Browsing by Subject "SOIL RESPIRATION"

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  • Fernandez-Martinez, M.; Vicca, S.; Janssens, I. A.; Ciais, P.; Obersteiner, M.; Bartrons, M.; Sardans, J.; Verger, A.; Canadell, J. G.; Chevallier, F.; Wang, X.; Bernhofer, C.; Curtis, P. S.; Gianelle, D.; Gruewald, T.; Heinesch, B.; Ibrom, A.; Knohl, A.; Laurila, T.; Law, B. E.; Limousin, J. M.; Longdoz, B.; Loustau, D.; Mammarella, I.; Matteucci, G.; Monson, R. K.; Montagnani, L.; Moors, E. J.; Munger, J. W.; Papale, D.; Piao, S. L.; Penuelas, J. (2017)
    Concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) have continued to increase whereas atmospheric deposition of sulphur and nitrogen has declined in Europe and the USA during recent decades. Using time series of flux observations from 23 forests distributed throughout Europe and the USA, and generalised mixed models, we found that forest-level net ecosystem production and gross primary production have increased by 1% annually from 1995 to 2011. Statistical models indicated that increasing atmospheric CO2 was the most important factor driving the increasing strength of carbon sinks in these forests. We also found that the reduction of sulphur deposition in Europe and the USA lead to higher recovery in ecosystem respiration than in gross primary production, thus limiting the increase of carbon sequestration. By contrast, trends in climate and nitrogen deposition did not significantly contribute to changing carbon fluxes during the studied period. Our findings support the hypothesis of a general CO2-fertilization effect on vegetation growth and suggest that, so far unknown, sulphur deposition plays a significant role in the carbon balance of forests in industrialized regions. Our results show the need to include the effects of changing atmospheric composition, beyond CO2, to assess future dynamics of carbon-climate feedbacks not currently considered in earth system/climate modelling.
  • Vesala, Timo; Launiainen, Samuli; Kolari, Pasi; Pumpanen, Jukka; Sevanto, S.; Hari, Pertti; Nikinmaa, E.; Kaski, Petteri; Mannila, Heikki; Ukkonen, Esko; Piao, S. L.; Ciais, P. (2010)
  • Stoy, P. C.; Richardson, A. D.; Baldocchi, D. D.; Katul, G. G.; Stanovick, J.; Mahecha, M. D.; Reichstein, M.; Detto, M.; Law, B. E.; Wohlfahrt, G.; Arriga, N.; Campos, J.; McCaughey, J. H.; Montagnani, L.; U, K. T. Paw; Sevanto, S.; Williams, M. (2009)
  • Tupek, B.; Minkkinen, K.; Pumpanen, J.; Vesala, T.; Nikinmaa, E. (2015)
  • Yi, Chuixiang; Ricciuto, Daniel; Li, Runze; Wolbeck, John; Xu, Xiyan; Nilsson, Mats; Aires, Luis; Albertson, John D.; Ammann, Christof; Arain, M. Altaf; de Araujo, Alessandro C.; Aubinet, Marc; Aurela, Mika; Barcza, Zoltan; Barr, Alan; Berbigier, Paul; Beringer, Jason; Bernhofer, Christian; Black, Andrew T.; Bolstad, Paul V.; Bosveld, Fred C.; Broadmeadow, Mark S. J.; Buchmann, Nina; Burns, Sean P.; Cellier, Pierre; Chen, Jiquan; Ciais, Philippe; Clement, Robert; Cook, Bruce D.; Curtis, Peter S.; Dail, D. Bryan; Dellwik, Ebba; Delpierre, Nicolas; Desai, Ankur R.; Dore, Sabina; Dragoni, Danilo; Drake, Bert G.; Dufrene, Eric; Dunn, Allison; Elbers, Jan; Eugster, Werner; Falk, Matthias; Feigenwinter, Christian; Flanagan, Lawrence B.; Foken, Thomas; Frank, John; Fuhrer, Juerg; Gianelle, Damiano; Goldstein, Allen; Goulden, Mike; Granier, Andre; Gruenwald, Thomas; Gu, Lianhong; Guo, Haiqiang; Hammerle, Albin; Han, Shijie; Hanan, Niall P.; Haszpra, Laszlo; Heinesch, Bernard; Helfter, Carole; Hendriks, Dimmie; Hutley, Lindsay B.; Ibrom, Andreas; Jacobs, Cor; Johansson, Torbjoern; Jongen, Marjan; Katul, Gabriel; Kiely, Gerard; Klumpp, Katja; Knohl, Alexander; Kolb, Thomas; Kutsch, Werner L.; Lafleur, Peter; Laurila, Tuomas; Leuning, Ray; Lindroth, Anders; Liu, Heping; Loubet, Benjamin; Manca, Giovanni; Marek, Michal; Margolis, Hank A.; Martin, Timothy A.; Massman, William J.; Matamala, Roser; Matteucci, Giorgio; McCaughey, Harry; Merbold, Lutz; Meyers, Tilden; Migliavacca, Mirco; Miglietta, Franco; Misson, Laurent; Moelder, Meelis; Moncrieff, John; Monson, Russell K.; Montagnani, Leonardo; Montes-Helu, Mario; Moors, Eddy; Moureaux, Christine; Mukelabai, Mukufute M.; Munger, J. William; Myklebust, May; Nagy, Zoltan; Noormets, Asko; Oechel, Walter; Oren, Ram; Pallardy, Stephen G.; Kyaw, Tha Paw U.; Pereira, Joao S.; Pilegaard, Kim; Pinter, Krisztina; Pio, Casimiro; Pita, Gabriel; Powell, Thomas L.; Rambal, Serge; Randerson, James T.; von Randow, Celso; Rebmann, Corinna; Rinne, Janne; Rossi, Federica; Roulet, Nigel; Ryel, Ronald J.; Sagerfors, Jorgen; Saigusa, Nobuko; Sanz, Maria Jose; Mugnozza, Giuseppe-Scarascia; Schmid, Hans Peter; Seufert, Guenther; Siqueira, Mario; Soussana, Jean-Francois; Starr, Gregory; Sutton, Mark A.; Tenhunen, John; Tuba, Zoltan; Tuovinen, Juha-Pekka; Valentini, Riccardo; Vogel, Christoph S.; Wang, Shaoqiang; Wang, Weiguo; Welp, Lisa R.; Wen, Xuefa; Wharton, Sonia; Wilkinson, Matthew; Williams, Christopher A.; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Yamamoto, Susumu; Yu, Guirui; Zampedri, Roberto; Zhao, Bin; Zhao, Xinquan (2010)
  • Wang, K.; Liu, C.; Zheng, X.; Pihlatie, M.; Li, B.; Haapanala, S.; Vesala, T.; Liu, H.; Wang, Y.; Liu, G.; Hu, F. (2013)
  • Wang, T.; Ciais, P.; Piao, S. L.; Ottle, C.; Brender, P.; Maignan, F.; Arain, A.; Cescatti, A.; Gianelle, D.; Gough, C.; Gu, L.; Lafleur, P.; Laurila, T.; Marcolla, B.; Margolis, H.; Montagnani, L.; Moors, E.; Saigusa, N.; Vesala, T.; Wohlfahrt, G.; Koven, C.; Black, A.; Dellwik, E.; Don, A.; Hollinger, D.; Knohl, A.; Monson, R.; Munger, J.; Suyker, A.; Varlagin, A.; Verma, S. (2011)
  • Könönen, M.; Jauhiainen, J.; Straková, P.; Heinonsalo, J.; Laiho, R.; Kusin, K.; Limin, S.; Vasander, H. (2018)
    Swamp forests on deep tropical peatlands have undergone extensive deforestation and draining for agriculture and plantations, consequently becoming globally significant carbon (C) sources. To study the effects of land-use change on peat as a biological environment, which directly affects decomposition dynamics and greenhouse gas emissions, we sampled peat from four common land-use types representing different management intensities in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. The near-pristine swamp forest was used to describe unmanaged conditions, and the three other sites in order of increasing management intensity were reforested; degraded; and agricultural. We examined peat substrate quality (total C & nitrogen (N), dissolved organic C (DOC) and N (DON)), organic matter quality characterized by infrared spectroscopy, and microbial biomass and extracellular enzyme activity, to describe both biotic and abiotic conditions in peat. We found that the peat at altered sites was poorer in quality, i.e. decomposability, as demonstrated by the higher intensity of aromatic and aliphatic compounds, and lower intensity of polysaccharides, and concentration of total N, DOC, and DON compared to the peat in the swamp forest. The observed differences in peat properties can be linked to changes in litter input and decomposition conditions altered after deforestation and draining, as well as increased leaching and fires. The quality of the peat substrate was directly related to its biotic properties, with altered sites generally having lower microbial biomass and enzyme activity. However, irrespective of management intensity or substrate quality, enzyme activity was limited primarily to the first 0–3 cm of the peat profile. Some differences between wet and dry seasons were observed in enzyme activity especially in swamp forest, where the most measured enzyme activities were higher in dry season. Reforestation 6 years before our measurements had not yet restored enzyme activity in the peat to the level of the swamp forest, although the topmost peat characteristics in the reforested site already resembled those in the swamp forest. This is likely contributed by the limited capacity of the young tree stand to produce litter to support peat formation and restore the quality and structure of the peat, and the chemical weed control performed at the site. Therefore, we conclude that intensive land management, including deforestation and draining, leads to the surface peat becoming poorer biological environment, and it may take long time to restore the peat properties.
  • Korkiakoski, Mika; Tuovinen, Juha-Pekka; Penttila, Timo; Sarkkola, Sakari; Ojanen, Paavo; Minkkinen, Kari; Rainne, Juuso; Laurila, Tuomas; Lohila, Annalea (2019)
    The most common forest management method in Fennoscandia is rotation forestry, including clear-cutting and forest regeneration. In clear-cutting, stem wood is removed and the logging residues are either removed or left on site. Clear-cutting changes the microclimate and vegetation structure at the site, both of which affect the site's carbon balance. Peat soils with poor aeration and high carbon densities are especially prone to such changes, and significant changes in greenhouse gas exchange can be expected. We measured carbon dioxide (CO2) and energy fluxes with the eddy covariance method for 2 years (April 2016-March 2018) after clear-cutting a drained peatland forest. We observed a significant rise (23 cm) in the water table level and a large CO2 source (first year: 3086 +/- 148 g CO2 m(-2) yr(-1); second year: 2072 +/- 124 g CO2 m(-2) yr(-1)). These large CO2 emissions resulted from the very low gross primary production (GPP) following the removal of photosynthesizing trees and the decline of ground vegetation, unable to compensate for the decomposition of logging residues and peat. During the second summer (June-August) after the clear-cutting, GPP had already increased by 96% and total ecosystem respiration decreased by 14% from the previous summer. The mean daytime ratio of sensible to latent heat flux decreased after harvesting from 2.6 in May 2016 to 1.0 in August 2016, and in 2017 it varied mostly within 0.6-1.0. In April-September, the mean daytime sensible heat flux was 33% lower and latent heat flux 40% higher in 2017, probably due to the recovery of ground vegetation that increased evapotranspiration and albedo of the site. In addition to CO2 and energy fluxes, we measured methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes with manual chambers. After the clear-cutting, the site turned from a small CH4 sink into a small source and from N2O neutral to a significant N2O source. Compared to the large CO2 emissions, the 100-year global warming potential (GWP100) of the CH4 emissions was negligible. Also, the GWP100 due to increased N2O emissions was less than 10% of that of the CO2 emission change.
  • Jauhiainen, Jyrki; Kerojoki, Otto; Silvennoinen, Hanna; Limin, Suwido; Vasander, Harri (2014)
    Vast areas of deforested tropical peatlands do not receive noteworthy shading by vegetation, which increases the amount of solar radiation reaching the peat surface. Peat temperature dynamics and heterotrophic carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) fluxes were monitored under four shading conditions, i.e. unshaded, 28%, 51% and 90% shading at experiment sites established on reclaimed fallow agricultural- and degraded sites in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Groundwater tables on the sites were at about 50 cm depth, the sites were maintained vegetation free and root ingrowth to gas flux monitoring locations was prevented. Half of the four shading areas received NPK-fertilization 50 kg ha−1 for each of N, P and K during the experiment and the other half was unfertilized. Increases in shading created a lasting decrease in peat temperatures, and decreased diurnal temperature fluctuations, in comparison to less shaded plots. The largest peat temperature difference in the topmost 50 cm peat profile was between the unshaded and 90% shaded surface, where the average temperatures at 5 cm depth differed up to 3.7 °C, and diurnal temperatures at 5 cm depth varied up to 4.2 °C in the unshaded and 0.4 °C in the 90% shaded conditions. Highest impacts on the heterotrophic CO2 fluxes caused by the treatments were on agricultural land, where 90% shading from the full exposure resulted in a 33% lower CO2 emission average on the unfertilized plots and a 66% lower emission average on the fertilized plots. Correlation between peat temperature and CO2 flux suggested an approximately 8% (unfertilized) and 25% (fertilized) emissions change for each 1 °C temperature change at 5 cm depth on the agricultural land. CO2 flux responses to the treatments remained low on degraded peatland. Fertilized conditions negatively correlated with N2O efflux with increases in temperature, suggesting a 12–36% lower efflux for each 1 °C increase in peat temperature (at 5 cm depth) at the sites. Despite the apparently similar landscapes of fallow agricultural land and degraded peatland sites, the differences in greenhouse gas dynamics are expected to be an outcome of the long-term management differences.
  • Kittler, Fanny; Burjack, Ina; Corradi, Chiara A. R.; Heimann, Martin; Kolle, Olaf; Merbold, Lutz; Zimov, Nikita; Zimov, Sergey; Gockede, Mathias (2016)
    Hydrologic conditions are a major controlling factor for carbon exchange processes in high-latitude ecosystems. The presence or absence of water-logged conditions can lead to significant shifts in ecosystem structure and carbon cycle processes. In this study, we compared growing season CO2 fluxes of a wet tussock tundra ecosystem from an area affected by decadal drainage to an undisturbed area on the Kolyma floodplain in northeastern Siberia. For this comparison we found the sink strength for CO2 in recent years (2013-2015) to be systematically reduced within the drained area, with a minor increase in photosynthetic uptake due to a higher abundance of shrubs outweighed by a more pronounced increase in respiration due to warmer near-surface soil layers. Still, in comparison to the strong reduction of fluxes immediately following the drainage disturbance in 2005, recent CO2 exchange with the atmosphere over this disturbed part of the tundra indicate a higher carbon turnover, and a seasonal amplitude that is comparable again to that within the control section. This indicates that the local permafrost ecosystem is capable of adapting to significantly different hydrologic conditions without losing its capacity to act as a net sink for CO2 over the growing season. The comparison of undisturbed CO2 flux rates from 2013-2015 to the period of 2002-2004 indicates that CO2 exchange with the atmosphere was intensified, with increased component fluxes (ecosystem respiration and gross primary production) over the past decade. Net changes in CO2 fluxes are dominated by a major increase in photosynthetic uptake, resulting in a stronger CO2 sink in 2013-2015. Application of a MODIS-based classification scheme to separate the growing season into four sub-seasons improved the interpretation of interannual variability by illustrating the systematic shifts in CO2 uptake patterns that have occurred in this ecosystem over the past 10 years and highlighting the important role of the late growing season for net CO2 flux budgets.
  • Ojanen, Paavo; Penttila, Timo; Tolvanen, Anne; Hotanen, Juha-Pekka; Saarimaa, Miia; Nousiainen, Hannu; Minkkinen, Kari (2019)
    Drainage of peatlands for forestry often leads to carbon dioxide (CO2) net emission from soil due to loss of peat. This emission can be compensated for by the increased tree growth. Hovewer, many drained peatlands have low tree growth due to nutrient limitations. Tree growth at these peatlands can be effectively increased by fertilization, but fertilization has been also found to increase decomposition rates. We studied the long-term effect of fertilization of low-productive forestry-drained peatlands on the complete ecosystem greenhouse gas exchange, including both soil and tree component, and accounting for CO2, methane and nitrous oxide. Five N-rich study sites (flark fens and a rich fen) and one N-poor ombrotrophic site were established. Fertilization had started at the study sites 16-67 years before our measurements. Fertilization considerably increased tree stand CO2 sink ( + 248-1013 g CO2 m(-2) year(-1)). Decomposition increased on average by 45% ( + 431 g CO2 m(-2) year(-1)) and litter production by 38% ( + 360 g CO2 m(-2) year(-1)). Thus, on average 84% of the increased decomposition could be attributed to increased litter production and 16% to increased soil CO 2 net emission due to increased loss of peat. Soil CO2 net emission correlated positively with water table depth and top soil N concentration. Fertilization increased soil CO2 net emission at the drained flark fens on average by 187 g CO2 m(-2) year(-1). At the rich fen, net emission decreased. The N-poor bog exhibited soil CO2 sink both with and without fertilization. Effects on methane and nitrous oxide emissions were small at most sites. The increase in tree stand CO2 sink was higher than the increase in soil CO2 net emission, indicating that fertilization has a climate cooling effect in the decadal time scale. Yet, as the fertilized plots at N-rich sites exhibited soil CO2 source or zero balance, continuation of fertilization-based forestry over several rotations would lead to progressive loss of ecosystem C. At the N-poor bog, fertilization-based forestry may have a climate-cooling effect also in the centennial time scale.
  • Berninger, Frank; Susiluoto, Sannamaija; Gianelle, Damiano; Bahn, Michael; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Sutton, Mark; Garcia-Pausas, Jordi; Gimeno, Cristina; Sanz, Maria J.; Dore, Sabina; Rogiers, Nele; Furger, Markus; Eugster, Werner; Balzarolo, Manuela; Teresa Sebastia, M.; Tenhunen, John; Staszewski, Tomasz; Cernusca, Alexander (2015)
    We studied carbon balances and carbon stocks of mountain rangelands and meadows in a network of 8 eddy covariance sites and 14 sites with biomass data in Europe. Net ecosystem exchange of pastures and extensively managed semi-natural rangelands were usually close to zero, while meadows fixed carbon, with the exception of one meadow that was established on a drained peatland. When we accounted for off-site losses and inputs also the carbon budget of meadows approached zero. Soil carbon stocks in these ecosystems were high, comparable to those of forest ecosystems, while carbon stocks in plant biomass were smaller. Since soil carbon stocks of abandoned mountain grasslands are as high as in managed ecosystems, it is likely that the widespread abandonment of mountain rangelands used currently as pastures will not lead to an immediate carbon sink in those ecosystems.
  • Bellucco, Veronica; Marras, Serena; Grimmond, C. Susan B.; Järvi, Leena; Sirca, Costantino; Spano, Donatella (2017)
    The biogenic CO2 surface atmosphere exchange is investigated and linked to vegetation cover fraction for seven sites (three urban and four non-urban) in the northern hemisphere. The non-rectangular hyperbola (NRH) is used to analyse the light-response curves during period of maximum ecophysiological processes, and to develop two models to simulate biogenic vertical CO2 fluxes. First, a generalised set of NRH coefficients is calculated after linear regression analysis across urban and non-urban ecosystems. Second, site-specific NRH coefficients are calculated for a suburban area in Helsinki, Finland. The model includes a temperature driven equation to estimate ecosystem respiration, and variation of leaf area index to modulate emissions across the year. Eddy covariance measured CO2 fluxes are used to evaluate the two models at the suburban Helsinki site and the generalised model also in Mediterranean ecosystem. Both models can simulate the mean daily trend at monthly and seasonal scales. Modelled data typically fall within the range of variability of the observations (differences of the order of 10%). Additional information improves the models performance, notably the selection of the most vegetated wind direction in Helsinki. The general model performs reasonably well during daytime but it tends to underestimate CO2 emissions at night. This reflects the model capability to catch photosynthesis processes occurring during the day, and the importance of the gross primary production (GPP) in modifying the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of urban sites with different vegetation cover fraction. Therefore, the general model does not capture the differences in ecosystem respiration that skew nocturnal fluxes. The relation between the generalised NRH plateau parameter and vegetation cover improves (R-2 from 0.7 to 0.9) when only summer weekends with wind coming from the most vegetated sector in Helsinki and well-watered conditions for Mediterranean sites are included in the analysis. In the local model, the inclusion of a temperature driven equation for estimating the ecosystem respiration instead of a constant value, does not improve the long-term simulations. In conclusion, both the general and local models have significant potential and offer valid modelling options of biogenic components of carbon exchange in urban and non-urban ecosystems.(C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Lasslop, G.; Migliavacca, M.; Bohrer, G.; Reichstein, M.; Bahn, M.; Ibrom, A.; Jacobs, C.; Kolari, P.; Papale, D.; Vesala, T.; Wohlfahrt, G.; Cescatti, A. (2012)
  • Ryhti, Kira; Kulmala, Liisa; Pumpanen, Jukka; Isotalo, Jarkko; Pihlatie, Mari; Helmisaari, Heljä-Sisko; Leppälammi-Kujansuu, Jaana; Kieloaho, Antti-Jussi; Bäck, Jaana; Heinonsalo, Jussi (2021)
    Changes in the climate may have unpredictable effects on belowground carbon processes and thus, the carbon balance of boreal forests. To understand the interactions of these processes in soil and to quantify the potential changes in the carbon cycle, partitioning of forest floor respiration is crucial. For this purpose, we used nine different treatments to separate the sources of forest floor carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in a mature Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand in southern Finland. To partition the belowground CO2 emissions, we used two different trenching methods: 1) to exclude roots and mycorrhizal fungal mycelia (mesh with 1-mu m pores) and 2) to exclude roots, but not mycorrhizal hyphae (mesh with 50-mu m pores). Additionally, we used 3) a control treatment that included roots and fungal hyphae. To partition the CO2 emissions from the forest floor vegetation, we 1) removed it, 2) left only the dwarf shrubs, or 3) left the vegetation intact. The forest floor CO2 emissions were regularly measured with a flux chamber throughout the growing seasons in 2013-2015. The total forest floor respiration was partitioned into respiration of tree roots (contributing 48%), heterotrophic soil respiration (30%) and respiration of ground vegetation other than shrubs (10%), dwarf shrubs (8%), and hyphae of mycorrhizal fungi (4%). Heterotrophic respiration increased in the trenched treatments without ground vegetation over time, due to the so-called 'Gadgil effect'. In the absence of tree mots, but when hyphal access was allowed, respiration in the dwarf shrub treatment increased throughout the experiment. This indicated that dwarf shrubs had fungal connections to outside the experimental plots via their ericoid mycorrhiza. At the same time, other ground vegetation, such as mosses, suppressed the dwarf shrub respiration in trenched treatments. Our results show that competition on the forest floor is intense between plant roots and soil microbes.
  • Pavelka, Marian; Acosta, Manuel; Kiese, Ralf; Altimir, Nuria; Bruemmer, Christian; Crill, Patrick; Darenova, Eva; Fuss, Roland; Gielen, Bert; Graf, Alexander; Klemedtsson, Leif; Lohila, Annalea; Longdoz, Bernhard; Lindroth, Anders; Nilsson, Mats; Jimenez, Sara Maranon; Merbold, Lutz; Montagnani, Leonardo; Peichl, Matthias; Pihlatie, Mari; Pumpanen, Jukka; Ortiz, Penelope Serrano; Silvennoinen, Hanna; Skiba, Ute; Vestin, Patrik; Weslien, Per; Janous, Dalibor; Kutsch, Werner (2018)
    Chamber measurements of trace gas fluxes between the land surface and the atmosphere have been conducted for almost a century. Different chamber techniques, including static and dynamic, have been used with varying degrees of success in estimating greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O) fluxes. However, all of these have certain disadvantages which have either prevented them from providing an adequate estimate of greenhouse gas exchange or restricted them to be used under limited conditions. Generally, chamber methods are relatively low in cost and simple to operate. In combination with the appropriate sample allocations, chamber methods are adaptable for a wide variety of studies from local to global spatial scales, and they are particularly well suited for in situ and laboratory-based studies. Consequently, chamber measurements will play an important role in the portfolio of the Pan-European long-term research infrastructure Integrated Carbon Observation System. The respective working group of the Integrated Carbon Observation System Ecosystem Monitoring Station Assembly has decided to ascertain standards and quality checks for automated and manual chamber systems instead of defining one or several standard systems provided by commercial manufacturers in order to define minimum requirements for chamber measurements. The defined requirements and recommendations related to chamber measurements are described here.
  • Laine, A.M.; Mäkiranta, P.; Laiho, R.; Mehtätalo, L.; Penttilä, T.; Korrensalo, A.; Minkkinen, K.; Fritze, H.; Tuittila, E-S (2019)
    Abstract Northern peatlands form a major soil carbon (C) stock. With climate change, peatland C mineralization is expected to increase, which in turn would accelerate climate change. A particularity of peatlands is the importance of soil aeration, which regulates peatland functioning and likely modulates the responses to warming climate. Our aim is to assess the impacts of warming on a southern boreal and a sub-arctic sedge fen carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange under two plausible water table regimes: wet and moderately dry. We focused this study on minerotrophic treeless sedge fens, as they are common peatland types at boreal and (sub)arctic areas, which are expected to face the highest rates of climate warming. In addition, fens are expected to respond to environmental changes faster than the nutrient poor bogs. Our study confirmed that CO2 exchange is more strongly affected by drying than warming. Experimental water level draw-down (WLD) significantly increased gross photosynthesis and ecosystem respiration. Warming alone had insignificant impacts on the CO2 exchange components, but when combined with WLD it further increased ecosystem respiration. In the southern fen, CO2 uptake decreased due to WLD, which was amplified by warming, while at northern fen it remained stable. As a conclusion, our results suggest that a very small difference in the WLD may be decisive, whether the C sink of a fen decreases, or whether the system is able to adapt within its regime and maintain its functions. Moreover, the water table has a role in determining how much the increased temperature impacts the CO2 exchange. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
  • Lastra, Mariano; Lopez, Jesus; Rodil, Ivan F. (2018)
    Algal wrack subsidies underpin most of the food web structure of exposed sandy beaches and are responsible of important biogeochemical processes that link marine and terrestrial ecosystems. The response in decomposition of algal wrack deposits to global warming has not been studied in ocean-exposed sandy beaches to date. With this aim, passive open top chambers (OTCs) were used to increase soil temperature within the range predicted by the IPCC for western Europe (between 0.5 and 1.5 degrees C), following the hypothesis that the biogeochemical processing of macroalgal wrack subsidies would accelerate in response to temperature increase. The effect of temperature manipulation on three target substrates: fresh and aged macroalgae, and bare sand, was tested. Results indicated that a small warming (<0.5 degrees C) affected the wrack decomposition process through traceable increases in soil respiration through CO2 flux, inorganic nutrients within the interstitial environment (N and P), sediment organic contents measured through the amount of proteins and microbial pool through the total soil DNA. The different responses of soil variables in the studied substrates indicated that the decomposition stage of stranded macroalgae influences the biogeochemical processing of organic matter in sandy beaches. Thus, CO2 fluxes, releases of organic and inorganic nutrients and microbial activity intensify in aged wrack deposits. Our results predict that expected global warming will increase the release of inorganic nutrients to the coastal ocean by 30% for the N (21 Gg/year) and 5.9% for P (14 Gg/year); that increase for the flow of C to the atmosphere as CO2 was estimated in 8.2% (523 Gg/year). This study confirms the key role of sandy beaches in recycling ocean-derived organic matter, highlighting their sensitivity to a changing scenario of global warming that predicts significant increases in temperature over the next few decades.