Browsing by Subject "SODIUM-BUTYRATE"

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  • Xie, Aoji; Ensink, Elizabeth; Li, Peipei; Gordevicius, Juozas; Marshall, Lee L.; George, Sonia; Pospisilik, John Andrew; Aho, Velma T. E.; Houser, Madelyn C.; Pereira, Pedro A. B.; Rudi, Knut; Paulin, Lars; Tansey, Malu G.; Auvinen, Petri; Brundin, Patrik; Brundin, Lena; Labrie, Viviane; Scheperjans, Filip (2022)
    Background The gut microbiome and its metabolites can impact brain health and are altered in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. It has been recently demonstrated that PD patients have reduced fecal levels of the potent epigenetic modulator butyrate and its bacterial producers. Objectives Here, we investigate whether the changes in the gut microbiome and associated metabolites are related to PD symptoms and epigenetic markers in leucocytes and neurons. Methods Stool, whole blood samples, and clinical data were collected from 55 PD patients and 55 controls. We performed DNA methylation analysis on whole blood samples and analyzed the results in relation to fecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations and microbiota composition. In another cohort, prefrontal cortex neurons were isolated from control and PD brains. We identified genome-wide DNA methylation by targeted bisulfite sequencing. Results We show that lower fecal butyrate and reduced counts of genera Roseburia, Romboutsia, and Prevotella are related to depressive symptoms in PD patients. Genes containing butyrate-associated methylation sites include PD risk genes and significantly overlap with sites epigenetically altered in PD blood leucocytes, predominantly neutrophils, and in brain neurons, relative to controls. Moreover, butyrate-associated methylated-DNA regions in PD overlap with those altered in gastrointestinal (GI), autoimmune, and psychiatric diseases. Conclusions Decreased levels of bacterially produced butyrate are related to epigenetic changes in leucocytes and neurons from PD patients and to the severity of their depressive symptoms. PD shares common butyrate-dependent epigenetic changes with certain GI and psychiatric disorders, which could be relevant for their epidemiological relation. (c) 2022 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society
  • Bogacheva, Mariia S.; Khan, Sofia; Kanninen, Liisa K.; Yliperttula, Marjo; Leung, Alan W.; Lou, Yan-Ru (2018)
    Definitive endoderm (DE) is the first stage of human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) differentiation into hepatocyte-like cells. Developing human liver cell models for pharmaceutical applications is highly demanding. Due to the vast number of existing protocols to generate DE cells from hPSCs, we aimed to compare the specificity and efficiency of selected published differentiation conditions. We differentiated two hPSC lines (induced PSC and embryonic stem cell) to DE cells on Matrigel matrix using growth factors (Activin A and Wnt-3a) and small molecules (sodium butyrate and IDE 1) in different combinations. By studying dynamic changes during 6 days in cell morphology and the expression of markers for pluripotency, DE, and other germ layer lineages, we found that Activin A is essential for DE differentiation, while Wnt-3a and sodium butyrate are dispensable. Although sodium butyrate exerted rapid DE differentiation kinetics, it caused massive cell death and could not generate sufficient cells for further differentiation and applications. We further discover that IDE 1 could not induce DE as reported previously. Hereby, we compared different conditions for DE induction and found an effective six day-protocol to obtain DE cells for the further differentiation and applications.
  • Kanninen, Liisa K.; Porola, Pauliina; Niklander, Johanna; Malinen, Melina M.; Corlu, Anne; Guguen-Guillouzo, Christiane; Urtti, Arto; Yliperttula, Marjo L.; Lou, Yan-Ru (2016)
    Human hepatocytes are extensively needed in drug discovery and development. Stem cell-derived hepatocytes are expected to be an improved and continuous model of human liver to study drug candidates. Generation of endoderm-derived hepatocytes from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), including human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, is a complex, challenging process requiring specific signals from soluble factors and insoluble matrices at each developmental stage. In this study, we used human liver progenitor HepaRG-derived acellular matrix (ACM) as a hepatic progenitor-specific matrix to induce hepatic commitment of hPSC-derived definitive endoderm (DE) cells. The DE cells showed much better attachment to the HepaRG ACM than other matrices tested and then differentiated towards hepatic cells, which expressed hepatocyte-specific makers. We demonstrate that Matrigel overlay induced hepatocyte phenotype and inhibited biliary epithelial differentiation in two hPSC lines studied. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that the HepaRG ACM, a hepatic progenitor-specific matrix, plays an important role in the hepatic differentiation of hPSCs. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.