Browsing by Subject "SOCIAL COGNITION"

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  • Afdile, Mamdooh; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P.; Glerean, Enrico; Smirnov, Dmitry; Alho, Jussi; Äimälä, Anna; Sams, Mikko (2019)
    We are constantly categorizing other people as belonging to our in-group (one of us') or out-group (one of them'). Such grouping occurs fast and automatically and can be based on others' visible characteristics such as skin color or clothing style. Here we studied neural underpinnings of implicit social grouping not often visible on the face, male sexual orientation. A total of 14 homosexuals and 15 heterosexual males were scanned in functional magnetic resonance imaging while watching a movie about a homosexual man, whose face was also presented subliminally before (subjects did not know about the character's sexual orientation) and after the movie. We discovered significantly stronger activation to the man's face after seeing the movie in homosexual but not heterosexual subjects in medial prefrontal cortex, frontal pole, anterior cingulate cortex, right temporal parietal junction and bilateral superior frontal gyrus. In previous research, these brain areas have been connected to social perception, self-referential thinking, empathy, theory of mind and in-group perception. In line with previous studies showing biased perception of in-/out-group faces to be context dependent, our novel approach further demonstrates how complex contextual knowledge gained under naturalistic viewing can bias implicit social perception.
  • Baryshnikov, I.; Aaltonen, K.; Koivisto, M.; Naatanen, P.; Karpov, B.; Melartin, T.; Heikkinen, M.; Ketokivi, M.; Joffe, G.; Isometsa, E. (2015)
    Background: Differential diagnosis between bipolar disorder (BD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) is often challenging due to some overlap in symptoms and comorbidity of disorders. We investigated correlations in self-reported symptoms of BD and BPD in screening questionnaires at the levels of both total scores and individual items and explored overlapping dimensions. Methods: The McLean Screening Instrument (MSI) for BPD and the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) for BD were filled in by patients with unipolar and bipolar mood disorders (n = 313) from specialized psychiatric care within a pilot study of the Helsinki University Psychiatric Consortium. Pearson's correlation coefficients between total scores and individual items of the MSI and the MDQ were estimated. Relationships between MDQ and MSI were evaluated by exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Results: The correlation between total scores of the MDQ and MSI was moderate (r = 0.431, P <0.001). Significant correlations were found between the MSI items of "impulsivity'' and "mood instability'' and all MDQ items (P <0.01). In the EFA, the MSI "impulsivity'' and "mood instability'' items had significant cross-loadings (0.348 and 0.298, respectively) with the MDQ factor. The MDQ items of "irritability'', "flight of thoughts'' and "distractibility'' (0.280, 0.210 and 0.386, respectively) cross-loaded on the MSI factor. Conclusions: The MDQ and MSI items of "affective instability'', "impulsivity'', "irritability'', "flight of thoughts'' and "distractibility'' appear to overlap in content. The other scale items are more disorder-specific, and thus, may help to distinguish BD and BPD. (C) 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • Serim, Baris; Jacucci, Giulio (ACM, 2019)
    The term implicit interaction is often used to denote interactions that differ from traditional purposeful and attention demanding ways of interacting with computers. However, there is a lack of agreement about the term's precise meaning. This paper develops implicit interaction further as an analytic concept and identifies the methodological challenges related to HCI's particular design orientation. We first review meanings of implicit as unintentional, attentional background, unawareness, unconsciousness and implicature, and compare them in regards to the entity they qualify, the design motivation they emphasize and their constructive validity for what makes good interaction. We then demonstrate how the methodological challenges can be addressed with greater precision by using an updated, intentionality-based definition that specifies an input-effect relationship as the entity of implicit. We conclude by identifying a number of new considerations for design and evaluation, and by reflecting on the concepts of user and system agency in HCI.
  • Järvinen, Teppo; Valtonen, Jussi; Jokihaara, Jarkko; Aarnio, Aulis; Saarni, Samuli (2021)
    Luotettavasti laaditut hoitosuositukset ovat työväline, jolla tarjotun hoidon laatua voidaan tutkitusti parantaa. Hoitosuositusten laatiminen on kuitenkin moniulotteinen prosessi, johon ei ole yhtä yksiselitteisesti oikeaa menetelmää ja joka sisältää näytön tulkinnan lisäksi myös monenlaisia arvovalintoja. Siksi hoitosuositusten laatimisprosessi on altis myös päätöksenteon systemaattisille vinoumille. Koska ne eivät johdu yksilöiden tietoisista valinnoista, niiden tehokkaat ehkäisykeinot ovat rakenteellisia. Käsittelemme tässä katsausartikkelissa mekanismeja, joilla päätöksenteko saattaa vinoutua, ja esitämme rakenteellisia ratkaisuja niiden ehkäisemiseksi. Kaksi erityisen merkittävää tekijää, jotka altistavat hoitosuositukset systemaattisille vinoumille, ovat taloudelliset sidonnaisuudet ja ammattikuntaedut. Vinoumien ehkäisykeinoiksi esitämme puolueettomien asiantuntijoiden käyttöä, metodologisen osaamisen vahvistamista ja moniammatillisia työryhmiä.
  • Svedholm-Hakkinen, Annika M.; Lindeman, Marjaana (2017)
    ObjectiveRecent findings suggest there may be some overlap between individual differences in orientations for intuitive thinking and empathizing, and between deliberative thinking and systemizing. This overlap is surprising, given that intuitive and deliberative thinking derive from dual-process theories that concern domain-general types of processing, whereas theoretically, empathizing and systemizing are domain-specific orientations for understanding people and lawful physical phenomena. MethodThe present studies (Study 1: N=2,789, Study 2: N=87; Finnish volunteers ages 15-69, 65% females) analyzed each of these four constructs using self-report as well as performance measures. ResultsConfirmatory factor analysis showed that systemizing was strongly and positively related to deliberative thinking and negatively related to intuitive thinking. Empathizing was negatively related to deliberative thinking, whereas no association between empathizing and intuition was found. However, some deliberative aspects and some intuitive aspects were involved in empathizing. ConclusionsThe findings indicate that a distinction between intuitive empathizing and deliberative systemizing is not warranted.
  • Lindgren, Maija; Birling, Heli; Kieseppä, Tuula; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari (2020)
    Background: In first-episode psychosis (FEP), symptoms of anxiety and depression are common. We examined whether cognitive performance is associated with these clinical measures in FEP during a one-year follow-up. Methods: Young adults with non-affective FEP (n = 52) were assessed two months after their first psychiatric contact for psychosis. Matched controls (n = 62) were administered a baseline assessment 32 FEP subjects and 44 controls were assessed again at a one-year follow-up. In both assessments, a broad neuropsychological test battery was administered. Clinical evaluation was done with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Cross-sectional correlations were calculated at both time points. Cognitive test scores were used as independent variables in regression models, predicting both baseline and follow-up symptom levels. Results: At baseline, better performance especially in verbal memory and executive functioning was associated with elevated anxiety symptoms in FEP. In addition, better performance especially in verbal working memory was associated with depression. A year later, better cognitive performance was no longer associated with affective symptoms. Limitations: Small sample sizes are a limitation. Conclusions: In the FEP group, higher cognitive performance associated with affective symptoms. Right after getting severely ill, anxiety and depression may be a part of normal adaptive reactions to the situation and markers of an intact cognitive performance. This association seems to cease during the year following the FEP.
  • Virtanen, Marianna; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Batty, G. David; Ebmeier, Klaus P.; Jokela, Markus; Harmer, Catherine J.; Kivimaki, Mika (2017)
    Background The association between cognitive decline and the ability to recognise emotions in interpersonal communication is not well understood. We aimed to investigate the association between cognitive function and the ability to recognise emotions in other people's facial expressions across the full continuum of cognitive capacity. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of 4039 participants (3016 men, 1023 women aged 59 to 82 years) in the Whitehall II study. Cognitive function was assessed using a 30-item Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), further classified into 8 groups: 30, 29, 28, 27, 26, 25, 24, and <24 (possible dementia) MMSE points. The Facial Expression Recognition Task (FERT) was used to examine recognition of anger, fear, disgust, sadness, and happiness. Results The multivariable adjusted difference in the percentage of accurate recognition between the highest and lowest MMSE group was 14.9 (95% CI, 11.1-18.7) for anger, 15.5 (11.9-19.2) for fear, 18.5 (15.2-21.8) for disgust, 11.6 (7.3-16.0) for sadness, and 6.3 (3.1-9.4) for happiness. However, recognition of several emotions was reduced already after 1 to 2-point reduction in MMSE and with further points down in MMSE, the recognition worsened at an accelerated rate. Conclusions The ability to recognize emotion in facial expressions is affected at an early stage of cognitive impairment and might decline at an accelerated rate with the deterioration of cognitive function. Accurate recognition of happiness seems to be less affected by a severe decline in cognitive performance than recognition of negatively valued emotions.