals are blocked by diazepam. The present data suggest that the role of endogenous brainstem activity in triggering tonic-clonic seizures should be re-evaluated in standard experimental models of limbic seizures. Our work sheds new light on the mechanisms that generate febrile seizures in children and, therefore, on how they might be treated.
  • CTR-TBI Participants Investigators; Andelic, Nada; Roe, Cecilie; Brunborg, Cathrine; von Steinbuechel, Nicole; Palotie, Aarno; Piippo-Karjalainen, Anna; Pirinen, Matti; Raj, Rahul; Ripatti, Samuli (2021)
    Background Fatigue is one of the most commonly reported subjective symptoms following traumatic brain injury (TBI). The aims were to assess frequency of fatigue over the first 6 months after TBI, and examine whether fatigue changes could be predicted by demographic characteristics, injury severity and comorbidities. Methods Patients with acute TBI admitted to 65 trauma centers were enrolled in the study Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research in TBI (CENTER-TBI). Subjective fatigue was measured by single item on the Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPQ), administered at baseline, three and 6 months postinjury. Patients were categorized by clinical care pathway: admitted to an emergency room (ER), a ward (ADM) or an intensive care unit (ICU). Injury severity, preinjury somatic- and psychiatric conditions, depressive and sleep problems were registered at baseline. For prediction of fatigue changes, descriptive statistics and mixed effect logistic regression analysis are reported. Results Fatigue was experienced by 47% of patients at baseline, 48% at 3 months and 46% at 6 months. Patients admitted to ICU had a higher probability of experiencing fatigue than those in ER and ADM strata. Females and individuals with lower age, higher education, more severe intracranial injury, preinjury somatic and psychiatric conditions, sleep disturbance and feeling depressed postinjury had a higher probability of fatigue. Conclusion A high and stable frequency of fatigue was found during the first 6 months after TBI. Specific socio-demographic factors, comorbidities and injury severity characteristics were predictors of fatigue in this study.
  • Lommi, Sohvi; Figueiredo, Rejane Augusta de Oliveira; Tuorila, Hely; Viljakainen, Heli (2020)
    Convincing evidence suggests that diets laden with added sugar, specifically sugar-sweetened beverages, associate with excess weight in children. The relationships between sugar consumption frequency and BMI remain less well studied. We, therefore, evaluated children's consumption frequency of selected sugary products (n8461; mean age 11 center dot 1 (sd0 center dot 9) years) selected from the Finnish Health in Teens cohort study. Using a sixteen-item FFQ including six sugary products (chocolate/sweets, biscuits/cookies, ice cream, sweet pastry, sugary juice drinks and sugary soft drinks), we calculated a Sweet Treat Index (STI) for the frequency of weekly sugary product consumption and categorised children based on quartiles (Q) into low (Q1, cut-off <4 center dot 0), medium (Q2 + Q3, range 4 center dot 0-10 center dot 5) and high STI (Q4, cut-off > 10 center dot 5), and as thin, normal and overweight/obese based on the measured BMI. Through multinomial logistic regression analyses, we found that subjects with a high STI exhibited a higher risk of being thin (OR 1 center dot 20, 95 % CI 1 center dot 02, 1 center dot 41) and lower risk of being overweight (OR 0 center dot 79, 95 % CI 0 center dot 67, 0 center dot 92), while subjects with a low STI were at higher risk of being overweight (OR 1 center dot 32, 95 % CI 1 center dot 14, 1 center dot 53). High consumption frequencies of salty snacks, pizza and hamburgers most closely were associated with a high STI. Our findings suggest that consuming sugary products at a high frequency does not associate with being overweight. The relationship between a low consumption frequency and being overweight suggests that overweight children's consumption frequency of sugary products may be controlled, restricted or underreported.
  • Stevenson, N. J.; Oberdorfer, L.; Koolen, N.; O'Toole, J. M.; Werther, T.; Klebermass-Schrehof, K.; Vanhatalo, S. (2017)
    Minimally invasive, automated cot-side tools for monitoring early neurological development can be used to guide individual treatment and benchmark novel interventional studies. We develop an automated estimate of the EEG maturational age (EMA) for application to serial recordings in preterm infants. The EMA estimate was based on a combination of 23 computational features estimated from both the full EEG recording and a period of low EEG activity (46 features in total). The combination function (support vector regression) was trained using 101 serial EEG recordings from 39 preterm infants with a gestational age less than 28 weeks and normal neurodevelopmental outcome at 12 months of age. EEG recordings were performed from 24 to 38 weeks post-menstrual age (PMA). The correlation between the EMA and the clinically determined PMA at the time of EEG recording was 0.936 (95% CI: 0.932-0.976; n = 39). All infants had an increase in EMA between the first and last EEG recording and 57/62 (92%) of repeated measures within an infant had an increasing EMA with PMA of EEG recording. The EMA is a surrogate measure of age that can accurately determine brain maturation in preterm infants.
  • Niiranen, Janette; Kiviruusu, Olli; Vornanen, Riitta; Saarenpaa-Heikkila, Outi; Paavonen, E. Juulia (2021)
    Objectives This study investigated the frequency of electronic media (e-media) usage by preschool children and the risks of high-dose e-media use on young children’s psychosocial well-being. Design Longitudinal associations between e-media use at 18 months and psychosocial symptoms at 5 years of age were studied, as well as cross-sectional associations between e-media use and psychosocial symptoms at 5 years. Setting Between 2011 and 2017 in Finland. Participants Children aged 5 years (n=699). Primary and secondary outcome measures Children’s psychosocial symptoms were determined at the age of 5 years using the parent-reported questionnaires Five-to-Fifteen (FTF) and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Results Based on our results, 95% of the preschool children exceeded the daily recommended use of e-media set by health professionals. Our results indicate that increased screen time at 5 years of age is associated with a risk of multiple psychosocial symptoms (OR 1.53–2.18, 95% CI 1.05 to 3.34, p<0.05), while increased levels of e-media use at 18 months was only associated with FTF peer problems (OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.41, p=0.03). Moreover, high-dose use of electronic games at the age of 5 years seems to be associated with fewer risks for psychosocial well-being than programme viewing, as it was only associated with SDQ hyperactivity (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.08 to 2.51, p=0.02). Conclusion Increased screen time has multiple risks for children’s psychosocial well-being. These risk factors seem to be significant in the long term, and are related to problems in children’s socio-emotional development later on. Health professionals and paediatricians have an important role as communicators of the current research results on the safe usage time of e-media for families, and enhancing parents’ skills as regulators of children’s safe e-media use. More research is needed on the family conditions of high-dose e-media users.
  • Hablitz, Lauren M.; Vinitsky, Hanna S.; Sun, Qian; Staeger, Frederik Filip; Sigurdsson, Björn; Mortensen, Kristian N.; Lilius, Tuomas O.; Nedergaard, Maiken (2019)
    The glymphatic system is responsible for brain-wide delivery of nutrients and clearance of waste via influx of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) alongside perivascular spaces and through the brain. Glymphatic system activity increases during sleep or ketamine/xylazine (K/X) anesthesia, yet the mechanism(s) facilitating CSF influx are poorly understood. Here, we correlated influx of a CSF tracer into the brain with electroencephalogram (EEG) power, heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory rate in wild-type mice under six different anesthesia regimens. We found that glymphatic CSF tracer influx was highest under K/X followed by isoflurane (ISO) supplemented with dexmedetomidine and pentobarbital. Mice anesthetized with a-chloralose, Avertin, or ISO exhibited low CSF tracer influx. This is the first study to show that glymphatic influx correlates positively with cortical delta power in EEG recordings and negatively with beta power and heart rate.
  • Ollila, Hanna M.; Kronholm, Erkki; Kettunen, Johannes; Silander, Kaisa; Perola, Markus; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja; Salomaa, Veikko; Paunio, Tiina (2016)