Browsing by Subject "SOIL ORGANIC-CARBON"

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  • Strakova, Petra; Larmola, Tuula; Andres, Javier; Ilola, Noora; Launiainen, Piia; Edwards, Keith; Minkkinen, Kari; Laiho, Raija (2020)
    Evidence of plant root biomass and production in peatlands at the level of species or plant functional type (PFT) is needed for defining ecosystem functioning and predicting its future development. However, such data are limited due to methodological difficulties and the toilsomeness of separating roots from peat. We developed Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy based calibration models for quantifying the mass proportions of several common peatland species, and alternatively, the PFTs that these species represented, in composite root samples. We further tested whether woody roots could be classified into diameter classes, and whether dead and living roots could be separated. We aimed to solve whether general models applicable in different studies can be developed, and what would be the best way to build such models. FTIR spectra were measured from dried and powdered roots: both "pure roots", original samples of 25 species collected in the field, and "root mixtures", artificial composite samples prepared by mixing known amounts of pure roots of different species. Partial least squares regression was used to build the calibration models. The general applicability of the models was tested using roots collected in different sites or times. Our main finding is that pure roots can replace complex mixtures as calibration data. Using pure roots, we constructed generally applicable models for quantification of roots of the main PFTs of northern peatlands. The models provided accurate estimates even for far distant sites, with root mean square error (RMSE) 1.4-6.6% for graminoids, forbs and ferns. For shrubs and trees the estimates were less accurate due to higher within-species heterogeneity, partly related to variation in root diameter. Still, we obtained RMSE 3.9-10.8% for total woody roots, but up to 20.1% for different woody-root types. Species-level and dead-root models performed well within the calibration dataset but provided unacceptable estimates for independent samples, limiting their routine application in field conditions. Our PFT-level models can be applied on roots separated from soil for biomass determination or from ingrowth cores for estimating root production. We present possibilities for further development of species-level or dead-root models using the pure-root approach.
  • Lindén, Leena; Riikonen, Anu; Setälä, Heikki; Yli-Pelkonen, Vesa (2020)
    Removing CO2 from the atmosphere and storing carbon in vegetation and soil are important ecosystem services provided by urban green space. However, knowledge on the capacity of trees and soils to store carbon in urban parks - especially in the northern latitudes - is scarce. We assessed the amount of organic carbon stored in trees and soil of constructed urban parks under cold climatic conditions in Finland. More specifically, we investigated the effects of management, vegetation type and time since construction on the amount of carbon stored in park trees and soil. We conducted two tree surveys and collected soil samples (0 to 90 cm) in constructed parks managed by the city of Helsinki. The estimated overall carbon density was approximately 130 t per park hectare, when the carbon stock of trees was 22 to 28 t ha-1 and that of soil 104 t ha-1 at the very least. The soil to tree carbon storage ratio varied from 7.1 to 7.5 for vegetated, pervious grounds and from 3.7 to 5.0 for entire park areas. The effects of park management and vegetation type could not be entirely separated in our data, but time was shown to have a distinct, positive effect on tree and soil carbon stocks. The results indicate that park soils can hold remarkable carbon stocks in a cold climate. It also seems that park soil carbon holding capacity largely exceeds that of forested soils in Finland. Preservation and augmentation of carbon stocks in urban parks implies avoidance of drastic tree and soil renovation measures.