Browsing by Subject "SOCIOECONOMIC-STATUS"

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  • Elovainio, Marko; Hakulinen, Christian; Pulkki-Raback, Laura; Juonala, Markus; Raitakari, Olli T. (2020)
    We modeled early psychosocial risks as a network of interconnected variables to study their associations with later depressive symptoms and cardiometabolic outcomes. The participants were a nationally representative sample of 2580 men and women aged 3-18 years in 1980. Their parents reported the psychosocial risks in 1980, including the following: (1) child-specific life events, (2) parental health behavior, (3) parental socioeconomic status, and (4) parental psychological problems. Adulthood depressive symptoms and cardiometabolic outcomes were measured in 2007-2012. The most central risks (most number of connections to other risks) were socioeconomic risks that also predicted health outcomes more consistently than others.
  • Pussinen, Pirkko J.; Paju, Susanna; Koponen, Jaana; Viikari, Jorma; Taittonen, Leena; Laitinen, Tomi; Burgner, David; Kähönen, Mika; Hutri-Kähönen, Niina; Raitakari, Olli; Juonala, Markus (2019)
    IMPORTANCE Severe forms of common chronic oral infections or inflammations are associated with increased cardiovascular risk in adults. To date, the role of childhood oral infections in cardiovascular risk is not known because no long-term studies have been conducted. OBJECTIVE To investigate whether signs of oral infections in childhood are associated with cardiovascular risk factors and subclinical atherosclerosis in adulthood. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS The cohort study (n = 755) was derived from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study, an ongoing prospective cohort study in Finland initiated in 1980. Participants underwent clinical oral examinations during childhood, when they were aged 6, 9, or 12 years and a clinical cardiovascular follow-up in adulthood in 2001 at age 27, 30, or 33 years and/or in 2007 at age 33, 36, or 39 years. Cardiovascular risk factors were measured at baseline and during the follow-up until the end of 2007. Final statistical analyses were completed on February 19, 2019. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Four signs of oral infections (bleeding on probing, periodontal probing pocket depth, caries, and dental fillings) were documented. Cumulative lifetime exposure to 6 cardiovascular risk factors was calculated from dichotomized variables obtained by using the area-under-the-curve method. Subclinical atherosclerosis (ie, carotid artery intima-media thickness [IMT]) was quantified in 2001 (n = 468) and 2007 (n = 489). RESULTS This study included 755 participants, of whom 371 (49.1%) were male; the mean (SD) age at baseline examination was 8.07 (2.00) years. In this cohort, 33 children (4.5%) had no sign of oral infections, whereas 41 (5.6%) had 1 sign, 127 (17.4%) had 2 signs, 278 (38.3%) had 3 signs, and 248 (34.1%) had 4 signs. The cumulative exposure to risk factors increased with the increasing number of oral infections both in childhood and adulthood. In multiple linear regression models, childhood oral infections, including signs of either periodontal disease (R-2 = 0.018; P = .01), caries (R-2 = 0.022; P = .008), or both (R-2 = 0.024; P = .004), were associated with adulthood IMT. The presence of any sign of oral infection in childhood was associated with increased IMT (third tertile vs tertiles 1 and 2) with a relative risk of 1.87 (95% CI, 1.25-2.79), whereas the presence of all 4 signs produced a relative risk of 1.95 (95% CI, 1.28-3.00). The associations were more obvious in boys: if periodontal disease were present, the corresponding estimate was 1.69 (95% CI, 1.21-2.36); if caries, 1.46 (95% CI, 1.04-20.05); and if all 4 signs of oral infections, 2.25 (95% CI, 1.30-3.89). The associations were independent of cardiovascular risk factors. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Oral infections in childhood appear to be associated with the subclinical carotid atherosclerosis seen in adulthood.
  • Seilo, Noora; Paldanius, Susanna; Autio, Reija; Kunttu, Kristina; Kaila, Minna (2020)
    Objective To evaluate the association between health and study-related factors measured by an Electronic Health Questionnaire (eHQ), participation in a health examination process and graduation in a university student population. Design Nationwide, retrospective, register-based cohort study with a 6-year follow-up. Setting Student health care in Finland. Finnish Student Health Service (FSHS) provides statutory student health services to university students in Finland. The health examination process of FSHS includes the eHQ provided annually to university entrants and a subsequent health check when necessary based on students' eHQ response. Participants A national cohort of university entrants from the 2011-2012 academic year (n=14 329, n (female)=8075, n (male)=6254). Outcome measures The primary outcome measure was graduation, measured based on whether a student had completed a bachelor's, licentiate or master's degree during the 6-year follow-up. Results Some 72% of the women and 60% of the men had graduated during the follow-up. The predictors in the eHQ associated with non-graduation differed by sex. Among the women's low enthusiasm about studies (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.9 to 3.6), low engagement with studies (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.8 to 3.4) and daily smoking (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.4 to 2.6) were the strongest predictors to non-graduation. Among the men, low engagement with studies (OR 3.7, 95% CI 2.5 to 5.5) and obesity (body mass index >= 35) (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.9 to 8.8) were the strongest predictors to non-graduation. Not attending the health check when referred was associated with non-graduation in both sexes: the OR for not graduating was 1.6 (95% CI 1.3 to 1.9) in women and 1.3 (95% CI 1.0 to 1.6) in men. Conclusions Engagement and enthusiasm about studying in the first year are important predictors of graduation and therefore a potential intervention target. Health promotion initiatives conducted early in the studies may have a positive effect on students' academic achievement.
  • Løhmann, Ditte J. A.; Asdahl, Peter H.; Abrahamsson, Jonas; Ha, Shau-Yin; Jónsson, Ólafur G.; Kaspers, Gertjan J. L.; Koskenvuo, Minna; Lausen, Birgitte; De Moerloose, Barbara; Palle, Josefine; Zeller, Bernward; Sung, Lillian; Hasle, Henrik (2019)
    Background Associations between body mass index (BMI), outcome, and leukemia-related factors in children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remain unclear. We investigated associations between pretherapeutic BMI, cytogenetic abnormalities, and outcome in a large multinational cohort of children with AML. Methods We included patients, age 2-17 years, diagnosed with de novo AML from the five Nordic countries (2004-2016), Hong Kong (2007-2016), the Netherlands and Belgium (2010-2016), and Canada and USA (1995-2012). BMI standard deviations score for age and sex was calculated and categorized according to the World Health Organization. Cumulative incidence functions, Kaplan-Meier estimator, Cox regression, and logistic regression were used to investigate associations. Results In total, 867 patients were included. The median age was 10 years (range 2-17 years). At diagnosis, 32 (4%) were underweight, 632 (73%) were healthy weight, 127 (15%) were overweight, and 76 (9%) were obese. There was no difference in relapse risk, treatment-related mortality or overall mortality across BMI groups. The frequency of t(8;21) and inv(16) increased with increasing BMI. For obese patients, the sex, age, and country adjusted odds ratio of having t(8;21) or inv(16) were 1.9 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-3.4) and 2.8 (95% CI 1.3-5.8), respectively, compared to healthy weight patients. Conclusions This study did not confirm previous reports of associations between overweight and increased treatment-related or overall mortality in children. Obesity was associated with a higher frequency of t(8;21) and inv(16). AML cytogenetics appear to differ by BMI status.
  • Hakulinen, Christian; Musliner, Katherine L.; Agerbo, Esben (2019)
    Background Mood disorders are known to be associated with poor socioeconomic outcomes, but no study has examined these associations across the entire worklife course. Our goal was to estimate the associations between bipolar disorder and depression in early adulthood and subsequent employment, income, and educational attainment. Methods We conducted a nationwide prospective cohort study including all individuals (n = 2,390,127; 49% female) born in Denmark between 1955 and 1990. Hospital-based diagnoses of depression and bipolar disorder before age 25 were obtained from the Danish psychiatric register. Yearly employment, earnings, and education status from ages 25 to 61 were obtained from the Danish labor market and education registers. We estimated both absolute and relative proportions. Results Population rates of hospital-diagnosed depression and bipolar between ages 15-25 were 1% and 0.12%, respectively. Compared to individuals without mood disorders, those with depression and particularly bipolar disorder had consistently poor socioeconomic outcomes across the entire work-life span. For example, at age 30, 62% of bipolar and 53% of depression cases were outside the workforce compared to 19% of the general population, and 52% of bipolar and 42% of depression cases had no higher education compared to 27% of the general population. Overall, individuals with bipolar disorder or depression earned around 36% and 51%, respectively, of the income earned by individuals without mood disorders. All associations were smaller for individuals not rehospitalized after age 25. Conclusions Severe mood disorders with onset before age 25, particularly bipolar disorder, are associated with persistent poor socioeconomic outcomes across the entire work-life course.
  • Knaappila, Noora; Marttunen, Mauri; Fröjd, Sari; Kaltiala, Riittakerttu (2021)
    Background: Mental health problems are common in adolescence and seeking help for them is becoming more common. Referrals to adolescent mental healthcare have recently increased in Finland. Objective: To examine time trends in internalizing and externalizing mental health symptoms among Finnish adolescents. Method: A time-trend school survey was conducted among 9th graders (15-year-olds) in Tampere, Finland, in three time periods: 2002-03, 2012-13 and 2018-19 (N = 4,162). Results: Compared to the period 2002-03, prevalence of externalizing symptoms decreased in the period 2012-13 and further in 2018-19. The prevalence of internalizing symptoms did not change significantly between 2002-03 and 2012-13; however, in 2018-19, depression, social anxiety, general anxiety, poor subjective health, stress symptoms among boys, and poor selfesteem increased compared to earlier time periods. The increases were more marked among girls. However, suicidal ideation did not increase in 2018-19 compared to earlier time periods. Conclusion: Whereas the prevalence of externalizing symptoms decreased among Finnish adolescents between 2002-03 and 2018-19, the prevalence of internalizing symptoms increased between 2012-13 and 2018-19. To help to understand the causes of these increases and to prevent internalizing problems, further research on the underlying causes is needed.
  • Salonsalmi, Aino; Pietiläinen, Olli; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi (2019)
    Background There is increasing evidence that childhood socioeconomic position and childhood adversities influence adult health. However, the potential contribution of these factors to disability retirement is poorly understood. This study aimed to examine the associations between childhood adversities, parental education and disability retirement. Methods Data on parental education and childhood adversities were derived from the Helsinki Health Study baseline survey, conducted in 2000–02 among 40- to 60-year old employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland. Data on disability retirement and their diagnoses were obtained from the Finnish Centre of Pensions and followed until the end of 2016. The analyses included 5992 employees. The associations of parental education and childhood adversities with disability retirement due to any cause, musculoskeletal diseases and mental disorders were analysed using Cox regression analysis. Results Low parental education was associated with an increased risk of disability retirement due to any cause (maternal education: HR 1.74, 95% CI 1.16–2.62; paternal education: 1.86, 1.38–2.51) and due to musculoskeletal diseases (maternal education: 4.44, 1.66–11.92; paternal education: 3.81, 2.02–7.17). However, adjustment for own education mainly abolished the associations. Economic difficulties in the childhood family, parental alcohol problems and having been bullied at school or by peers increased the risk of disability retirement due to all studied diagnostic groups, whereas parental death or divorce had no effect. Childhood illness (1.53, 1.20–1.95) and parental mental illness (1.68, 1.28–2.20) were associated with disability retirement due to any cause and due to mental disorders (1.65, 1.05–2.59; 3.60, 2.46–5.26). The associations between childhood adversities and disability retirement remained after adjustment for own education, whereas working conditions, and weight and health behaviours somewhat attenuated the associations. Conclusions Parental education and childhood adversities contributed to disability retirement even in midlife. Policy actions investing in children’s well-being might promote work ability in midlife.
  • Heikkilä, Juha Markus; Parkkamäki, Stina; Salimäki, Johanna; Westermarck, Sari; Pohjanoksa-Mantyla, Marika (2018)
    Background and purpose: COPD is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although medication counseling interventions by pharmacists have been found to support the management of COPD, little is known about pharmacists' knowledge concerning COPD and regular practices and perceptions concerning medication counseling of COPD patients. The purpose of this study was to research these topics among Finnish community pharmacists. Materials and methods: In January 2017, an electronic survey was e-mailed to Finnish community pharmacies (n=741) via the Association of the Finnish Pharmacies. One pharmacist from each pharmacy, preferably a specialist in asthma, was invited to answer the survey. Results: Completed responses were received from 263 pharmacists (response rate =35%), of whom 196 pharmacists were specialists in asthma. Response rate among asthma pharmacists was 42%. Pharmacists were positive about their role in medication counseling and in support of the self-management of COPD patients. COPD-related knowledge was self-assessed as being good and was on a good level in respect of basic facts. However, almost half (46%) of the pharmacists did not know that COPD is considered a national public health issue, and similar to 50% of the pharmacists were not familiar with the current care guideline on COPD. Medication counseling was found to be more medicinal product-driven and less advisory concerning lifestyle changes such as smoking cessation and physical exercise. Conclusion: Although the pharmacists' knowledge of COPD was good on general topics, there were some gaps in their knowledge on the current care guideline and status of the disease. Pharmacists should more systematically individually target medication counseling according to patients' needs. In addition, lifestyle treatments, including smoking cessation and physical exercise, should be part of the medication counseling.
  • Vandenbroucke, Loren; Verschueren, Karine; Desoete, Annemie; Aunio, Pirjo; Ghesquiere, Pol; Baeyens, Dieter (2018)
    Working memory is important for a variety of life domains,. including for children's school functioning. As such, it is crucial to understand its development, antecedents and consequences. The current study investigates the development of different working memory components (phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad, central executive), the influence of different aspects of the teacher-student relationship (closeness, conflict, dependency) and its predictive value for academic achievement (reading, spelling, mathematics) across the transition from kindergarten to first grade. The sample consisted of 107 kindergarten children. Working memory tasks were administered at the end of kindergarten and first grade. Teachers reported on teacher-student relationship quality in the middle of first grade. Standardized tests were used to assess academic achievement at the end of first grade. Results indicate moderate to large increases in the phonological loop and visuospatial sketchpad and large gains in the central executive. Dependency of the student towards the teacher significantly predicted visuospatial sketchpad performance at the end of first grade. Reading was significantly predicted by the visuospatial sketchpad and phonological loop in kindergarten, while for spelling the visuospatial sketchpad was important. Finally, mathematics was predicted by performance on the phonological loop and the visuospatial sketchpad. The current study indicates the importance of the affective quality of the teacher-student relationship for working memory performance, which in turn is important for academic achievement. It is therefore critical to attend to the early detection and prevention or intervention of working memory problems in the classroom in order to prevent future academic problems. Additionally, maintaining a positive relationship with students and encouraging their independent exploration may be important when preventing such problems, complementary to cognitive or other types of training and intervention.
  • Lumme, Sonja; Manderbacka, Kristiina; Arffman, Martti; Karvonen, Sakari; Keskimaki, Ilmo (2020)
    Objectives To study the interplay between several indicators of social disadvantage and hospitalisations due to ambulatory care-sensitive conditions (ACSC) in 2011-2013. To evaluate whether the accumulation of preceding social disadvantage in one point of time or prolongation of social disadvantage had an effect on hospitalisations due to ACSCs. Four common indicators of disadvantage are examined: living alone, low level of education, poverty and unemployment. Design A population-based register study. Setting Nationwide individual-level register data on hospitalisations due to ACSCs for the years 2011-2013 and preceding data on social and socioeconomic factors for the years 2006-2010. Participants Finnish residents aged 45 or older on 1 January 2011. Outcome measure Hospitalisations due to ACSCs in 2011-2013. The effect of accumulation of preceding disadvantage in one point of time and its prolongation on ACSCs was studied using modified Poisson regression. Results People with preceding cumulative social disadvantage were more likely to be hospitalised due to ACSCs. The most hazardous combination was simultaneously living alone, low level of education and poverty among the middle-aged individuals (aged 45-64 years) and the elderly (over 64 years). Risk ratio (RR) of being hospitalised due to ACSC was 3.16 (95% CI 3.03-3.29) among middle-aged men and 3.54 (3.36-3.73) among middle-aged women compared with individuals without any of these risk factors when controlling for age and residential area. For the elderly, the RR was 1.61 (1.57-1.66) among men and 1.69 (1.64-1.74) among women. Conclusions To improve social equity in healthcare, it is important to recognise not only patients with cumulative disadvantage but also-as this study shows-patients with particular combinations of disadvantage who may be more susceptible. The identification of these vulnerable patient groups is also necessary to reduce the use of more expensive treatment in specialised healthcare.
  • Mackenbach, Johan P.; Valverde, Jose Rubio; Bopp, Matthias; Bronnum-Hansen, Henrik; Deboosere, Patrick; Kalediene, Ramune; Kovacs, Katalin; Leinsalu, Mall; Martikainen, Pekka; Menvielle, Gwenn; Regidor, Enrique; Nusselder, Wilma J. (2019)
    Background Socioeconomic inequalities in longevity have been found in all European countries. We aimed to assess which determinants make the largest contribution to these inequalities. Methods We did an international comparative study of inequalities in risk factors for shorter life expectancy in Europe. We collected register-based mortality data and survey-based risk factor data from 15 European countries. We calculated partial life expectancies between the ages of 35 years and 80 years by education and gender and determined the effect on mortality of changing the prevalence of eight risk factors-father with a manual occupation, low income, few social contacts, smoking, high alcohol consumption, high bodyweight, low physical exercise, and low fruit and vegetable consumption-among people with a low level of education to that among people with a high level of education (upward levelling scenario), using population attributable fractions. Findings In all countries, a substantial gap existed in partial life expectancy between people with low and high levels of education, of 2.3-8.2 years among men and 0.6-4.5 years among women. The risk factors contributing most to the gap in life expectancy were smoking (19.8% among men and 18.9% among women), low income (9.7% and 13.4%), and high bodyweight (7.7% and 11.7%), but large differences existed between countries in the contribution of risk factors. Sensitivity analyses using the prevalence of risk factors in the most favourable country (best practice scenario) showed that the potential for reducing the gap might be considerably smaller. The results were also sensitive to varying assumptions about the mortality risks associated with each risk factor. Interpretation Smoking, low income, and high bodyweight are quantitatively important entry points for policies to reduce educational inequalities in life expectancy in most European countries, but priorities differ between countries. A substantial reduction of inequalities in life expectancy requires policy actions on a broad range of health determinants. Copyright (C) 2019 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Hoffmann, Rasmus; Kröger, Hannes; Tarkiainen, Lasse Hannes; Martikainen, Pekka Tapani (2019)
    Differences in mortality between groups with different socioeconomic positions (SEP) are well-established, but the relative contribution of different SEP measures is unclear. This study compares the correlation between three SEP dimensions and mortality, and investigates differences between gender and age groups (35-59 vs. 60-84). We use an 11% random sample with an 80% oversample of deaths from the Finnish population with information on education, occupational class, individual income, and mortality (n=496,658; 274,316 deaths between 1995 and 2007). We estimate bivariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard models and population attributable fractions. The total effects of education are substantially mediated by occupation and income, and the effects of occupation is mediated by income. All dimensions have their own net effect on mortality, but income shows the steepest mortality gradient (HR 1.78, lowest vs. highest quintile). Income is more important for men and occupational class more important among elderly women. Mortality inequalities are generally smaller in older ages, but the relative importance of income increases. In health inequality studies, the use of only one SEP indicator functions well as a broad marker of SEP. However, only analyses of multiple dimensions allow insights into social mechanisms and how they differ between population subgroups.
  • Laukkanen, Matti; Hakko, Helina; Riipinen, Pirkko; Riala, Kaisa (2016)
    We examined whether adolescents' family structure associate with depression in a clinical sample of 508 adolescents (age 13-17 years) treated in psychiatric hospital between April 2001 and March 2006. Psychiatric disorders of adolescents were based on the K-SADS-PL-interview. Adolescents with depression were characterized by a single parent family background (58 %), but less commonly by a child welfare placement (37 %). Depression in adolescents was significantly related to female gender and a single parent family background, but less significantly related to comorbid psychotic or conducts disorders. The association between family structure and depression presents a challenge to mental health services. Early screening for depression in adolescents admitted for psychiatric treatment from "at risk" family types is important to enhance their future wellbeing and coping strategies.
  • Brausi, Maurizio; Hoskin, Peter; Andritsch, Elisabeth; Banks, Ian; Beishon, Marc; Boyle, Helen; Colecchia, Maurizio; Delgado-Bolton, Roberto; Hoeckel, Michael; Leonard, Kay; Loevey, Jozsef; Maroto, Pablo; Mastris, Ken; Medeiros, Rui; Naredi, Peter; Oyen, Raymond; de Reijke, Theo; Selby, Peter; Saarto, Tiina; Valdagni, Riccardo; Costa, Alberto; Poortmans, Philip (2020)
    Background ECCO Essential Requirements for Quality Cancer Care (ERQCC) are written by experts representing all disciplines involved in cancer care in Europe. They give oncology teams, patients, policymakers and managers an overview of essential care throughout the patient journey. Prostate cancer Prostate cancer is the second most common male cancer and has a wide variation in outcomes in Europe. It has complex diagnosis and treatment challenges, and is a major healthcare burden. Care must only be a carried out in prostate/urology cancer units or centres that have a core multidisciplinary team (MDT) and an extended team of health professionals. Such units are far from universal in European countries. To meet European aspirations for comprehensive cancer control, healthcare organisations must consider the requirements in this paper, paying particular attention to multidisciplinarity and patient-centred pathways from diagnosis, to treatment, to survivorship.
  • Barr, Peter B.; Salvatore, Jessica E.; Maes, Hermine; Aliev, Fazil; Latvala, Antti; Viken, Richard; Rose, Richard J.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Dick, Danielle M. (2016)
    The consequences of heavy alcohol use remain a serious public health problem. Consistent evidence has demonstrated that both genetic and social influences contribute to alcohol use. Research on gene environment interaction (GxE) has also demonstrated that these social and genetic influences do not act independently. Instead, certain environmental contexts may limit or exacerbate an underlying genetic predisposition. However, much of the work on GxE and alcohol use has focused on adolescence and less is known about the important environmental contexts in young adulthood. Using data from the young adult wave of the Finnish Twin Study, FinnTwin12 (N = 3402), we used biometric twin modeling to test whether education moderated genetic risk for alcohol use as assessed by drinking frequency and intoxication frequency. Education is important because it offers greater access to personal resources and helps determine one's position in the broader stratification system. Results from the twin models show that education did not moderate genetic variance components and that genetic risk was constant across levels of education. Instead, education moderated environmental variance so that under conditions of low education, environmental influences explained more of the variation in alcohol use outcomes. The implications and limitations of these results are discussed. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Mikkonen, Janne; Remes, Hanna; Moustgaard, Heta; Martikainen, Pekka (2020)
    This article reconsiders the role of social origin in health selection by examining whether parental education moderates the association between early health and educational attainment and whether health problems mediate the intergenerational transmission of education. We used longitudinal register data on Finns born in 1986–1991 (n = 352,899). We measured the completion of secondary and tertiary education until age 27 and used data on hospital care and medication reimbursements to assess chronic somatic conditions, frequent infections, and mental disorders at ages 10–16. We employed linear probability models to estimate the associations between different types of health problems and educational outcomes and to examine moderation by parental education, both overall in the population and comparing siblings with and without health problems. Finally, we performed a mediation analysis with g-computation to simulate whether a hypothetical eradication of health problems would weaken the association between parental and offspring education. All types of health problems reduced the likelihood of secondary education, but mental disorders were associated with the largest reductions. Among those with secondary education, there was further evidence of selection to tertiary education. High parental education buffered against the negative impact of mental disorders on completing secondary education but exacerbated it in the case of tertiary education. The simulated eradication of health problems slightly reduced disparities by parental education in secondary education (up to 10%) but increased disparities in tertiary education (up to 2%). Adolescent health problems and parental education are strong but chiefly independent predictors of educational attainment.
  • The FinnDiane Study Group; Tikkanen-Dolenc, Heidi; Wadén, Johan; Forsblom, Carol; Harjutsalo, Valma; Thorn, Lena M.; Saraheimo, Markku; Elonen, Nina; Hietala, Kustaa; Summanen, Paula; Tikkanen, Heikki O.; Groop, Per-Henrik (2020)
    The aim of this study was to investigate whether leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) is associated with the development of severe diabetic retinopathy in individuals with type 1 diabetes.
  • Rietschel, Liz; Streit, Fabian; Zhu, Gu; McAloney, Kerrie; Frank, Josef; Couvy-Duchesne, Baptiste; Witt, Stephanie H.; Binz, Tina M.; McGrath, John; Hickie, Ian B.; Hansell, Narelle K.; Wright, Margaret J.; Gillespie, Nathan A.; Forstner, Andreas J.; Schulze, Thomas G.; Wust, Stefan; Nothen, Markus M.; Baumgartner, Markus R.; Walker, Brian R.; Crawford, Andrew A.; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Medland, Sarah E.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Rietschel, Marcella; CORtisolNETwork CORNET Consortium; Major Depressive Disorder; Palotie, Aarno (2017)
    Hair cortisol concentration (HCC) is a promising measure of long-term hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. Previous research has suggested an association between HCC and psychological variables, and initial studies of inter-individual variance in HCC have implicated genetic factors. However, whether HCC and psychological variables share genetic risk factors remains unclear. The aims of the present twin study were to: (i) assess the heritability of HCC; (ii) estimate the phenotypic and genetic correlation between HPA axis activity and the psychological variables perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and neuroticism; using formal genetic twin models and molecular genetic methods, i.e. polygenic risk scores (PRS). HCC was measured in 671 adolescents and young adults. These included 115 monozygotic and 183 dizygotic twin-pairs. For 432 subjects PRS scores for plasma cortisol, major depression, and neuroticism were calculated using data from large genome wide association studies. The twin model revealed a heritability for HCC of 72%. No significant phenotypic or genetic correlation was found between HCC and the three psychological variables of interest. PRS did not explain variance in HCC. The present data suggest that HCC is highly heritable. However, the data do not support a strong biological link between HCC and any of the investigated psychological variables.
  • Dobewall, Henrik; Lindfors, Pirjo; Karvonen, Sakari; Koivusilta, Leena; Vainikainen, Mari-Pauliina; Hotulainen, Risto; Rimpelä, Arja (2019)
  • Pedersen, Nancy L.; Gatz, Margaret; Finch, Brian K.; Finkel, Deborah; Butler, David A.; Dahl Aslan, Anna; Franz, Carol E.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Lapham, Susan; McGue, Matt; Mosing, Miriam A.; Neiderhiser, Jenae; Nygaard, Marianne; Panizzon, Matthew; Prescott, Carol A.; Reynolds, Chandra A.; Sachdev, Perminder; Whitfield, Keith E. (2019)
    The Interplay of Genes and Environment across Multiple Studies (IGEMS) is a consortium of 18 twin studies from 5 different countries (Sweden, Denmark, Finland, United States, and Australia) established to explore the nature of gene-environment (GE) interplay in functioning across the adult lifespan. Fifteen of the studies are longitudinal, with follow-up as long as 59 years after baseline. The combined data from over 76,000 participants aged 14-103 at intake (including over 10,000 monozygotic and over 17,000 dizygotic twin pairs) support two primary research emphases: (1) investigation of models of GE interplay of early life adversity, and social factors at micro and macro environmental levels and with diverse outcomes, including mortality, physical functioning and psychological functioning; and (2) improved understanding of risk and protective factors for dementia by incorporating unmeasured and measured genetic factors with a wide range of exposures measured in young adulthood, midlife and later life.