Browsing by Subject "SOCIAL SUPPORT"

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  • Suomalainen, L.; Haravuori, H.; Berg, N.; Kiviruusu, O.; Marttunen, M. (2011)
    Background: In November 2007, a student shot eight people and himself at Jokela High School, Finland. This study aims to evaluate the long-term effects of exposure to a school shooting among adolescents. Method: Associations between psychological outcomes and background factors were analysed and compared with "comparison students" four months after the incident. A questionnaire including Impact of Event Scale (IES) and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-36) was used. Results: Half of the females and a third of the males suffered from posttraumatic distress. High level of posttraumatic distress (IES >= 35), predicting PTSD, was observed in 27% of the females and 7% of the males. The odds ratio was 6.4 (95% confidence interval 3.5-10.5) for having high levels of posttraumatic distress. Severe or extreme exposure and female gender were found to increase the risk. Forty-two percent of the females and 16% of the males had psychiatric disturbance (GHQ >= 9). Severe or extreme exposure, older age and female gender increased the risk. Perceived support from family and friends was found to be protective. Conclusions: The observed risk and protective factors were similar to earlier studies. Follow-up will be essential in identifying factors predicting persisting trauma-related symptoms in adolescence. (C) 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • Hu, Yaoyue; Ruiz, Milagros; Bobak, Martin; Martikainen, Pekka (2020)
    Background: While living alone predicts depression in diverse ageing populations, the impact of multi-generational living is unclear. This study compared mid-late life depressive symptoms by living arrangements between societies with distinct kinship ties. Methods: Repeated data on depressive symptoms and living arrangements over 4 years from 16,229 Chinese (age >= 45) and 10,403 English adults (age >= 50) were analyzed using multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression. Elevated depressive symptoms were identified using the Center for Epidemiological Depression Scale criteria in each study. Results: Higher odds ratios (ORs) of elevated depressive symptoms were found in both Chinese and English adults aged Limitations: Bias may exist because depressed participants are more likely to experience divorce or separation prior to baseline. Conclusions: The relationship between living arrangements and depressive symptoms appears robust and consistent across social contexts, although the mechanisms differ. The protective role of partners in both China and England supports targeting those who do not live with partners to reduce depression.
  • Sala-Burbaré, Anna; Peltonen, Jouni; Pyhältö, Kirsi; Castelló, Montserrat (2018)
    Aim/Purpose This study aimed to explore individual variation in doctoral candidates’ perceptions about research writing and themselves as writers (research writing perceptions) across three countries (Spain, Finland, and the UK) and the relationship with doctoral candidates’ research conditions and social support. Background The present study employed a person-centered approach to identify profiles among doctoral candidates’ in relation to their research writing perceptions and the association between these profiles and research conditions and experiences (e.g., thesis format, thesis language, enrollment modality, phase of the doctorate, number of publications, and drop-out intentions) and perceived social support from supervisors and research community. Methodology 1,463 doctoral candidates responded to the Doctoral Experience survey. EFA and CFA were used to corroborate the factor structure of the research writing scale. Research writing profiles were identified by employing cluster analysis and compared regarding research conditions and experience and both types of social support. Contribution This study contributes to the literature on doctoral development by providing evidence on the social nature of doctoral candidates’ writing development. It is argued that doctoral candidates’ perceptions of writing are related to transversal factors, such as doctoral candidates’ researcher identity and genre knowledge. It also shows that most candidates still lack opportunities to write and learn to write with and from other researchers. Findings Three writing profiles were identified: Productive, Reduced productivity, and Struggler profiles. Participants in the Productive profile experienced more researcher community and supervisory support and had more publications, Struggler writers reported drop-out intentions more often than participants in the other profiles, and Reduced productivity writers were more likely to not know the format of the thesis. The three profiles presented similar distribution in relation to participants’ country, the language in which they were writing their dissertation, and whether they were participating in a research team. Recommendations for Practitioners Supervisors and doctoral schools need to be aware of difficulties involved in writing at the PhD level for all doctoral candidates, not only for those writing in a second language, and support them in developing transformative research writing perceptions and establishing collaboration with other researchers. Research teams need to reflect on the writing support and opportunities they offer to doctoral candidates in promoting their writing development. Recommendation for Researchers Further studies should take into account that the development of research writing perceptions is a complex process that might be affected by many and diverse factors and vary along the doctoral trajectory]. Future Research Future research could explore the influence of factors such as engagement or research interest on doctoral candidates’ research writing perceptions. The field could also benefit from longitudinal studies exploring changes in doctoral candidates’ research writing perceptions.
  • Serlachius, Anna; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Juonala, Markus; Sabin, Matthew; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli; Elovainio, Marko (2017)
    Objective: The transmission of overweight from one generation to the next is well established, however little is known about what psychosocial factors may protect against this familial risk. The aim of this study was to examine whether optimism plays a role in the intergenerational transmission of obesity. Methods: Our sample included 1043 participants from the prospective Cardiovascular Risk in Young FINNS Study. Optimism was measured in early adulthood (2001) when the cohort was aged 24-39 years. BMI was measured in 2001 (baseline) and 2012 when they were aged 35-50 years. Parental BMI was measured in 1980. Hierarchical linear regression and logistic regression were used to examine the association between optimism and future BMI/obesity, and whether an interaction existed between optimism and parental BMI when predicting BMI/obesity 11 years later. Results: High optimism in young adulthood demonstrated a negative relationship with high BMI in mid-adulthood, but only in women (beta = - 0.127, p = 0.001). The optimism x maternal BMI interaction term was a significant predictor of future BMI in women (beta = 0.588, p = 0.036). The logistic regression results confirmed that high optimism predicted reduced obesity in women (OR = 0.68, 95% CI, 0.55-0.86), however the optimism x maternal obesity interaction term was not a significant predictor (OR = 0.50, 95% CI, 0.10-2.48). Conclusions: Our findings supported our hypothesis that high optimism mitigated the intergenerational transmission of high BMI, but only in women. These findings also provided evidence that positive psychosocial factors such as optimism are associated with long-term protective effects on BMI in women.
  • Hanson, Linda L. Magnusson; Virtanen, Marianna; Rod, Naja H.; Steptoe, Andrew; Head, Jenny; Batty, G. D.; Kivimäki, Mika; Westerlund, Hugo (2019)
    Objective: Inflammation may underlie the association between psychological stress and cardiometabolic diseases, but this proposition has not been tested longitudinally. We investigated whether the circulating inflammatory markers interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) mediate the relationship between psychosocial work characteristics and diabetes. Methods: We used three phases of data at 5 years intervals from the Whitehall II cohort study, originally recruiting 10,308 civil service employees aged 35-55 years. The data included repeat self-reports of job demands, control and social support, IL-6 from plasma samples, CRP from serum samples, and diabetes, ascertained through oral glucose tolerance test, medications, and self-reports of doctor-diagnosed diabetes. Results: Structural equation models with age, sex and occupational position considering men and women combined, showed that low social support at work, but not high job demands or low job control, was prospectively associated with diabetes (standardized beta = 0.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.01-0.09) and higher levels of IL-6 (beta = 0.03, CI 0.00-0.06). The inflammatory markers and diabetes were bidirectionally associated over time. A mediation model including workplace social support, IL-6 and diabetes further showed that 10% of the association between social support and diabetes over the three repeat examinations (total effect beta = 0.08, CI 0.01-0.15) was attributable to a weak indirect effect through IL-6 (beta = 0.01, CI 0.00-0.02). A similar indirect effect was observed for CRP in men only, while job control was prospectively associated with IL-6 among women. Conclusions: This study indicates an association between poor workplace support and diabetes that is partially ascribed to an inflammatory response.
  • Grau-Sanchez, Jennifer; Foley, Meabh; Hlavova, Renata; Muukkonen, Ilkka; Ojinaga-Alfageme, Olatz; Radukic, Andrijana; Spindler, Melanie; Hundevad, Bodil (2017)
    Music is a powerful, pleasurable stimulus that can induce positive feelings and can therefore be used for emotional self-regulation. Musical activities such as listening to music, playing an instrument, singing or dancing are also an important source for social contact, promoting interaction and the sense of belonging with others. Recent evidence has suggested that after retirement, other functions of music, such as self-conceptual processing related to autobiographical memories, become more salient. However, few studies have addressed the meaningfulness of music in the elderly. This study aims to investigate elderly people's habits and preferences related to music, study the role music plays in their everyday life, and explore the relationship between musical activities and emotional well-being across different countries of Europe. A survey will be administered to elderly people over the age of 65 from five different European countries (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Czechia, Germany, Ireland, and UK) and to a control group. Participants in both groups will be asked about basic sociodemographic information, habits and preferences in their participation in musical activities and emotional well-being. Overall, the aim of this study is to gain a deeper understanding of the role of music in the elderly from a psychological perspective. This advanced knowledge could help to develop therapeutic applications, such as musical recreational programs for healthy older people or elderly in residential care, which are better able to meet their emotional and social needs.
  • Wesolowska, Karolina; Elovainio, Marko; Hintsa, Taina; Jokela, Markus; Pulkki-Raback, Laura; Pitkänen, Niina; Lipsanen, Jari; Tukiainen, Janne; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Lehtimäki, Terho; Juonala, Markus; Raitakari, Olli; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa (2017)
    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has been associated with depressive symptoms, but the causal direction of this association and the underlying mechanisms, such as increased glucose levels, remain unclear. We used instrumental-variable regression with a genetic instrument (Mendelian randomization) to examine a causal role of increased glucose concentrations in the development of depressive symptoms. Data were from the population-based Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study (n = 1217). Depressive symptoms were assessed in 2012 using a modified Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-I). Fasting glucose was measured concurrently with depressive symptoms. A genetic risk score for fasting glucose (with 35 single nucleotide polymorphisms) was used as an instrumental variable for glucose. Glucose was not associated with depressive symptoms in the standard linear regression (B = -0.04, 95% CI [-0.12, 0.04], p = .34), but the instrumental-variable regression showed an inverse association between glucose and depressive symptoms (B = -0.43, 95% CI [-0.79, -0.07], p = .020). The difference between the estimates of standard linear regression and instrumental-variable regression was significant (p = .026) Our results suggest that the association between T2D and depressive symptoms is unlikely to be caused by increased glucose concentrations. It seems possible that T2D might be linked to depressive symptoms due to low glucose levels.
  • Nobre, Nuno; Pereira, Marco; Roine, Risto P.; Sutinen, Jussi; Sintonen, Harri (2018)
    We examined how HIV-related self-stigma was associated with different domains of quality of life (QoL), as measured by the World Health Organization Quality of Life in HIV-infected persons instrument (WHOQOL-HIV-Bref), and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) as measured by the generic 15D (15-dimensional measure of HRQoL), to identify the factors associated with self-stigma of people living with HIV (PLWH). The study sample included 440 patients living with HIV followed at the Infectious Disease Clinic of Helsinki University Hospital. Participants with more severe self-stigma reported significantly lower QoL and HRQoL. Male gender, cohabiting with a partner, and disclosure of HIV status were associated with less self-stigma; high education level and financial difficulties were associated with greater self-stigma. Having lived longer with HIV, being unemployed, and living alone were also predictors of self-stigma via financial difficulties. The findings suggest that self-stigma is a complex and multidimensional phenomenon that impacts the HRQoL of PLWH. Psychosocial interventions to enhance the well-being of PLWH are increasingly needed. Copyright (C) 2017 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care
  • Merjonen, P.; Keltikangas-Järvinen, L.; Jokela, M.; Seppälä, I.; Lyytikäinen, L.-P.; Pulkki-Råback, L.; Kivimäki, M.; Elovainio, M.; Kettunen, J.; Ripatti, S.; Kähönen, M.; Viikari, J.; Palotie, A.; Peltonen, L.; Raitakari, O. T.; Lehtimäki, T. (2011)
  • Wesolowska, Karolina; Elovainio, Marko; Hintsa, Taina; Jokela, Markus; Pulkki-Raback, Laura; Lipsanen, Jari; Juonala, Markus; Raitakari, Olli; Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa (2018)
    Objective: Depressive symptoms have been associated with Type 2 diabetes, but the temporal direction of this association and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The present study examined a potential bidirectional association between depressive symptoms and glucose levels in women and men, and the factors mediating this association. Method: The participants were from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study, a prospective, population-based, cohort study (N = 2,534). Depressive symptoms were assessed using a modified Beck Depression Inventory. Fasting glucose was measured concurrently with depressive symptoms. To analyze the data, a multiple-group cross-lagged analysis and parallel multiple mediation in structural equation modeling were used. Results: Depressive symptoms in 2001 were positively associated with glucose levels in 2012 in women (beta = .07, p = .023) but not in men (beta = -.03, p = .45). This sex difference was statistically significant (p = .042). Glucose levels in 2001 did not predict depressive symptoms in 2012 in either women or men (ps = .96). Changes in body mass index, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, alcohol consumption, or tobacco or cigarette smoking did not mediate the observed association (ps > .05). Conclusions: The results showed a positive association between depressive symptoms and glucose levels in women but not in men. The direction of this relationship seems to be from depressive symptoms to glucose levels rather than the reverse. Changes in body fat, inflammation, alcohol consumption, or tobacco or cigarette smoking may not play a mediating role in this observed association.
  • Pulkki-Raback, Laura; Kivimäki, Mika; Ahola, Kirsi; Joutsenniemi, Kaisla; Elovainio, Marko; Rossi, Helena; Puttonen, Sampsa; Koskinen, Seppo; Isometsa, Erkki; Lonnqvist, Jouko; Virtanen, Marianna (2012)
  • Puuskari, Varpu; Aalto-Setälä, Terhi; Komulainen, Erkki; Marttunen, Mauri (2017)
    Background: Increasing psychiatric disorders and alcohol intoxication challenge the pediatric emergency departments (PEDs) to which adolescents are referred owing to acute alcohol intoxication. Objective: This study examined the degree to which adolescents presenting to PED with alcohol intoxication or deliberate self-harm report symptoms of depression and how they differed from non-depressed patients in terms of alcohol use, perceived social support, psychological distress, self-esteem, and suicidal thoughts. Methods: In a sample of 138 adolescents, 12- to 16-years old (62 % females), we assessed the patients' psychiatric status using self-report scales and analyzed blood samples for alcohol. Before discharge, a consulting psychiatrist interviewed each patient to evaluate possible suicidality and organized aftercare when necessary. The mediating data-driven hypothesis was examined. Adolescents scoring >= 10 on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were deemed as screening positive for depression. Results: In 55% of participants, intoxication was by alcohol consumption. Deliberate self-harm was found in 17% of the participants. Of the 138 adolescents, 39 % scored positive on the BDI for depressive symptoms, occurring more commonly in girls. Logistic regression showed that the most significant variables associated with depressive symptoms were female gender, high psychological distress, and low self-esteem. Symptoms of depression served as a mediator between gender and self-esteem and the blood alcohol level. Conclusions: Our findings underscore the importance of identifying mood disorders, suicidality, and self-esteem among adolescents with acute alcohol intoxication at the PED. Intensive psychiatric evaluation in an emergency department is necessary in order to detect those adolescents requiring additional treatment and support.
  • Kaseva, Kaisa; Hintsa, Taina; Lipsanen, Jari; Pulkki-Raback, Laura; Hintsanen, Mirka; Yang, Xiaolin; Hirvensalo, Mirja; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Raitakari, Olli; Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa; Tammelin, Tuija (2017)
    Background: Parents' physical activity associates with their children's physical activity. Prospective designs assessing this association are rare. This study examined how parents' physical activity was associated with their children's physical activity from childhood to middle adulthood in a 30-year pro'spective, population-based setting. Methods: Participants (n = 3596) were from the ongoing Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study started in 1980. Participants' physical activity was self-reported at 8 phases from 1980 to 2011, and their parents' physical activity at 1980. Analyses were adjusted for a set of health-related covariates assessed from 1980 to 2007. Results: High levels of mothers' and fathers' physical activity were systematically associated with increased levels of their children's physical activity until offspring's age of 24. Longitudinal analyses conducted from 1980 to 2011 showed that higher levels of parents' physical activity were associated with increased levels of physical activity within their offspring until midlife, but the association between parents' and their children's physical activity weakened when participants aged (P
  • Mundy, Lisa K.; Canterford, Louise; Kosola, Silja; Degenhardt, Louisa; Allen, Nicholas B.; Patton, George C. (2017)
    OBJECTIVE: Peer victimization is a common antecedent of poor social and emotional adjustment. Its relationship with objectively measured academic performance is unclear. In this study we aimed to quantify the cross-sectional associations between peer victimization and academic performance in a large population sample of children. METHODS: Eight-to 9-year-old children were recruited from a stratified random sample of primary schools in Australia. Academic performance was measured on a national achievement test (1 year of learning equals 40 points). Physical and verbal victimization were measured according to child self-report. RESULTS: Multilevel mixed-effects linear regression analyses were conducted. For female children, verbal victimization was associated with poorer academic performance on writing (beta = 17.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 28.2 to 6.2) and grammar/punctuation (beta = 20.8; 95% CI, 40.1 to 1.6). Physical victimization was associated with poorer performance on numeracy (male children: = 29.0; 95% CI, 53.8 to 4.1; female children: beta = 30.1; 95% CI, 56.6 to 3.5), and writing (female children: beta = -21.5; 95% CI, 40.4 to -2.7). Verbal and physical victimization were associated with poorer performance on reading (male children: beta = -31.5; 95% CI, -59.9 to -3.1; female children: beta = -30.2; 95% CI, -58.6 to -1.8), writing (female children: beta = 25.5; 95% CI, 4-2.8 to -8.2), spelling (female children: beta = -32.3; 95% CI, -59.6 to -4.9), and grammar/punctuation (female children: beta = -32.2; 95% CI, -62.4 to -2.0). CONCLUSIONS: Children who were physically victimized were 6 to 9 months behind their non-victimized peers on measures of academic performance. There are growing reasons for education systems to invest in the prevention of bullying and promotion of positive peer relationships from the earliest years of school.
  • Vancampfort, Davy; Stubbs, Brendon; Firth, Joseph; Hallgren, Mats; Schuch, Felipe; Lahti, Jouni; Rosenbaum, Simon; Ward, Philip B.; Mugisha, James; Carvalho, Andre F.; Koyanagi, Ai (2017)
    Background: There is a paucity of nationally representative data available on the correlates of physical activity (PA) among people with depression, especially in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs). Thus, we investigated PA correlates among community-dwelling adults with depression in this setting. Methods: World Health Survey data included 24,230 adults (43.1 +/- 16.1 years; 36.1% male) with ICD-10 diagnoses of depression including brief depressive episode and subsyndromal depression aged >= 18 years from 46 LMICs. PA was assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Participants were dichotomised into low and moderate-to-high physically active groups. Associations between PA and a range of sociode-mographic, health behaviour and mental and physical health variables were examined using multivariable logistic regressions. Results: 34.8% of participants with depression were physically inactive. In the multivariate analyses, inactivity was associated with male sex, older age, not being married/cohabiting, high socio-economic status, unemployment, living in an urban setting, less vegetable consumption, and poor sleep/low energy. In addition, mobility difficulties and some somatic co-morbidity were associated with not complying with the 150 min per week moderate-to-vigorous PA recommendations. Conclusions: The current data provide guidance for future population level interventions across LMICs to help people with depression engage in regular PA.
  • Pelkonen, Mirjami; Marttunen, Mauri; Aro, Hillevi (2003)
    Background: Few longitudinal studies have attempted to identify risk factors in mid-adolescence for subsequent depression in young adulthood. Mid-adolescence is a critical developmental phase for studying vulnerability to depression due to high incidence and prevalence of depression. Methods: In a longitudinal study, following an urban Finnish community cohort (761 males and 887 females) from age 16, mid-adolescent risk factors for depression at age 22 years were studied. Data were collected by a questionnaire at school at age 16, and by a postal questionnaire at age 22. Results: Of the females 116 (13%) and of the males 69 (9%) had depression (S-BDI) in young adulthood. In multivariate analyses baseline depressive symptoms, low self-esteem, dissatisfaction with academic achievement, problems with the law, poor atmosphere at home and having no close friends predicted subsequent depression. Risk factors for males included more 'externalizing' aspects, for females more 'internalizing' factors. Conclusions: Mid-adolescence is an important age to study risk for depression, and self-reported perceptions of psychosocial well-being have predictive value. Preventive efforts can be selectively targeted at adolescents who have been exposed to identifiable risk factors. (C) 2002 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Romano, Luciano; Tang, Xin; Hietajärvi, Lauri; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Fiorilli, Caterina (2020)
    The current study sought to investigate the role of trait emotional intelligence and perceived teacher emotional support in school burnout. Furthermore, the moderating role of academic anxiety in these relationships was examined. A sample of 493 Italian high school students (81.9% female) aged 14–19 years (M = 16.27, SD = 1.48) was involved in the study. A latent moderated structural equation approach was performed to test the hypothesized model. The results showed that both trait emotional intelligence and perceived teacher emotional support were negatively associated with school burnout. Moreover, academic anxiety moderated the relation between perceived teacher emotional support and school burnout. Specifically, when the level of anxiety was high, the protective role of perceived teacher emotional support toward burnout was weakened. Findings are discussed in light of the protective role of resources on burnout and considering the detrimental impact of academic anxiety in school settings.
  • Laine, Hanna; Saastamoinen, Peppiina; Lahti, Jouni; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero (2014)
  • Elovainio, Marko; Vahtera, Jussi; Pentti, Jaana; Hakulinen, Christian; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Lipsanen, Jari; Virtanen, Marianna; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Kivimäki, Mika; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli (2020)
    The association between socioeconomic disadvantage and increased risk of depressive symptoms in adulthood is well established. We tested 1) the contribution of early exposure to neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage to later depressive symptoms throughout life, 2) the persistence of the potential association between early exposure and depressive symptoms, and 3) the contributions of other known risk factors to the association. Data were collected from the Young Finns Study, a prospective, population-based 32-year follow-up study that included participants aged 3-18 years at baseline in 1980. Participants were followed up with repeated measurements of depressive symptoms between 1992 and 2012 (n = 2,788) and linked to national grid data on neighborhood disadvantage via residential addresses. We examined the associations in mixed models separately for the 5-, 10-, 15-, and 20-year follow-ups. Living in a disadvantaged neighborhood during childhood and adolescence was associated with a higher level of depressive symptoms in adulthood during all follow-up periods (beta = 0.07, P = 0.001) than living in a nondisadvantaged area. Individual adulthood socioeconomic status mediated the associations. These findings suggest that living in a socioeconomically disadvantaged area during childhood and adolescence has a long-lasting negative association with mental health irrespective of family-related risks, partially due to socioeconomic adversity later in life.